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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 17 — Aug. 16, 2010
  • pp: 18492–18497
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Error-free demodulation of pixelated carrier frequency interferograms

M. Servin and J. C. Estrada  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 17, pp. 18492-18497 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.018492


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Abstract

Recently, pixelated spatial carrier interferograms have been used in optical metrology and are an industry standard nowadays. The main feature of these interferometers is that each pixel over the video camera may be phase-modulated by any (however fixed) desired angle within [0,2π] radians. The phase at each pixel is shifted without cross-talking from their immediate neighborhoods. This has opened new possibilities for experimental spatial wavefront modulation not dreamed before, because we are no longer constrained to introduce a spatial-carrier using a tilted plane. Any useful mathematical model to phase-modulate the testing wavefront in a pixel-wise basis can be used. However we are nowadays faced with the problem that these pixelated interferograms have not been correctly demodulated to obtain an error-free (exact) wavefront estimation. The purpose of this paper is to offer the general theory that allows one to demodulate, in an exact way, pixelated spatial-carrier interferograms modulated by any thinkable two-dimensional phase carrier.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

The spatial phase modulation technique that uses a tilted plane reference is well known and useful technique to demodulate the measuring wavefront in an interferometer [1

1. D. Malacara, M. Servin, and Z. Malacara, Interferogram Analysis for Optical Testing, 2 ed., (Taylor & Francis Group, CRC Press, 2005).

]. In this way one obtains the following spatial carrier interferogram,
I(x,y)=a(x,y)+b(x,y)cos[φ(x,y)+ωxx+ωyy].
(1)
Where I(x,y) is the interferogram’s intensity as imaged over the CCD video camera. The functions ϕ(x,y), a(x,y) and b(x,y) are respectively the searched phase, the background illumination and the amplitude of the fringe pattern. Finally ωx and ωx are two constants proportional to the slope of the reference tilted plane. There are at least two ways of analyzing these carrier interferograms; spatial phase-shifting techniques [1

1. D. Malacara, M. Servin, and Z. Malacara, Interferogram Analysis for Optical Testing, 2 ed., (Taylor & Francis Group, CRC Press, 2005).

], and the Fourier transform based ones [2

2. M. Takeda, H. Ina, and S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72(1), 156–160 (1982). [CrossRef]

]. The main motivation behind spatial phase modulation is to measure a wavefront’s phase in hostile mechanical environments where the use of temporal phase shifting interferometry may be impossible [3

3. R. Smythe and R. Moore, “Instantaneous phase measuring interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 23, 361–364 (1984).

6

6. B. K. A. Ngoi, K. Venkatakrishnan, and N. R. Sivakumar, “Phase-shifting interferometry immune to vibration,” Appl. Opt. 40(19), 3211–3214 (2001). [CrossRef]

].

Recently a very clever spatial carrier modulation technique that uses pixelated phase-shift was developed [7

7. J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004). [CrossRef]

,8

8. M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6861–6868 (2005). [PubMed] [CrossRef]

]. In this experimental approach one is totally free to define the mathematical form of the phase carrier. The only limitation is that the modulating phase-mask remains fixed, placed before the CCD light sensor [7

7. J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004). [CrossRef]

,8

8. M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6861–6868 (2005). [PubMed] [CrossRef]

]. A reasonable way to formally express a pixelated carrier interferogram modulated by pm(x,y) is,
I(x,y)=a(x,y)+b(x,y)cos[φ(x,y)+pm(x,y)].
(2)
The modulating phase-mask pm(x,y) may have different forms. Millerd et al. [7

7. J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004). [CrossRef]

] and Novak et al. [8

8. M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6861–6868 (2005). [PubMed] [CrossRef]

] have used the 2x2 building block (or superpixel) shown amplified in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The basic building block (or superpixel) of the phase-mask proposed in [7,8]. The superpixel is periodically repeated over the entire CCD, giving the spatially homogeneous two dimensional carrier pm(x,y) required by Eq. (2).
. This 2x2 superpixel is periodically repeated all over the CCD to form the phase-mask pm(x,y),

We can sort all the 0 degrees pixels to form a continuous 0-degree phase-shifted interferogram. The same is done for the other angles to obtain the 4 phase-shifted interferograms shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Four phase-shifted interferograms obtained by sorting the phase-masked CCD pixels according to their phase-shift. The CCD has 2Nx2N pixels, and the four smaller interferograms have NxN pixels.
.

The gray-level’s contrast in panel 3(b) was multiplied by 5 for displaying purposes (i.e. gray-levels within [-π/5,π/5]). This figure shows the typical doubling fringe-pattern phase-error associated with the 4-step algorithm’s detuning [1

1. D. Malacara, M. Servin, and Z. Malacara, Interferogram Analysis for Optical Testing, 2 ed., (Taylor & Francis Group, CRC Press, 2005).

,7

7. J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004). [CrossRef]

9

9. J. F. Mosiño, M. Servin, J. C. Estrada, and J. A. Quiroga, “Phasorial analysis of detuning error in temporal phase shifting algorithms,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5618–5623 (2009). [PubMed] [CrossRef]

]. The most important drawbacks of the 4-step demodulation of phase-masked interferograms are,

  • (a) One looses 3 pixels out of 4 that compose each 2x2 superpixel’s building block. However, Millerd et al. [7

    7. J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004). [CrossRef]

    ] comment that Eq. (3) may be used all over the CCD, demodulating almost all its pixels, just as one does with any windowed convolution filter. Unfortunately they have not published the details on how to do it.
  • (b) The 4-step formula in Eq. (3) is very sensitivity to detuning [1

    1. D. Malacara, M. Servin, and Z. Malacara, Interferogram Analysis for Optical Testing, 2 ed., (Taylor & Francis Group, CRC Press, 2005).

    ,7

    7. J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004). [CrossRef]

    10

    10. B. T. Kimbrough, “Pixelated mask spatial carrier phase shifting interferometry algorithms and associated errors,” Appl. Opt. 45(19), 4554–4562 (2006). [PubMed] [CrossRef]

    ]. The doubling fringe-pattern phase-error associated with this algorithm is clearly shown in Fig. 3(b).

This detuning error has been analyzed more carefully by Kimbrough [10

10. B. T. Kimbrough, “Pixelated mask spatial carrier phase shifting interferometry algorithms and associated errors,” Appl. Opt. 45(19), 4554–4562 (2006). [PubMed] [CrossRef]

] along with some higher (9-steps) order algorithms lowering the detuning error. Error-free pixelated interferogram demodulation has however not been achieved and was thought to be difficult.

2. Error-free demodulation of pixelated carrier interferograms

The general theory behind the error-free phase demodulation of pixelated interferograms is extremely simple yet elegant and mathematically rigorous.

Let us start by observing that in order to experimentally generate the interference fringes I = a + bcos[ϕ + pm] in Eq. (2) one would require the following wavefront reference,

R(x,y)=exp[ipm(x,y)].
(4)

Where i = (−1)1/2. This complex reference may in turn be used to demodulate our fringe pattern I(x,y). The first step toward this end is to multiply our interferogram and our reference,
I(x,y)R(x,y)={a(x,y)+b(x,y)cos[φ(x,y)+pm(x,y)]}exp[ipm(x,y)].
(5)
The real and imaginary parts of this complex signal are,

Re[I(x,y)R(x,y)]=acos(pm)+(b/2)cos(φ+2pm)+(b/2)cos(φ)Im[I(x,y)R(x,y)]   =asin(pm)+(b/2)sin(φ+2pm)   +(b/2)sin(φ).
(6)

Where the operators Re[.] and Im[.] take the real and the imaginary parts of their argument. The two real signals in Eq. (6) are shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Here we show the real (in panel (a)) and the imaginary (in panel (b)) signals of the product I(x,y)R(x,y). The function I(x,y) is the measured interferogram in Eq. (2), and the signal R(x,y) is the reference wavefront exp[i pm(x,y)].
.

3. Two illustrative examples

Figure 5
Fig. 5 Phase demodulation of the interferogram I = a + bcos[ϕ + pm], phase modulated by the periodic phase-mask pm(x,y). Panel (a) shows the pixelated interferogram. Panel (b) is the spectrum of the interferogram. Panel (c) shows the spectra of the product I(x,y)exp[i pm(x,y)]. Note that the conjugate spectra are separated π radians Finally Panel (d) shows the wrapped (error-free) demodulated phase.
graphically shows the proposed demodulation technique applied to a (computer generated) interferogram phase modulated by pm(x,y). Panel 5(a) shows the pixelated interferogram and in panel 5(b) its spectral magnitude. Note that the spectral distance between bcos[ϕ + pm] and the background a is π radians. Panel 5(c) shows the spectrum of the product I(x,y)exp[i pm(x,y)]. It is interesting to note in panel 5(c), that the searched complex signal is moved to the spectral origin. A linear low-pass filter selects the centered part of the spectrum shown in panel 5(c); we have implemented the low-pass filter in the Fourier domain. Finally, the error-free demodulated phase is shown wrapped in panel 5(d).

Note that the demodulated phase is error-free as long as their spectra in panel 5(c) remain well separated. Also note that the two information-rich spectra in panel 5(c) are separated a distance of π radians.

Let us continue with a slightly different 2x2 periodic phase-mask. The question is: what would happen if we use the periodic phase-mask shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Another possible phase-mask pm2(x,y) that may be used to modulate the wavefront under measurement.
instead of the one in Fig. 1?.

In Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Phase estimation of the interferogram modulated by pm2(x,y); I = a + bcos[ϕ + pm2]. Panel (a) shows the pixelated carrier interferogram. Panel (b) shows the spectrum of the interferogram. Note that the conjugate spectra are separated (√2)π radians. Panel (c) shows the spectra of the product I(x,y)exp[i pm2(x,y)]. And finally Panel (d) shows the wrapped (error-free) demodulated phase.
we see the consequences of using the alternative modulating carrier pm2(x,y). Panel 7(a) shows a computer generated pixelated interferogram, and in panel 7(b) we show its spectrum. Panel 7(c) shows the spectra of the product I(x,y)exp[i pm2(x,y)]. It is interesting to note in this panel that the searched complex signal (b/2)exp[i ϕ(x,y)] is also sent to the spectral origin. We finally keep the centered spectrum by low-pass filtering in the Fourier domain to obtain the error-free demodulated phase shown in panel 7(d).

As before, the demodulated phase in panel 7(d) is error-free as long as the centered spectra in panel 7(c) (signal in Eq. (8)) remain well separated from the other spectral components. Also the modulating phase was estimated all over the entire CCD’s pixels.

Note that, phase detuning error arises because some undesired signal from the conjugate spectrum leaks into the desired analytical signal [9

9. J. F. Mosiño, M. Servin, J. C. Estrada, and J. A. Quiroga, “Phasorial analysis of detuning error in temporal phase shifting algorithms,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5618–5623 (2009). [PubMed] [CrossRef]

]. In our method this is not possible because we have filtered-out completely this conjugate spectrum in the Fourier domain.

Also note that the spectral distance between the two conjugate spectra in panel 7(c) is (√2)π radians, while this separation in panel 5(c) due to pm(x,y) is π radians. This means that the spectral space is more efficiently used modulating by pm2(x,y) rather than by pm(x,y). Moreover, the spectral distance between the pixelated carrier and its two conjugate spectra are π radians. Pixelated carriers use the available spectral space more efficiently than a reference plane, because pixelated carriers have two-dimensional degrees of freedom, while a tilted reference are confined to a single dimension (a line in the plane).

4. Conclusions

We have presented a very easy, yet efficient and straightforward method to demodulate the phase of pixelated spatial-carrier interferograms without detuning error. As far as we know, demodulating pixelated phase-masked interferograms with no detuning error and without discarding valuable CCD pixels has not been reported before. We have presented two alternative phase modulating masks pm(x,y) and pm2(x,y) with good results graphically shown in Figs. 5 and 7. Finally we have driven the reader’s attention to the high efficient use of the available spectral space by the pixelated carriers reviewed in this paper. The spatial phase carrier pm2(x,y) separate the information-rich conjugate spectra a distance of (√2)π radians, while the pm(x,y) carrier separate them only π radians. In turn these two carrier masks use more efficiently the available spectral space than a single dimension carrier obtained by tilting a reference plane.

References and links

1.

D. Malacara, M. Servin, and Z. Malacara, Interferogram Analysis for Optical Testing, 2 ed., (Taylor & Francis Group, CRC Press, 2005).

2.

M. Takeda, H. Ina, and S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72(1), 156–160 (1982). [CrossRef]

3.

R. Smythe and R. Moore, “Instantaneous phase measuring interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 23, 361–364 (1984).

4.

O. Y. Kwon, “Multichannel phase-shifted interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 9(2), 59–61 (1984). [PubMed] [CrossRef]

5.

C. L. Koliopoulos, “Simultaneous phase-shift interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 1531, 119–127 (1992). [CrossRef]

6.

B. K. A. Ngoi, K. Venkatakrishnan, and N. R. Sivakumar, “Phase-shifting interferometry immune to vibration,” Appl. Opt. 40(19), 3211–3214 (2001). [CrossRef]

7.

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004). [CrossRef]

8.

M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6861–6868 (2005). [PubMed] [CrossRef]

9.

J. F. Mosiño, M. Servin, J. C. Estrada, and J. A. Quiroga, “Phasorial analysis of detuning error in temporal phase shifting algorithms,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5618–5623 (2009). [PubMed] [CrossRef]

10.

B. T. Kimbrough, “Pixelated mask spatial carrier phase shifting interferometry algorithms and associated errors,” Appl. Opt. 45(19), 4554–4562 (2006). [PubMed] [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(120.2650) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Fringe analysis
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

History
Original Manuscript: June 14, 2010
Revised Manuscript: July 10, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: July 10, 2010
Published: August 13, 2010

Citation
M. Servin and J. C. Estrada, "Error-free demodulation of pixelated carrier frequency interferograms," Opt. Express 18, 18492-18497 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-17-18492


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References

  1. D. Malacara, M. Servin, and Z. Malacara, Interferogram Analysis for Optical Testing, 2 ed., (Taylor & Francis Group, CRC Press, 2005).
  2. M. Takeda, H. Ina, and S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72(1), 156–160 (1982). [CrossRef]
  3. R. Smythe and R. Moore, “Instantaneous phase measuring interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 23, 361–364 (1984).
  4. O. Y. Kwon, “Multichannel phase-shifted interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 9(2), 59–61 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. L. Koliopoulos, “Simultaneous phase-shift interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 1531, 119–127 (1992). [CrossRef]
  6. B. K. A. Ngoi, K. Venkatakrishnan, and N. R. Sivakumar, “Phase-shifting interferometry immune to vibration,” Appl. Opt. 40(19), 3211–3214 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6861–6868 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. F. Mosiño, M. Servin, J. C. Estrada, and J. A. Quiroga, “Phasorial analysis of detuning error in temporal phase shifting algorithms,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5618–5623 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. T. Kimbrough, “Pixelated mask spatial carrier phase shifting interferometry algorithms and associated errors,” Appl. Opt. 45(19), 4554–4562 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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