OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 17 — Aug. 16, 2010
  • pp: 18151–18157
« Show journal navigation

Subwavelength focusing of light in the planar anisotropic metamaterials with zone plates

Guowei Ren, Zhian Lai, Changtao Wang, Qin Feng, Ling Liu, Kaipeng Liu, and Xiangang Luo  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 17, pp. 18151-18157 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.018151


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (716 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We present here a structure with just a single slit covering the planar anisotropic metamaterial. The metamaterial has hyperbolic dispersion and can be realized using metal-dielectric multilayers. The structure combines the focusing performance of the zone plates and subwavelength resolution of the anisotropic metamaterials so that subwavelength focal spots can be obtained at the focal plane. The relationship between the focal spot size and slit width has been investigated, and a resolution of 36nm about 1/10 of 365nm incident wavelength is obtained with a 100nm wide single slit.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

It is well known that the imaging systems performance of conventional optics is constrained by diffraction so that there is a limitation of resolution about half of the incident wavelength [1

1. M. Born, and E. Wolf, “Principles of Optics” (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

]. With the fast development of nanoscale fabrication and characteristic techniques, a breakthrough of diffraction limit is highly desired to achieve subwavelength imaging and light manipulation.

Since J.B.Pendry proposed a perfect lens [2

2. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] of a thin slab of negative refraction material [3

3. V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968). [CrossRef]

], many structures such as superlens [4

4. V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, “Near-sighted superlens,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 75–77 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], metallodielectric nanofilms [5

5. S. Feng and J. M. Elson, “Diffraction-suppressed high-resolution imaging through metallodielectric nanofilms,” Opt. Express 14(1), 216–221 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and hyperlens [6

6. Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8247–8256 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and have been proposed to achieve near-field and far-field subwavelength imaging. Those devices have been demonstrated theoretically and experimentally [7

7. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9

9. C. Wang, D. Gan, Y. Zhao, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Demagnifing super resolution imaging based on surface plasmon structures,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5427–5434 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Other suggested structures include those to achieve far-field subwavelength imaging using transformation optics techniques [10

10. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 11

11. W. Wang, H. Xing, L. Fang, Y. Liu, J. Ma, L. Lin, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Far-field imaging device: planar hyperlens with magnification using multi-layer metamaterial,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21142–21148 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and those analog to near-field plates [12

12. R. Merlin, “Radiationless electromagnetic interference: evanescent-field lenses and perfect focusing,” Science 317(5840), 927–929 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,13

13. A. Grbic, L. Jiang, and R. Merlin, “Near-field plates: subdiffraction focusing with patterned surfaces,” Science 320(5875), 511–513 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or using transparent metallodielectric stacks [14

14. M. Scalora, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M. J. Bloemer, D. de Ceglia, M. Centini, A. Mandatori, C. Sibilia, N. Akozbek, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Fowler, and J. W. Haus, “Negative refraction and sub-wavelength focusing in the visible range using transparent metallo-dielectric stacks,” Opt. Express 15(2), 508–523 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to achieve subwavelength focusing. S.Thongrattanasiri and V.Podolskiy have also proposed a class of structures called hypergratings [15

15. S. Thongrattanasiri and V. Podolskiy, “Hypergratings: nanophotonics in planar anisotropic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 7 (2009). [CrossRef]

] based on combinations of planar hyperbolic metamaterials and diffraction gratings or zone plates that can achieve far-field subwavelength focusing.

In this paper, we present a kind structure of hypergratings that combines the focusing performance of the first order Fresnel zone [15

15. S. Thongrattanasiri and V. Podolskiy, “Hypergratings: nanophotonics in planar anisotropic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 7 (2009). [CrossRef]

] and subwavelength resolution of the metal-dielectric multilayers [5

5. S. Feng and J. M. Elson, “Diffraction-suppressed high-resolution imaging through metallodielectric nanofilms,” Opt. Express 14(1), 216–221 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 16

16. B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B 74(11), 115116 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The structure has just a single slit on the mask and a focal spot size far beyond the diffraction limit can be obtained in the planar metamaterial. By changing the slit width, focal spots of different sizes can also be obtained and the relationship between focal spot size and slit width is investigated. With a proper slit width 100nm, a focal spot size of 36nm (FWHM) which is about 1/10 of incident wavelength has been observed by numerical simulation. Comparing resolutions of the proposed structures with different materials has also been discussed. In the following, the principle of the structure and characteristics will be described in detail.

2. Principle and design of the structure

As shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic drawing of the structure. All the components are treated as semi-infinite at the Y direction. W is the slit width.
, the proposed structure consists of a planar slab by strongly anisotropic metamaterial and a covering chromium mask which is designed according to the boundaries of the first order Fresnel zone. All the components are treated as semi-infinite in the Y direction. The anisotropic metamaterial can be demonstrated by a layered metal-dielectric system [16

16. B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B 74(11), 115116 (2006). [CrossRef]

] and silver-SiC layers are used in this paper. The relative permittivities for silver and SiC are εAg = −2.4012 + 0.2488i [17

17. H. Lee, Z. Liu, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Development of optical hyperlens for imaging below the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 15, 24 (2007).

] and εSiC = 8.2369 [18

18. E. Palik, ed., “The Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids” (AP, 1985).

], respectively.

For an alternatively layered system, if each layer can be described by homogeneous and isotropic permittivity and permeability parameters and the layers are sufficiently thin (<<λ 0), then the whole system can be treated as an effective anisotropic medium [19

19. B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B 74(11), 115116 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The used silver and SiC layer are both isotropic medium and the thicknesses are both 5nm or 10nm that sufficiently thin, therefore according to the effective medium theory [20

20. S. Tretyakov, “Analytical Modeling in Applied Electromagnetics,” (Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2000).

], the metamaterial’s permittivity tensor is
ε=ε0(εxy000εxy000εz),
(1)
whereεxy=(εAg+εSiC)/2andεz=2εAgεSiC/(εAg+εSiC). Here the thicknesses of the silver layer and SiC layer are assumed the same. Thus the metamaterial has Re(εxy)>0, Re(εz)<0 (Re(ε) represents the real part of ε) whose hyperbolic dispersion relation eliminates high-kx modes cutoff for the p-polarized incident wave. If the width of the slit is designed to be part of or the entire first order Fresnel zone, the waves of different kx modes will interfere with each other positively at the focal plane. So there will be a subwavelength focal spot at the focal distance.

Just like the Fresnel zone plates, difference of the phase shift from boundaries of the mth Fresnel zones and the origin to the focal point is given by
ϕmϕ0=mπ,
(2)
where φm=kl=kxxm+kzf (m≥0), k=(kx,0,kz),l=(xm,0,f) f is the focal distance. Here, xm is the horizontal displacement of the outer boundary of the mth Fresnel zone from Z axis and x0 is the origin of the x axis. As the angle between the propagation direction and Z axis in the metamaterial can be given by the ratio of Poynting vector components: tanθ=Re(εxy)kx/(Re(εz)kz)=xm/f [15], and according to the dispersion relation equation of the metamaterial kz2/εxy+kx2/εz=ω2/c2=k02(k0=2π/λ0) [6], it can be obtained that kz=[Re(εxy)f/Re(εxy)f2+Re(εz)xm2]k0 and kx=[Re(εz)xm/Re(εxy)f2+Re(εz)xm2]k0 Thus ϕm=Re(εxy)f2+Re(εz)xm2k0 and Eq. (2) turns to be
Re(εxy)f2+Re(εz)xm2Re(εxy)f2=m2λ0.
(3)
In this paper, only one slit is utilizied for light focusing in the metamaterial structure. The slit width is W. If we assume that W=2|xm|,d=0.5λ0/(Re(εxy))1/2and a=λ0/(Re(εz))1/2, Eq. (3) turns to be f2f2d2W2/a2=md. The maxia of the left part of this equation is dW/a. There are two cases to get a focus below the slit and in the metamaterial space. The first is that dW/a>=d, so there are multiple solutions (at least one solution) of f to obtain the integer m (m> = 1). But the optimal solution for light focusing occurs as m = 1 (the first diffraction order) and f=d2(W2a2+1). Here the entire first Fresnel zone can be open (m = 1). For the other case dW/a<d, the obtainable maximum order m (m<1) and light focusing appears as f=dW/a. Therefore the theoretical relation between the focal distance f and the slit width W is expressed as
f={daW,0<W<ad2(W2a2+1),Wa.
(4)
Figure 2
Fig. 2 The focal distance f vesurs the slit width W
shows that the theoretical results of focal distance calculated from Eq. (4) agrees well with simulation results of the ideal hyperbolic metamaterial at a slit width W≤120nm and at a wider slit the difference between them is still small.

As for the traditional Fresnel zone plate (ε = εxy = εz = 1), the focal distance is f=mλ02(W2m2λ0212) (0<m≤1) for just keeping all or part of the first Fresnel zone open. It’s similar to the second part of Eq. (4), and for any given f, there is always a W that the entire first Fresnel zone opens. But for our structure with the hyperbolic dispersion relation of the metamaterial, if keeping the entire first Fresnel zone open (m = 1), f must be larger than d obtained from Eq. (3). Thus there is a minimum slit width W = a, and for W<a, only part of the first Fresnel zone keeps open. In the following simulations, the slit width is selected to be 100nm that most of the first Fresnel zone keeps open.

3. Numerical simulation and analysis

Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 Distributions of normalized magnetic field intensity of |Hy|2 of the structure using ideal hyperbolic medium (a) and silver-SiC multilayers (c). The slit width W = 100nm. The silver and SiC layer thicknesses are both 5nm. Distributions at the focal plane are shown in (b) and (d), respectively.
gives the distributions of normalized magnetic field intensity (|Hy|2) for the single slit structure of the ideal hyperbolic medium, whose relative permittivity tensor is (2.9179 + 0.1244i, 2.9179 + 0.1244i, −6.7362 + 0.9894i) calculated from Eq. (1). A normal plane wave at a wavelength of 365nm in p-polarization incident from the top side of the mask and the slit width W is 100nm. As seen from Fig. 3(a), the wave has focused at z = 76nm, which is exactly the f calculated from Eq. (4). The intensity of cross-section at the focal plane is shown in Fig. 3(b). If full width at half maximum (FWHM) is taken as the focal spot size, a spot of 32nm about 1/11 incident wavelength can be achieved.

As the hyperbolic medium can be realized by multilayer system, a subwavelength focal spot could also be obtained in the multilayered structure as shown in Fig. 3(c), which gives the distributions of normalized magnetic filed intensity (|Hy|2). The thicknesses of the silver and SiC layer are both equal to 5nm and there are 60 pairs of silver/SiC layers. Other parameters are the same as mentioned before. Figure 3(d) gives the distributions of intensity of the cross-section at the focal plane. However, a larger focal spot of 36nm (FWHM) about 1/10 incident wavelength has been achieved.

4. Discussion

4.1 Ratio of focal spot size to wavelength δ/λ0versus W for structures of different materials

According to the effective medium theory, thinner multilayers have better accuracy of realizing the hyperbolic medium. As seen from the blue and yellow curve in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Ratio of focal spot size to wavelength δ/λ 0 versus the slit width W for structures of different materials. The red curve is for the ideal hyperbolic medium and the coffee color curve is for the ideal hyperbolic medium without absorption. The blue and yellow curves are for multilayers of 10nm thick films and 5nm thick films, respectively.
, the multilayers of 5nm thick films (yellow curve) always have better resolutions than those of 10nm thick films (blue curve) at corresponding different slit widths. This indicates that the proposed structure can be realized by using multilayers in faith and the resolution is close to prediction of effective medium theory as long as the thickness of layers is small enough.

However, the focal spot of the idea medium (red curve) could be larger than that of the 5nm and 10nm films when the slit width exceeds certain value. This can be understood from the following analysis. In the multilayer metallo dielectric system, the high-kx waves propagation is caused by coupling to the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) that exist on metal-dielectric interfaces [19

19. B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B 74(11), 115116 (2006). [CrossRef]

, 21

21. R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106(5), 874–881 (1957). [CrossRef]

,23

23. C. Wang, Y. Zhao, D. Gan, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Subwavelength imaging with anisotropic structure comprising alternately layered metal and dielectric films,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4217–4227 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The SPPs excited from edges of the slit are stronger than those from the center, as can be seen in Fig. 5(b)
Fig. 5 Distributions of normalized magnetic field intensity using ideal hyperbolic medium (a) and silver-SiC multilayers (b). The slit width W = 199nm. The silver and SiC layer are both 5nm thick.
. As the slit width increases, the edge-excited SPPs contribute more than those from other areas of the slit during forming the focal spot. In the case of idea medium, the diffracted waves from edge and other areas contribute almost equally to form the spot, as illustrated in Fig. 5(a). Actually, this effect can also been observed in Fig. 3(a) and Fig. 3(c). The resolution of the focal spot is mainly determined by transmission coefficient and interference of the high-kx waves. When the slit width is small, the effect of the uneven distribution is not obvious. But as the slit is larger than about λ 0/2 (Fig. 4), the formed focal spot in the multilayered system can be mainly decided by the edge-excited SPPs and may be smaller than that in the ideal medium due to this effect.

4.2 Influence of material absorption

The material absorption is the main limitation to the resolution of the structure and the ability of absorption is mostly represented by the imaginary part of the material permittivity. As seen in Fig. 4, the structure of the ideal medium without absorption (coffee color curve) has a much better resolution than that of the medium (red curve) with normal absorption. Figure 6
Fig. 6 Distributions of normalized magnetic field intensity of |Hy|2 at the focal plane for structures of different ideal hyperbolic mediums. The blue curve is for the ideal hyperbolic medium which permittivity tensor is calculated by using εAg = −2.4012 + 0.2488i, the black curve εAg = −2.4012 + 0.02488i, and the pink curve εAg = −2.4012. All of them are using εSiC = 8.2369 and W = 100nm.
gives field profiles at the focal plane for structures of different absorptions. The three hyperbolic mediums’ permittivity tensors are calculated using εAg = −2.4012 + 0.2488i (blue curve), −2.4012 + 0.02488i (black curve) and −2.4012 (pink curve) from Eq. (1), respectively. The slit width W = 100nm, and other parameters are the same as before. All of them show that the resolution is obviously improved by reducing the material absorption or in other words reducing losses.

4.3 Limit of the maximum number of Fresnel zones

The traditional Fresnel zone plates could theoretically have infinite Fresnel zones if diameter of the plates is large enough, and as the number of opened Fresnel zones increases, the intensity of the focal spot becomes stronger. However, for the structure we presented here, as the metamaterial has a hyperbolic dispersion relation, the shift of phase from the origin (x = 0, z = 0) to the focal point (Φ 0) is maximum. So it can be obtained from Eq. (3) that:
Re(εxy)f2+Re(εz)xm2=Re(εxy)f2m2λ00.
(5)
This means that the maximum number of Fresnel zones is f/d. If f<d, the opened zone is just part of the first order Fresnel zone.

5. Conclusion

In conclusion, we present a kind of hypergratings structure that combines the focusing performance of the first order Fresnel zone and subwavelength resolution of the metal-dielectric multilayers. Numerical analysis and simulation results have been given to demonstrate the design. Finally, a focal spot size of 36nm (FWHM), about 1/10 of incident wavelength could be obtained by the multilayered structure of 5nm films, with a slit width 100nm. The comparing between ideal mediums and multilayered structure of different thickness films has been given. The effect of the materials absorption has also been discussed. In addition, revising the focusing process may be utilized for magnification or demagnification imaging with subwavelength resolution as well. The proposed structure may be used in nano-scale lithography and microscope with proper photoresist and bottom layer design [22

22. X. G. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4780 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. It may also be used in high density optical storage by stacking appropriate multilayer structures with photo sensitive layer inside it.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by 973 Program of China (No.2006-CB302900) and the Chinese Nature Science Grant(60825405).

References and links

1.

M. Born, and E. Wolf, “Principles of Optics” (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

2.

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968). [CrossRef]

4.

V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, “Near-sighted superlens,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 75–77 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

S. Feng and J. M. Elson, “Diffraction-suppressed high-resolution imaging through metallodielectric nanofilms,” Opt. Express 14(1), 216–221 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8247–8256 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-Diffraction-Limited Objects Far-Field Optical Hyperlens Magnifying,” Science 315, 1686 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

C. Wang, D. Gan, Y. Zhao, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Demagnifing super resolution imaging based on surface plasmon structures,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5427–5434 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

W. Wang, H. Xing, L. Fang, Y. Liu, J. Ma, L. Lin, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Far-field imaging device: planar hyperlens with magnification using multi-layer metamaterial,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21142–21148 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

R. Merlin, “Radiationless electromagnetic interference: evanescent-field lenses and perfect focusing,” Science 317(5840), 927–929 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

A. Grbic, L. Jiang, and R. Merlin, “Near-field plates: subdiffraction focusing with patterned surfaces,” Science 320(5875), 511–513 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. Scalora, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M. J. Bloemer, D. de Ceglia, M. Centini, A. Mandatori, C. Sibilia, N. Akozbek, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Fowler, and J. W. Haus, “Negative refraction and sub-wavelength focusing in the visible range using transparent metallo-dielectric stacks,” Opt. Express 15(2), 508–523 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

S. Thongrattanasiri and V. Podolskiy, “Hypergratings: nanophotonics in planar anisotropic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 7 (2009). [CrossRef]

16.

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B 74(11), 115116 (2006). [CrossRef]

17.

H. Lee, Z. Liu, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Development of optical hyperlens for imaging below the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 15, 24 (2007).

18.

E. Palik, ed., “The Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids” (AP, 1985).

19.

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B 74(11), 115116 (2006). [CrossRef]

20.

S. Tretyakov, “Analytical Modeling in Applied Electromagnetics,” (Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2000).

21.

R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106(5), 874–881 (1957). [CrossRef]

22.

X. G. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4780 (2004). [CrossRef]

23.

C. Wang, Y. Zhao, D. Gan, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Subwavelength imaging with anisotropic structure comprising alternately layered metal and dielectric films,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4217–4227 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(220.2560) Optical design and fabrication : Propagating methods
(230.4170) Optical devices : Multilayers
(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials

ToC Category:
Metamaterials

History
Original Manuscript: May 11, 2010
Revised Manuscript: June 27, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: July 26, 2010
Published: August 9, 2010

Citation
Guowei Ren, Zhian Lai, Changtao Wang, Qin Feng, Ling Liu, Kaipeng Liu, and Xiangang Luo, "Subwavelength focusing of light in the planar anisotropic metamaterials with zone plates," Opt. Express 18, 18151-18157 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-17-18151


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. M. Born, and E. Wolf, “Principles of Optics” (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).
  2. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10(4), 509–514 (1968). [CrossRef]
  4. V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, “Near-sighted superlens,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 75–77 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Feng and J. M. Elson, “Diffraction-suppressed high-resolution imaging through metallodielectric nanofilms,” Opt. Express 14(1), 216–221 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8247–8256 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-Diffraction-Limited Objects Far-Field Optical Hyperlens Magnifying,” Science 315, 1686 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Wang, D. Gan, Y. Zhao, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Demagnifing super resolution imaging based on surface plasmon structures,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5427–5434 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Wang, H. Xing, L. Fang, Y. Liu, J. Ma, L. Lin, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Far-field imaging device: planar hyperlens with magnification using multi-layer metamaterial,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21142–21148 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Merlin, “Radiationless electromagnetic interference: evanescent-field lenses and perfect focusing,” Science 317(5840), 927–929 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Grbic, L. Jiang, and R. Merlin, “Near-field plates: subdiffraction focusing with patterned surfaces,” Science 320(5875), 511–513 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Scalora, G. D’Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, M. J. Bloemer, D. de Ceglia, M. Centini, A. Mandatori, C. Sibilia, N. Akozbek, M. G. Cappeddu, M. Fowler, and J. W. Haus, “Negative refraction and sub-wavelength focusing in the visible range using transparent metallo-dielectric stacks,” Opt. Express 15(2), 508–523 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Thongrattanasiri and V. Podolskiy, “Hypergratings: nanophotonics in planar anisotropic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 7 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B 74(11), 115116 (2006). [CrossRef]
  17. H. Lee, Z. Liu, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Development of optical hyperlens for imaging below the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express 15, 24 (2007).
  18. E. Palik, ed., “The Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids” (AP, 1985).
  19. B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B 74(11), 115116 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. S. Tretyakov, “Analytical Modeling in Applied Electromagnetics,” (Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2000).
  21. R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106(5), 874–881 (1957). [CrossRef]
  22. X. G. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4780 (2004). [CrossRef]
  23. C. Wang, Y. Zhao, D. Gan, C. Du, and X. Luo, “Subwavelength imaging with anisotropic structure comprising alternately layered metal and dielectric films,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4217–4227 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited