OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 16 — Aug. 2, 2010
  • pp: 17280–17293
« Show journal navigation

Tuning efficiency and sensitivity of guided resonances in photonic crystals and quasi-crystals: a comparative study

Marco Pisco, Armando Ricciardi, Ilaria Gallina, Giuseppe Castaldi, Stefania Campopiano, Antonello Cutolo, Andrea Cusano, and Vincenzo Galdi  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 16, pp. 17280-17293 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.017280


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (2340 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

In this paper, we present a comparative study of the tuning efficiency and sensitivity of guided resonances (GRs) in photonic crystal (PC) holed slabs based on periodic and aperiodically-ordered unit cells, aimed at assessing the applicability of these important technology platforms to ultra-compact optical sensors and active devices. In particular, with specific reference to square-lattice periodic PCs and aperiodically-ordered Ammann-Beenker photonic quasi-crystals, we study the effects of the hole radius, slab thickness, and refractive index on the GR sensitivity and tunability with respect to variation in the hole refractive index. Finally, we carry out a theoretical and numerical analysis in order to correlate the GR shift with the field distribution of the unperturbed (air holes) structures. Our results indicate that the spatial arrangement of the holes may strongly influence the tuning and sensitivity efficiency, and may provide new degrees of freedom and tools for the design and optimization of novel photonic devices for both sensing and telecommunication applications.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Guided resonances (GRs) in photonic crystal (PC) slabs have been widely investigated during the last decade, and significant efforts have been devoted to the study of the underlying physical mechanisms [1

1. S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002). [CrossRef]

] as well as to their experimental observation and characterization [2

2. M. Kanskar, P. Paddon, V. Pacradouni, R. Morin, A. Busch, J. F. Young, S. R. Johnson, J. MacKenzie, and T. Tiedje, “Observation of leaky slab modes in an air-bridged semiconductor waveguide with a two-dimensional photonic lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1438–1440 (1997). [CrossRef]

5

5. K. B. Crozier, V. Lousse, O. Kilic, S. Kim, S. H. Fan, and O. Solgaard, “Air-bridged photonic crystal slabs at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 73(11), 115126 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Such efforts were mainly motivated by the fascinating potentials that they offer in the light-flow manipulation for sensing and communication applications.

From the phenomenological viewpoint, GRs rely on the coupling among the continuum of free-space radiative modes and the discrete set of leaky modes supported by a PC slab [1

1. S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. This wavelength-selective mechanism provides out-of-plane transmission and reflection spectra exhibiting very sharp spectral variations over a narrow frequency range, also known as Fano resonances [1

1. S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002). [CrossRef]

7

7. T. Ochiai and K. Sakoda, “Dispersion relation and optical transmittance of a hexagonal photonic crystal slab,” Phys. Rev. B 63(12), 125107 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, the possibility of exciting GRs in “photonic quasi-crystal” (PQC) slabs based on the Ammann-Beenker (octagonal) aperiodic tiling [8

8. A. Ricciardi, I. Gallina, S. Campopiano, G. Castaldi, M. Pisco, V. Galdi, and A. Cusano, “Guided resonances in photonic quasicrystals,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6335–6346 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-8-6335. [PubMed]

] has been numerically envisaged, opening up new attractive perspectives for high-performance photonic devices and components [9

9. I. Gallina, M. Pisco, A. Ricciardi, S. Campopiano, G. Castaldi, A. Cusano, and V. Galdi, “Guided resonances in photonic crystals with point-defected aperiodically-ordered supercells,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19586–19598 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-19586. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Both in PCs and in PQCs, besides the dependence on the direction and polarization of the incident wave [10

10. V. Lousse, W. Suh, O. Kilic, S. Kim, O. Solgaard, and S. H. Fan, “Angular and polarization properties of a photonic crystal slab mirror,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1575–1582 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1575. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,11

11. T. Prasad, V. L. Colvin, and D. M. Mittleman, “Dependence of guided resonances on the structural parameters of terahertz photonic crystal slabs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(4), 633–644 (2008). [CrossRef]

], the structural parameters of the slab also play a key role in determining the GR spectral features, as already demonstrated in some numerical and experimental studies [11

11. T. Prasad, V. L. Colvin, and D. M. Mittleman, “Dependence of guided resonances on the structural parameters of terahertz photonic crystal slabs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(4), 633–644 (2008). [CrossRef]

,12

12. I. Gallina, A. Ricciardi, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, G. Castaldi, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, and V. Galdi, “Parametric study of guided resonances in octagonal photonic quasicrystals,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51(11), 2737–2740 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Consequently, it can easily be inferred that the GR-wavelength tuning can be more or less efficiently attained by controlling the constitutive and geometrical parameters of the structure, including the slab refractive index and thickness, the lattice constant, and the filling factor. On the other hand, in view of their power distribution strongly confined in the slab (and yet the capability of coupling with the external radiation), GRs provide an inherent sensitivity to the external environment. More specifically, as long as the transmission through the slab is influenced by the refractive index changes in the surrounding environment, the GRs exhibit a wavelength shift [13

13. O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).

,14

14. M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Sub-wavelength nanofluidics in photonic crystal sensors,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24224–24233 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-26-24224. [CrossRef]

].

Based on these arguments, several ultra-compact GR-based optical devices have been proposed. In 2007, Levi et al. [13

13. O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).

] proposed the exploitation of GR effects in PCs to develop miniaturized sensors capable of detecting refractive index changes in aqueous solutions. They observed a GR spectral shift in experiments featuring a bulk fluid surrounding the slab, with a wavelength sensitivity of 130nm per refractive index unit (RIU). In 2009, Huang et al. [14

14. M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Sub-wavelength nanofluidics in photonic crystal sensors,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24224–24233 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-26-24224. [CrossRef]

] integrated the refractive index detection functionality with a nanofluidics system capable of forcing the flow through the slab holes, and achieved a sensitivity enhancement up to a value of 510nm/RIU, basically by improving the interaction between light and fluid in the slab holes. In a numerical study, Song et al. [15

15. J. Song, R. Proietti Zaccaria, M. B. Yu, and X. W. Sun, “Tunable Fano resonance in photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8812–8826 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-19-8812. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] proposed to exploit GRs in order to develop optical tunable devices by changing the refractive index of the PC slab, whereas in Shi et al. [16

16. L. Shi, P. Pottier, Y.-A. Peter, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Guided-mode resonance photonic crystal slab sensors based on bead monolayer geometry,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17962–17971 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-22-17962. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] proposed a GR-based biochemical sensor constituted by a monolayer of spherical voids (or silica beads) in a dielectric slab.

Moreover, micromechanically tunable optical filters [17

17. W. Suh and S. H. Fan, “Mechanically switchable photonic crystal filter with either all-pass transmission or flat-top reflection characteristics,” Opt. Lett. 28(19), 1763–1765 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,18

18. W. Suh, M. F. Yanik, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, “Displacement-sensitive photonic crystal structures based on guided resonance in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 1999–2001 (2003). [CrossRef]

] and nanoscale displacement sensors [18

18. W. Suh, M. F. Yanik, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, “Displacement-sensitive photonic crystal structures based on guided resonance in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 1999–2001 (2003). [CrossRef]

,19

19. W. Suh, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, “Displacement sensing using evanescent tunneling between guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(3), 033102 (2005). [CrossRef]

] have also been proposed and theoretically explored, both basically composed of two PC slabs facing each other. Recently, the same configuration gained further attention in numerical studies aimed at investigating the performance of the “two-faced-slabs structure” for its potential application to high-sensitivity fluorescence-detection-based biosensors [20

20. L. Shi, P. Pottier, M. Skorobogatiy, and Y.-A. Peter, “Tunable structures comprising two photonic crystal slabs--optical study in view of multi-analyte enhanced detection,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10623–10632 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-10623. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and advanced opto-mechanical devices [21

21. H. Y. Song, S. Kim, and R. Magnusson, “Tunable guided-mode resonances in coupled gratings,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23544–23555 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-26-23544. [CrossRef]

]. In spite of the interesting performance attainable for both sensing and communication applications, and because of the difficulty of fabrication, such a complex structure has only recently been implemented in a passive configuration for optical filtering functions [22

22. T. Stomeo, M. Grande, G. Rainò, A. Passaseo, A. D’Orazio, R. Cingolani, A. Locatelli, D. Modotto, C. De Angelis, and M. De Vittorio, “Optical filter based on two coupled PhC GaAs-membranes,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 411–413 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In connection with active devices, instead, Kanamori et al. [23

23. Y. Kanamori, T. Kitani, and K. Hane, “Control of guided resonance in a photonic crystal slab using microelectromechanical actuators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031911 (2007). [CrossRef]

] fabricated and characterized a micromechanically tunable optical filter based on the evanescent coupling of GR in a single PC slab with a silicon substrate. The resonance wavelength was controlled by changing the gap between the PC slab and the substrate via microelectromechanical actuators.

Accordingly, the rest of the paper is laid out as follows. In Sec. 2, we illustrate the problem geometry and the key parameters and observables in our numerical analysis. In Sec. 3, we present the numerical results, and apply the cavity perturbation theory to model the GR wavelength shift in PCs and PQCs. Finally, in Sec. 4, we provide some concluding remarks and hints for future research.

2. Problem geometry, parameters, observables, and methodology

In our comparative study, we consider GRs excited in two representative PQC and PC slab configurations.

As a standard periodic PC, we consider a square lattice of holes [shown in Fig. 1(b)], and the same notation as above (with the lattice constant a now being the period).

In order to meaningfully compare the results concerning the PC vs. PQC case, we choose the geometrical parameters in order to equalize the hole/dielectric volumetric fraction, i.e.,
(ra)PC=824+32(ra)PQC1.1(ra)PQC,
(1)
keeping the lattice constant fixed, so as to compare different structures with homologous geometries.

3. Numerical results and discussion

3.1. Parametric analysis

In our simulations, both for the PQC supercell and the PC cell, we first consider a silicon slab (nslab = 3.418) surrounded by air. We compute the GR wavelength shift induced by variations of the hole refractive index within the range [1, 1.5], focusing the attention on the GRs corresponding to the lowest-order z-even and z-odd modes exhibiting an in-plane even symmetry in the electric and magnetic fields, respectively [6

6. K. Sakoda, “Symmetry, degeneracy, and uncoupled modes in two-dimensional photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(11), 7982–7986 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9

9. I. Gallina, M. Pisco, A. Ricciardi, S. Campopiano, G. Castaldi, A. Cusano, and V. Galdi, “Guided resonances in photonic crystals with point-defected aperiodically-ordered supercells,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19586–19598 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-19586. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Such study is repeated for different parameter configurations, by varying the hole radius and the slab thickness.

With specific reference to the PQC supercell [cf. Figure 1(a)], for a given slab thickness t = 0.75a, we consider three values of the hole radius, r = 0.20a, 0.25a, 0.30a. Similarly, for a fixed hole radius r = 0.25a, we consider three values of the slab thickness, t = 0.50a, 0.75a, a. In Fig. 2
Fig. 2 GR wavelength shift as a function of the hole refractive index in a PQC supercell [cf. Figure 1(a)] with high-index (n slab = 3.418) slab for the lowest-order z-even (a,b) and z-odd (c,d) modes, and different values of the hole radius (a, c) and slab thickness (b, d).
, we show the GR wavelength shift for the lowest-order z-even (a,b) and z-odd mode (c,d), varying the hole radius (a, c) and slab thickness (b, d). The reference wavelength (λ) values are calculated for each case from the GR normalized frequencies (a/λ, summarized in Table 1

Table 1. Normalized GR frequencies in the unperturbed PQC with high index (nslab = 3.418) slab for the lowest-order z-even and z-odd modes, for various values of the hole radius and slab thickness

table-icon
View This Table
| View All Tables
) by setting the lattice constant; without loss of generality, we set such value to a = 400 nm.

As evident from Fig. 2, in all cases, the GR wavelength increases with the hole refractive index. The results reveal also that broader hole radii, as well as thicker slabs, yield larger wavelength shifts for the same variations of the hole refractive index. This is attributable to the increased volume of interaction between the GR field distribution and the hole refractive index, attainable by increasing r or t. This aspect will be better elucidated in Sec. 3.3 below.

In order to investigate the effect of the slab refractive index on the tuning efficiency, the same studies have been carried out by considering a slab refractive index nslab = 1.58. Such a low index was considered in view of the increasing interest in photonic polymeric materials for sensing and active devices and, more specifically, in light of the recent developments in the fabrication of periodic patterns using soft materials [25

25. K. J. Lee, J. Jin, B.-S. Bae, and R. Magnusson, “Optical filters fabricated in hybrimer media with soft lithography,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2510–2512 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The corresponding numerical results, in terms of GR wavelength shift, are shown in Figs. 4
Fig. 4 As in Fig. 2, but for a low-index (n slab = 1.58) slab.
and 5
Fig. 5 As in Fig. 3, but for a low-index (n slab = 1.58) slab.
, with reference to the PQC and PC case, respectively, while Table 3

Table 3. As in Tables 1 and 2, but for a low-index (nslab = 1.58) slab

table-icon
View This Table
| View All Tables
summarizes the normalized reference frequencies for both cases. In this low-index slab case, a non-linear trend in the GR wavelength shift can be observed for both the PC and PQC configurations.

It is worth noting that, in general, the wavelength shifts tend to be larger for higher values of r and t. However, as evident from Fig. 5 (b, d), in the PC case the increase of the wavelength shift saturates for increasing values of t. This effect is attributable to a strong localization of the field distribution (electric field for z-even, and magnetic field for z-odd) within the PC slab, such that a further increase of the thickness leaves the field distribution essentially unperturbed.

3.2. GR sensitivity and tuning efficiency in PCs and PQCs

In order to address a quantitative comparison of the previously analyzed structures, we define the following “sensitivity–tuning efficiency” observable:

S(nholes)=λnholes.
(2)

As previously mentioned, the GR wavelength shifts have been evaluated with respect to variations of the refractive index of the holes (arranged in periodic or aperiodic fashion), and maintaining the refractive index of the surrounding environment unchanged. This configuration is suitable for biological and chemical sensing applications, where the GR sensitivity with respect to variations of the hole refractive index represents the transduction principle of a PC- or PQC-based sensor featuring a sensitive material integrated within the slab holes. The presence of a specific sensitive material in the slab holes, undergoing a refractive index change via specific target molecules adsorption [26

26. A. Cusano, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, M. Pisco, and M. Consales, “Integrated development of chemoptical fiber nanosensors,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 4(4), 296–315 (2008). [CrossRef]

], improves the overall sensing performance since it allows detection of low target analyte concentrations (which would be unable to change the bulk refractive index). From a dual perspective, in active devices, the same principle can be effectively exploited for “functionalization” purposes, by actuating a material infiltrated in the slab holes.

In Figs. 6
Fig. 6 Sensitivity–tuning efficiency as a function of the hole refractive index in a PQC supercell [cf. Figure 1(a)] with high index (n slab = 3.418) slab for the lowest-order z-even (a,b) and z-odd (c,d) modes, and different values of the hole radius (a, c) and slab thickness (b, d).
and 7
Fig. 7 As in Fig. 6, but for the periodic PC case [cf. Figure 1(b)].
, we show the sensitivity-tuning efficiency corresponding to the high-index slab cases in Figs. 2 (PQC) and 3 (PC), respectively. It can be observed that the efficiency is strictly monotonically increasing. The maximum efficiencies observed, which therefore occur for n holes = 1.5, are reported in Table 4

Table 4. Maximum sensitivity-tuning efficiencies observed (for nholes = 1.5) in the PQC and PC cases (cf. Figures 6-9)

table-icon
View This Table
| View All Tables
.

Results pertaining to the low-index case are shown in Figs. 8
Fig. 8 As in Fig. 6, but for a low-index (n slab = 1.58) slab.
and 9
Fig. 9 As in Fig. 7, but for a low-index (n slab = 1.58) slab.
, with the maximum sensitivities still reported in Table 4.

In this case, it can be observed from the Table 4 that the efficiencies in the PQC case tend to be higher than their PC counterpart for z-even modes, whereas they tend to be lower for z-odd modes. Furthermore, the efficiencies observed for z-even modes tend to be higher than the those observed for z-odd modes, in both the PQC and PC cases.

By comparing the overall results obtained with high- and low-index slabs, for PQCs and PCs, counterintuitive differences in the behavior of the GR wavelength-shift as a function of the hole refractive index can be noted. As matter of fact, the GRs associated to z-even modes in PQCs tend to be more sensitive in the high-index slab case than in low-index slab case, while the contrary (i.e., GRs associated to even modes more sensitive in the low-index slab case) happens in the PC case.

3.3. Perturbative model for GRs in PCs and PQCs

To sum up, by applying simple perturbation arguments to GRs in PC and PQC slabs, we ascertained that the GR sensitivity to variations in the hole refractive index is basically dictated by the electric field concentration in the holes. Therefore, the counterintuitive differences emerged in our parametric studies are basically attributable to different field distributions in the slab holes.

The above analysis, besides offering a physical insight in the observed differences, also suggests useful prediction/design strategies which rely on the field distribution of the unperturbed structure. In this framework, the numerical results suggest also that the spatial arrangement of the holes (and, in particular, the aperiodic arrangement in PQC-type supercells) represents an important degree of freedom to increase the interaction with the material infiltrated in the holes.

4. Conclusions

In this paper, we have presented a comparative numerical study of the GR properties in PC and PQC slabs constituted by arrangements of holes (with periodic and aperiodically-ordered supercells, respectively) in a dielectric host medium. The analysis has been focused on the GR dependence on the hole refractive index, and comparisons have been drawn in terms of GR wavelength sensitivity and tuning efficiency. Such sensing/tuning scheme is representative of a device in which a sensitive/active material is infiltrated in the slab holes.

Our numerical results highlighted the dependence of the GR sensitivity-tuning efficiency on the physical and geometrical parameters characterizing the patterned slab, as well as on the nature of the GR modes (z-even or z-odd). Specifically, for the parameter settings considered, the best performance was achieved with GRs associated to the lowest-order z-even mode in a PQC slab with nslab = 3.418. It is important to remark that, although in the specific context investigated in this work, PQC-based GRs turn out to exhibit higher sensitivity than their periodic counterpart, a general rule cannot be derived at this stage, since a deeper analysis is necessary, involving different tiling geometries (e.g., Penrose, dodecagonal, etc.) for the PQC case and different symmetries (e.g., hexagonal) for the periodic case.

Current and future studies are aimed at the exploration of other PC and PQC geometries (based on aperiodic tilings or substitutional sequences), as well as at the experimental verification of the results and their application to the design of high-performance sensing/active devices.

Acknowledgments

References and links

1.

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002). [CrossRef]

2.

M. Kanskar, P. Paddon, V. Pacradouni, R. Morin, A. Busch, J. F. Young, S. R. Johnson, J. MacKenzie, and T. Tiedje, “Observation of leaky slab modes in an air-bridged semiconductor waveguide with a two-dimensional photonic lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1438–1440 (1997). [CrossRef]

3.

V. N. Astratov, I. S. Culshaw, R. M. Stevenson, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, T. F. Krauss, and R. De La Rue, “Resonant coupling of near-infrared radiation to photonic band structure waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(11), 2050–2057 (1999). [CrossRef]

4.

A. Rosenberg, M. Carter, J. Casey, M. Kim, R. Holm, R. Henry, C. Eddy, V. Shamamian, K. Bussmann, S. Shi, and D. Prather, “Guided resonances in asymmetrical GaN photonic crystal slabs observed in the visible spectrum,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6564–6571 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-17-6564. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

K. B. Crozier, V. Lousse, O. Kilic, S. Kim, S. H. Fan, and O. Solgaard, “Air-bridged photonic crystal slabs at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 73(11), 115126 (2006). [CrossRef]

6.

K. Sakoda, “Symmetry, degeneracy, and uncoupled modes in two-dimensional photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(11), 7982–7986 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

T. Ochiai and K. Sakoda, “Dispersion relation and optical transmittance of a hexagonal photonic crystal slab,” Phys. Rev. B 63(12), 125107 (2001). [CrossRef]

8.

A. Ricciardi, I. Gallina, S. Campopiano, G. Castaldi, M. Pisco, V. Galdi, and A. Cusano, “Guided resonances in photonic quasicrystals,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6335–6346 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-8-6335. [PubMed]

9.

I. Gallina, M. Pisco, A. Ricciardi, S. Campopiano, G. Castaldi, A. Cusano, and V. Galdi, “Guided resonances in photonic crystals with point-defected aperiodically-ordered supercells,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19586–19598 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-19586. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

V. Lousse, W. Suh, O. Kilic, S. Kim, O. Solgaard, and S. H. Fan, “Angular and polarization properties of a photonic crystal slab mirror,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1575–1582 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1575. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

T. Prasad, V. L. Colvin, and D. M. Mittleman, “Dependence of guided resonances on the structural parameters of terahertz photonic crystal slabs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(4), 633–644 (2008). [CrossRef]

12.

I. Gallina, A. Ricciardi, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, G. Castaldi, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, and V. Galdi, “Parametric study of guided resonances in octagonal photonic quasicrystals,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51(11), 2737–2740 (2009). [CrossRef]

13.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).

14.

M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Sub-wavelength nanofluidics in photonic crystal sensors,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24224–24233 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-26-24224. [CrossRef]

15.

J. Song, R. Proietti Zaccaria, M. B. Yu, and X. W. Sun, “Tunable Fano resonance in photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8812–8826 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-19-8812. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

L. Shi, P. Pottier, Y.-A. Peter, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Guided-mode resonance photonic crystal slab sensors based on bead monolayer geometry,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17962–17971 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-22-17962. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

W. Suh and S. H. Fan, “Mechanically switchable photonic crystal filter with either all-pass transmission or flat-top reflection characteristics,” Opt. Lett. 28(19), 1763–1765 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

W. Suh, M. F. Yanik, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, “Displacement-sensitive photonic crystal structures based on guided resonance in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 1999–2001 (2003). [CrossRef]

19.

W. Suh, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, “Displacement sensing using evanescent tunneling between guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(3), 033102 (2005). [CrossRef]

20.

L. Shi, P. Pottier, M. Skorobogatiy, and Y.-A. Peter, “Tunable structures comprising two photonic crystal slabs--optical study in view of multi-analyte enhanced detection,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10623–10632 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-10623. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

H. Y. Song, S. Kim, and R. Magnusson, “Tunable guided-mode resonances in coupled gratings,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23544–23555 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-26-23544. [CrossRef]

22.

T. Stomeo, M. Grande, G. Rainò, A. Passaseo, A. D’Orazio, R. Cingolani, A. Locatelli, D. Modotto, C. De Angelis, and M. De Vittorio, “Optical filter based on two coupled PhC GaAs-membranes,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 411–413 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

Y. Kanamori, T. Kitani, and K. Hane, “Control of guided resonance in a photonic crystal slab using microelectromechanical actuators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031911 (2007). [CrossRef]

24.

BandSOLVE User Manual (RSOFT Design Group Inc., Ossining, NY, USA, 2002).

25.

K. J. Lee, J. Jin, B.-S. Bae, and R. Magnusson, “Optical filters fabricated in hybrimer media with soft lithography,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2510–2512 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

A. Cusano, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, M. Pisco, and M. Consales, “Integrated development of chemoptical fiber nanosensors,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 4(4), 296–315 (2008). [CrossRef]

27.

R. F. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961).

OCIS Codes
(230.1150) Optical devices : All-optical devices
(260.5740) Physical optics : Resonance
(280.4788) Remote sensing and sensors : Optical sensing and sensors
(160.5298) Materials : Photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystals

History
Original Manuscript: June 13, 2010
Revised Manuscript: July 11, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: July 18, 2010
Published: July 29, 2010

Citation
Marco Pisco, Armando Ricciardi, Ilaria Gallina, Giuseppe Castaldi, Stefania Campopiano, Antonello Cutolo, Andrea Cusano, and Vincenzo Galdi, "Tuning efficiency and sensitivity of guided resonances in photonic crystals and quasi-crystals: a comparative study," Opt. Express 18, 17280-17293 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-16-17280


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65(23), 235112 (2002). [CrossRef]
  2. M. Kanskar, P. Paddon, V. Pacradouni, R. Morin, A. Busch, J. F. Young, S. R. Johnson, J. MacKenzie, and T. Tiedje, “Observation of leaky slab modes in an air-bridged semiconductor waveguide with a two-dimensional photonic lattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1438–1440 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. V. N. Astratov, I. S. Culshaw, R. M. Stevenson, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, T. F. Krauss, and R. De La Rue, “Resonant coupling of near-infrared radiation to photonic band structure waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(11), 2050–2057 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. A. Rosenberg, M. Carter, J. Casey, M. Kim, R. Holm, R. Henry, C. Eddy, V. Shamamian, K. Bussmann, S. Shi, and D. Prather, “Guided resonances in asymmetrical GaN photonic crystal slabs observed in the visible spectrum,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6564–6571 (2005),
 http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-17-6564 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. B. Crozier, V. Lousse, O. Kilic, S. Kim, S. H. Fan, and O. Solgaard, “Air-bridged photonic crystal slabs at visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Phys. Rev. B 73(11), 115126 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. K. Sakoda, “Symmetry, degeneracy, and uncoupled modes in two-dimensional photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(11), 7982–7986 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Ochiai and K. Sakoda, “Dispersion relation and optical transmittance of a hexagonal photonic crystal slab,” Phys. Rev. B 63(12), 125107 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Ricciardi, I. Gallina, S. Campopiano, G. Castaldi, M. Pisco, V. Galdi, and A. Cusano, “Guided resonances in photonic quasicrystals,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6335–6346 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-8-6335 . [PubMed]
  9. I. Gallina, M. Pisco, A. Ricciardi, S. Campopiano, G. Castaldi, A. Cusano, and V. Galdi, “Guided resonances in photonic crystals with point-defected aperiodically-ordered supercells,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19586–19598 (2009),
 http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-19586 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. Lousse, W. Suh, O. Kilic, S. Kim, O. Solgaard, and S. H. Fan, “Angular and polarization properties of a photonic crystal slab mirror,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1575–1582 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1575 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Prasad, V. L. Colvin, and D. M. Mittleman, “Dependence of guided resonances on the structural parameters of terahertz photonic crystal slabs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(4), 633–644 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. I. Gallina, A. Ricciardi, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, G. Castaldi, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, and V. Galdi, “Parametric study of guided resonances in octagonal photonic quasicrystals,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 51(11), 2737–2740 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 2–9 (2007).
  14. M. Huang, A. A. Yanik, T.-Y. Chang, and H. Altug, “Sub-wavelength nanofluidics in photonic crystal sensors,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24224–24233 (2009),
 http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-26-24224 . [CrossRef]
  15. J. Song, R. Proietti Zaccaria, M. B. Yu, and X. W. Sun, “Tunable Fano resonance in photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8812–8826 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-19-8812 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. Shi, P. Pottier, Y.-A. Peter, and M. Skorobogatiy, “Guided-mode resonance photonic crystal slab sensors based on bead monolayer geometry,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17962–17971 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-22-17962 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. Suh and S. H. Fan, “Mechanically switchable photonic crystal filter with either all-pass transmission or flat-top reflection characteristics,” Opt. Lett. 28(19), 1763–1765 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. Suh, M. F. Yanik, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, “Displacement-sensitive photonic crystal structures based on guided resonance in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 1999–2001 (2003). [CrossRef]
  19. W. Suh, O. Solgaard, and S. Fan, “Displacement sensing using evanescent tunneling between guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(3), 033102 (2005). [CrossRef]
  20. L. Shi, P. Pottier, M. Skorobogatiy, and Y.-A. Peter, “Tunable structures comprising two photonic crystal slabs--optical study in view of multi-analyte enhanced detection,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10623–10632 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-13-10623 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Y. Song, S. Kim, and R. Magnusson, “Tunable guided-mode resonances in coupled gratings,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23544–23555 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-26-23544 . [CrossRef]
  22. T. Stomeo, M. Grande, G. Rainò, A. Passaseo, A. D’Orazio, R. Cingolani, A. Locatelli, D. Modotto, C. De Angelis, and M. De Vittorio, “Optical filter based on two coupled PhC GaAs-membranes,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 411–413 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Kanamori, T. Kitani, and K. Hane, “Control of guided resonance in a photonic crystal slab using microelectromechanical actuators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031911 (2007). [CrossRef]
  24. BandSOLVE User Manual (RSOFT Design Group Inc., Ossining, NY, USA, 2002).
  25. K. J. Lee, J. Jin, B.-S. Bae, and R. Magnusson, “Optical filters fabricated in hybrimer media with soft lithography,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2510–2512 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. Cusano, M. Giordano, A. Cutolo, M. Pisco, and M. Consales, “Integrated development of chemoptical fiber nanosensors,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 4(4), 296–315 (2008). [CrossRef]
  27. R. F. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited