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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 17 — Aug. 16, 2010
  • pp: 18047–18055
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Wavelength multicasting in silicon photonic nanowires

Aleksandr Biberman, Benjamin G. Lee, Amy C. Turner-Foster, Mark A. Foster, Michal Lipson, Alexander L. Gaeta, and Keren Bergman  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 17, pp. 18047-18055 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.018047


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Abstract

We demonstrate a scalable, energy-efficient, and pragmatic method for high-bandwidth wavelength multicasting using FWM in silicon photonic nanowires. We experimentally validate up to a sixteen-way multicast of 40-Gb/s NRZ data using spectral and temporal responses, and evaluate the resulting data integrity degradation using BER measurements and power penalty performance metrics. We further examine the impact of this wavelength multicasting scalability on conversion efficiency. Finally, we experimentally evaluate up to a three-way multicast of 160-Gb/s pulsed-RZ data using spectral and temporal responses, representing the first on-chip wavelength multicasting of pulsed-RZ data.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

As the demand for bandwidth of optical networks continues to increase rapidly, spectral and temporal techniques for multiplexing are employed to increase data transmission capacity beyond terabit-per-second rates [1

1. M. Saruwatari, “All-optical signal processing for terabit/second optical transmission,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1363–1374 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Communication between access networks is therefore densely aggregated, increasingly shifting performance emphasis toward core networks. This paradigm is independent of the communication platform, and prevails in telecommunication networks, data center interconnection networks, and networks-on-chip (NoCs). These high-bandwidth core networks may benefit from wavelength multicasting to simultaneously disperse information across multiple wavelength channels [2

2. R. K. Pankaj, “Wavelength requirements for multicasting in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking 7(3), 414–424 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. This indispensable functionality is traditionally performed in the electrical domain using power-hungry transceivers and electrical multiplexers/demultiplexers that do not scale well with data rate and number of wavelength channels. In this work, we demonstrate a scalable, energy-efficient, and pragmatic method for high-bandwidth wavelength multicasting using four-wave mixing (FWM) in silicon photonic nanowires. We evaluate the scalability of this technique for use within high-performance systems capitalizing on both spectral and temporal parallelism.

Photonic nanowires based on the highly-developed fabrication and processing of the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform offer a novel domain for nonlinear optics. Inherently large nonlinear response and high optical confinement enabled by large refractive-index contrast allow for an enhancement of nonlinear interaction in these nanowires, translating to shorter interaction lengths and compact devices for dense integration. Nonlinear silicon photonic devices based on the Raman effect [3

3. H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,4

4. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1731–1739 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], Kerr effect [5

5. M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2954–2956 (2003). [CrossRef]

,6

6. H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002). [CrossRef]

], two-photon absorption (TPA) [5

5. M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2954–2956 (2003). [CrossRef]

,6

6. H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002). [CrossRef]

], and free-carrier dispersion (FCD) [4

4. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1731–1739 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have all been demonstrated.

Sufficient nonlinear interaction in silicon photonic nanowires gives rise to parametric processes based on self-phase modulation [6

6. H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002). [CrossRef]

,8

8. E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood Jr., “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5524–5534 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], cross-phase modulation [9

9. I.-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood Jr, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Cross-phase modulation-induced spectral and temporal effects on co-propagating femtosecond pulses in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1135–1146 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and FWM [10

10. A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18

18. R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood Jr, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4341–4349 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Leveraging these parametric processes, parametric systems such as all-optical modulators and switches [7

7. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], regenerators [15

15. R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008). [CrossRef]

], amplifiers [3

3. H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,4

4. R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1731–1739 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,16

16. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], tunable delays [12

12. Y. Dai, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and C. Xu, “Ultralong continuously tunable parametric delays via a cascading discrete stage,” Opt. Express 18(1), 333–339 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], pulse compressors [11

11. M. A. Foster, R. Salem, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrafast waveform compression using a time-domain telescope,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 581–585 (2009). [CrossRef]

], wavelength converters [10

10. A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,13

13. A. C. Turner, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low power parametric frequency conversion in a silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4881–4887 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,17

17. Q. Lin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Ultrabroadband parametric generation and wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4786–4799 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21

21. B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Bit-error-rate characterization of silicon four-wave-mixing wavelength converters at 10 and 40 Gb/s,” Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), CPDB4 (2008).

], and wavelength multicasters [22

22. A. Biberman, N. Ophir, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “All-optical spatial multicasting using cascaded silicon photonic devices,” Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), P2.27 (2009).

,23

23. A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, K. Bergman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, and A. L. Gaeta, “First demonstration of on-chip wavelength multicasting,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), OTuI3 (2009).

] have all been demonstrated. Dispersion engineering, the tailoring of group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of silicon photonic nanowires, is critical for high-bandwidth operation of parametric processes [10

10. A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,24

24. A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4357–4362 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,25

25. E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14(9), 3853–3863 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this platform, the dominant dispersion is dictated by waveguide dispersion, which allows for the engineering of the total GVD with tuning of the nanowire dimensions [24

24. A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4357–4362 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26

26. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1300–1320 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These devices enable ultra-broadband FWM operation. Wavelength conversion across over 830 nm has already been demonstrated in this platform [10

10. A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting

3. Experimental setup

The device discussed here is a 1.1-cm-long dispersion-engineered silicon photonic nanowire with a height of 290 nm, slab thickness of 25 nm, and width of 660 nm. It was fabricated using electron-beam lithography followed by reactive-ion etching. The experimental setup for BER measurements conducted for the wavelength multicasting of 40-Gb/s NRZ data incorporates sixteen multiplexed CW tunable laser (TL) sources (occupying wavelength channels C21 through C36 within the ITU grid) acting as input signals, and another TL source as the pump [Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 Experimental setup diagrams for wavelength multicasting using the silicon photonic nanowire. (a) Experimental setup for up to a sixteen-way multicast of 40-Gb/s NRZ data. (b) Experimental setup for up to a three-way multicast of 160-Gb/s pulsed-RZ data. In this work, wavelength multicasting using FWM is achieved with an amplitude-modulated pump combined with multiple CW input signals, producing multiple wavelength-multicasted modulated output idlers encoded with data identical to the pump data.
]. The pump is externally modulated with a 40-Gb/s NRZ on-off-keyed (OOK) signal, encoded using a pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) of length 215–1, generated by a pattern generator (PG). The pump is amplified using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and then combined with the input signals using a dense wavelength-division multiplexer (DWDM). The combined signals then pass through a fiber polarizer, selecting the transverse-electric (TE) polarization, before being coupled into the on-chip nanotapered waveguide through a tapered fiber. After exiting the chip, the optical streams pass through a tunable grating filter (λ), selecting the proper wavelength-multicasted output idler to evaluate, an EDFA, another tunable grating filter, and a variable optical attenuator (VOA). The selected output idler is then received by a high-speed PIN photodiode and transimpedance amplifier (PIN-TIA) receiver followed by a limiting amplifier (LA). Using an electrical demultiplexer (DEMUX), the received 40-Gb/s data is then spatially demultiplexed into four 10-Gb/s electrical data streams, all of which are verified for uniformity, and one of which is evaluated using a 10-Gb/s BER tester (BERT). Both the DEMUX and the BERT are synchronized to the clock output of the PG. A power tap is inserted before the first filter for examination on an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) with a 0.06-nm resolution bandwidth, and a digital communications analyzer (DCA) is used to verify the electrical data stream following the LA. Polarization controllers (PCs) are also used throughout the setup. Before insertion, the average pump power is 24 dBm, and the input signals are each set to –2 dBm. The fiber-to-fiber coupling loss with the pump and input signals passing into the chip is 11.7 dB.

The experimental setup for measurements conducted for wavelength multicasting of 160-Gb/s pulsed-RZ data incorporates three multiplexed CW TL sources (occupying wavelength channels C21, C27, and C33 within the ITU grid) acting as input signals, and another TL source as the pump [Fig. 1(b)]. The pump incorporates a 10-GHz mode-locked fiber laser (MLL) with a 1.5-ps pulse width, and a fourfold optical time-division multiplexer (4 × OTDM) to generate a 40-GHz pulse train, which is then externally modulated with a 40-Gb/s pulsed-RZ OOK signal, encoded using a PRBS of length 215–1, by the PG. The optical stream then travels through another 4 × OTDM, generating a 160-Gb/s pump, which is then amplified using two stages, each consisting of an EDFA and a tunable grating filter. The 160-Gb/s pump is then combined with the input signals using a 3-dB coupler, and the combined optical streams then pass through a fiber polarizer, selecting the TE polarization, before beingcoupled into the on-chip nanotapered waveguide through a tapered fiber. After exiting the chip, the spectral response of the optical streams is examined using an OSA, and the temporal response is examined using an optical sampling oscilloscope (OSO). The OSO is also used to examine the temporal response of the generated optical stream after the OTDM stages. PCs are also used throughout the setup. Before insertion, the average pump power is 21 dBm, and the input signals are each set to 2.4 dBm. Here, the fiber-to-fiber coupling loss with the pump and input signals passing into the chip is 9.1 dB.

4. Experimental validation

For all the aforementioned configurations, the data integrity degradation experienced by the wavelength multicasting process is evaluated and quantified using experimentally-obtained eye diagrams and BER characterization. First, similar open eye diagrams are observed for each wavelength-multicasted wavelength channel, and recorded (with a 50-ps temporal window) for wavelength-multicasted wavelength channel C21, which is wavelength multicasted in every configuration and has the largest conversion bandwidth [Fig. 2(a)2(e)]. These eye diagrams are compared with the back-to-back case eye diagram, which is recorded for the pump bypassing the silicon photonic chip with all the input signals off, replacing the chip with a VOA set to mimic the fiber-to-fiber insertion loss through the chip [Fig. 2(a)2(e)]; the pump travels through the same path as the wavelength-multicasted signals. For the same wavelength-multicasted wavelength channel, we observe error-free transmission using BER characterization for each configuration. We subsequently record a BER curve for each case (Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimentally-measured BER curves for up to a sixteen-way multicast of 40-Gb/s NRZ data. BER curves for the wavelength multicasting configurations and back-to-back configuration of the sixteen-, eight-, four-, two-, and one-way multicast. The wavelength-multicasted BER curves correspond to the wavelength-multicasted wavelength channel C21 within the ITU grid, which is wavelength multicasted in every configuration and has the largest conversion bandwidth of 35.8 nm. Error-free wavelength multicasting operation is observed for all configurations. The back-to-back BER curve is recorded for the pump bypassing the silicon photonic chip with all the input signals off, replacing the chip with a VOA set to mimic the fiber-to-fiber insertion loss through the chip, producing a constant 1.3-dB power penalty for up to the sixteen-way multicast of 40-Gb/s NRZ data.
). All five wavelength multicasting cases produce overlapping BER curves, indicating no additional power penalty associated with scaling up to the sixteen-way multicast. Moreover, taking a BER curve for the back-to-back case produces a constant 1.3-dB power penalty for up to the sixteen-way multicast of 40-Gb/s NRZ data.

The conversion efficiency of wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting has a dependence on the average pump power injected into the silicon photonic nanowire [15

15. R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. To quantify how this interaction is affected by the scalability of wavelength multicasting, we experimentally evaluate the dependence of conversion efficiency on average pump power for sixteen-, four-, and one-way multicast configurations (Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimentally-measured dependence of conversion efficiency on average pump power for up to a sixteen-way multicast. The relationship between conversion efficiency and average pump power injected into the silicon photonic nanowire is evaluated for the wavelength multicasting configurations of the sixteen-, four-, and one-way multicast. All configurations exhibit a quadratic relationship between conversion efficiency and average pump power, displaying saturation at peak (average) powers above 21 (18) dBm. The overlapping curves indicate no adverse effects on this relationship from scaling up to the sixteen-way multicast.
). For all configurations, we obtain a quadratic relationship between conversion efficiency and average pump power, displaying saturation at peak (average) powers above 21 (18) dBm due to TPA-induced free-carrier absorption (FCA) [15

15. R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, the curves overlap, indicating no adverse effects on this relationship from scaling up to a sixteen-way multicast (Fig. 4).

To demonstrate the practicality of using this wavelength multicasting method in a time-division-multiplexed pulsed-RZ environment, we demonstrate up to three-way multicast of 160-Gb/s pulsed-RZ data, using the experimental setup depicted in Fig. 1(b) and described in the experimental setup section. Here, three CW input signals, each placed on a wavelength channel within the ITU grid (corresponding to C21, C27, and C33) with a 600-GHz separation, are combined with a pump encoded with 160-Gb/s pulsed-RZ data. The resulting interaction in the silicon photonic nanowire produces three wavelength-multicasted output idlers, each encoded with the 160-Gb/s pulsed-RZ data [Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 Experimentally-measured spectral response for up to a three-way multicast of 160-Gb/s pulsed-RZ data, as well as temporal response for the generated and wavelength-multicasted optical data. Output spectra (with a 0.06-nm resolution bandwidth) for the wavelength multicasting configurations of the (a) three-way, (b) two-way, and (c) one-way multicast. The demonstrated conversion bandwidth reaches up to 36.8 nm. The conversion efficiency remains constant at –22.8 dB for each wavelength multicasting configuration. The measured optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) in the spectra is limited by the dynamic range of the OSA. Eye diagrams (with a 100-ps temporal window) of 160-Gb/s pulsed-RZ data for the (d) generated optical data and (e) wavelength-multicasted wavelength channel C33 within the ITU grid, during a three-way multicast.
]. Here, the input signals span 9.9 nm (1550.9 nm to 1560.8 nm), the pump is placed at the 1542.7-nm wavelength, and the wavelength-multicasted output idlers span 11.4 nm (1524.0 nm to 1535.4 nm), producing a conversion bandwidth ranging from 15.5 nm to 36.8 nm. Similarly, a two-way [Fig. 5(b)] and one-way [Fig. 5(c)] multicast is achieved by turning off two input signals (leaving C21 and C27) and one input signal (leaving C21), respectively. The conversion efficiency remains constant at –22.8 dB for each wavelength multicasting configuration. We further examine the temporal properties of the generated optical pulses [Fig. 5(d)], as well as the wavelength-multicasted optical pulses for wavelength channel C33 in the three-way multicast configuration [Fig. 5(e)]. The eye diagram (with a 100-ps temporal window) of the wavelength-multicasted pulsed-RZ data remains open during the three-way multicasting operation. After the OTDM stages, the amplitudes of the individual tributaries of the signal are not perfectly uniform due to asymmetrical insertion losses within each OTDM stage [Fig. 5(d)]; this is exacerbated by wavelength multicasting due to the quadratic relationship between conversion efficiency and pump power [Fig. 5(e)]. The tributary uniformity can be improved by further normalizing the insertion losses in each OTDM stage. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first on-chip wavelength multicasting demonstration using pulsed-RZ data.

5. Conclusion

We have shown and evaluated an efficient and scalable method of wavelength multicasting high-speed optical streams encoded with both 40-Gb/s NRZ data and 160-Gb/s pulsed-RZ data. We have verified up to a sixteen-way multicast of 40-Gb/s NRZ data using spectral and temporal responses, and quantified the resulting wavelength-multicasted data integrity degradation using BER and power penalty performance metrics. We then evaluated the effect of this wavelength multicasting scalability on the dependence of conversion efficiency on average pump power. We further evaluated spectrally and temporally up to a three-way multicast of 160-Gb/s pulsed-RZ data. Every quantifiable experimentally-verified metric that we examined suggests that this method for wavelength multicasting is a truly scalable process. The massive bandwidth offered by this dispersion-engineered silicon photonic nanowire, combined with the platform’s CMOS compatibility and capability of ultra-dense integration with complex photonics and electronics, materializes this wavelength multicasting method for full-scale parametric systems such as photonic routers-on-chip (RoCs) for ultra-broadband high-performance optical networks.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) MTO Parametric Optical Processes and Systems program under contract number W911NF-08-1-0058. This work was performed in part at the Cornell NanoScale Facility, a member of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, which is supported by the National Science Foundation.

References and links

1.

M. Saruwatari, “All-optical signal processing for terabit/second optical transmission,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1363–1374 (2000). [CrossRef]

2.

R. K. Pankaj, “Wavelength requirements for multicasting in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking 7(3), 414–424 (1999). [CrossRef]

3.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1731–1739 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(18), 2954–2956 (2003). [CrossRef]

6.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002). [CrossRef]

7.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood Jr., “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5524–5534 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

I.-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood Jr, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Cross-phase modulation-induced spectral and temporal effects on co-propagating femtosecond pulses in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1135–1146 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrafast waveform compression using a time-domain telescope,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 581–585 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

Y. Dai, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and C. Xu, “Ultralong continuously tunable parametric delays via a cascading discrete stage,” Opt. Express 18(1), 333–339 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

A. C. Turner, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low power parametric frequency conversion in a silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4881–4887 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12949–12958 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Ultrabroadband parametric generation and wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4786–4799 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood Jr, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4341–4349 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, N. Ophir, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “160-Gb/s broadband wavelength conversion on chip using dispersion-engineered silicon waveguides,” Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), CThBB1 (2009).

20.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009). [CrossRef]

21.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Bit-error-rate characterization of silicon four-wave-mixing wavelength converters at 10 and 40 Gb/s,” Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), CPDB4 (2008).

22.

A. Biberman, N. Ophir, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “All-optical spatial multicasting using cascaded silicon photonic devices,” Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), P2.27 (2009).

23.

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, K. Bergman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, and A. L. Gaeta, “First demonstration of on-chip wavelength multicasting,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), OTuI3 (2009).

24.

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4357–4362 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14(9), 3853–3863 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1300–1320 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics 3rd edn (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001).

28.

J. L. Pleumeekers, J. Leuthold, M. Kauer, P. G. Bernasconi, C. A. Burrus, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, and E. Laskowski, “All-optical wavelength conversion and broadcasting to eight separate channels by a single semiconductor optical amplifier delay interferometer,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), ThDD4 (2002).

29.

L. Rau, S. Rangarajan, D. J. Blumenthal, H.-F. Chou, Y.-J. Chiu, and J. E. Bowers, “Two-hop all-optical label swapping with variable length 80 Gb/s packets and 10 Gb/s labels using nonlinear fiber wavelength converters, unicast/multicast output and a single EAM for 80- to 10 Gb/s packet demultiplexing,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), FD2–1–FD2–3 (2002).

30.

C.-S. Brès, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Scalable multicasting in one-pump parametric amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 356–363 (2009). [CrossRef]

31.

C.-S. Brès, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Wavelength multicasting of 320-Gb/s channel in self-seeded parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1002–1004 (2009). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
(190.4390) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, integrated optics
(230.4320) Optical devices : Nonlinear optical devices
(060.1155) Fiber optics and optical communications : All-optical networks
(060.4255) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks, multicast
(130.7405) Integrated optics : Wavelength conversion devices

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 27, 2010
Revised Manuscript: August 5, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: August 5, 2010
Published: August 6, 2010

Citation
Aleksandr Biberman, Benjamin G. Lee, Amy C. Turner-Foster, Mark A. Foster, Michal Lipson, Alexander L. Gaeta, and Keren Bergman, "Wavelength multicasting in silicon photonic nanowires," Opt. Express 18, 18047-18055 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-17-18047


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References

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  9. I.-W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Cross-phase modulation-induced spectral and temporal effects on co-propagating femtosecond pulses in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1135–1146 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. A. Foster, R. Salem, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Ultrafast waveform compression using a time-domain telescope,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 581–585 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Dai, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and C. Xu, “Ultralong continuously tunable parametric delays via a cascading discrete stage,” Opt. Express 18(1), 333–339 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. C. Turner, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low power parametric frequency conversion in a silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4881–4887 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12949–12958 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Q. Lin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Ultrabroadband parametric generation and wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4786–4799 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4341–4349 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, N. Ophir, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “160-Gb/s broadband wavelength conversion on chip using dispersion-engineered silicon waveguides,” Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), CThBB1 (2009).
  20. B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009). [CrossRef]
  21. B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Bit-error-rate characterization of silicon four-wave-mixing wavelength converters at 10 and 40 Gb/s,” Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), CPDB4 (2008).
  22. A. Biberman, N. Ophir, B. G. Lee, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, N. Sherwood-Droz, C. B. Poitras, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “All-optical spatial multicasting using cascaded silicon photonic devices,” Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), P2.27 (2009).
  23. A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, K. Bergman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, and A. L. Gaeta, “First demonstration of on-chip wavelength multicasting,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), OTuI3 (2009).
  24. A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4357–4362 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14(9), 3853–3863 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1300–1320 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics 3rd edn (Academic Press, San Diego, 2001).
  28. J. L. Pleumeekers, J. Leuthold, M. Kauer, P. G. Bernasconi, C. A. Burrus, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, and E. Laskowski, “All-optical wavelength conversion and broadcasting to eight separate channels by a single semiconductor optical amplifier delay interferometer,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), ThDD4 (2002).
  29. L. Rau, S. Rangarajan, D. J. Blumenthal, H.-F. Chou, Y.-J. Chiu, and J. E. Bowers, “Two-hop all-optical label swapping with variable length 80 Gb/s packets and 10 Gb/s labels using nonlinear fiber wavelength converters, unicast/multicast output and a single EAM for 80- to 10 Gb/s packet demultiplexing,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), FD2–1–FD2–3 (2002).
  30. C.-S. Brès, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “Scalable multicasting in one-pump parametric amplifier,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 356–363 (2009). [CrossRef]
  31. C.-S. Brès, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P.-P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Wavelength multicasting of 320-Gb/s channel in self-seeded parametric amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(14), 1002–1004 (2009). [CrossRef]

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