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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 18 — Aug. 30, 2010
  • pp: 19169–19174
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Rotation of the absorption frame as a function of the electronic transition in the Nd3+:YCa4O(BO3)3 monoclinic crystal

Simon Joly, Patricia Segonds, Benoît Boulanger, Yannick Petit, Alexandra Peña Revellez, Corinne Félix, and Bertrand Ménaert  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 18, pp. 19169-19174 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.019169


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Abstract

We report the first measurements of the angular distribution of absorption under polarized light corresponding to seven electronic transitions of Nd3+ ions in the monoclinic crystal Nd:YCOB, revealing a rotation of the symmetry axes of the different patterns.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

In the present paper we report the first study to the best of our knowledge devoted to the orientation of the absorption frame of a monoclinic crystal as a function of the electronic transition. We considered seven transitions ranging between 355 nm and 887 nm of Nd3+ in Nd:YCOB with a Neodynium concentration of 5%.

2. Selected electronic transitions

By comparison of the transmission spectrum of Fig. 1with that of pure YCOB crystal [6], we can clearly assign the seven selected absorption peaks to Nd3+ transitions. According to a Dieke diagram for rare earth ions, these seven transitions correspond to the same fundamental level, i.e. 4I9/2, and to the different excited levels shown in Fig. 2 [7].

Fig. 2 Energy levels of Nd3+ in Nd:YCOB and electronic transitions and corresponding wavelengths selected for the study of the absorption angular distribution.

3. Angular distribution of absorption

The patterns corresponding to the seven selected transitions are given in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Perpendicular (⊥, Y-axis) (dots) and parallel (//, XZ plane) (squares) components of the absorption coefficient measured as a function of the angle θ in the mirror plane m of 5%Nd:YCOB for seven electronic transitions of Nd3+: 4I9/2 → (2I11/2 + 4D5/2) at λ = 355 nm (a), 4I9/22K13/2 at λ = 534 nm (b), 4I9/2 → (2G7/2 + 4G5/2) at λ = 595 nm (c), 4I9/24F9/2 at λ = 686 nm (d), 4I9/24F7/2 at λ = 742 nm (e), 4I9/24F5/2 + 2H9/2 at λ = 812 nm (f), and 4I9/24F3/2 at λ = 887 nm (g). The continuous lines stand for the fit of the experimental data. (X, Y, Z) is the dielectric frame and (Xabs,Yabs,Zabs) the absorption frame. θabs is the oriented angle between the X- and Xabs-axes; the dashed radii and concentric circles at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 cm−1 stand for the polar scale.
. The fit of the experimental data of Fig. 3 were performed by using a propagation equation written in the dielectric frame (X,Y,Z) with a non diagonal tensor of the imaginary part of the complex dielectric permittivity as required by the monoclinic symmetry [3

3. A. M. Goncharenko, “Surfaces of refraction and absorption of absorbent monoclinic and triclinic crystals,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 4(1), 1 (1960).

]. Notice that some aberrant experimental data points are due to a diffusion increase due to slightly damaged surface areas of the studied sample. Figure 3 well shows that the symmetry axes of the angular distribution of absorption (Xabs,Yabs,Zabs) do not coincide with the dielectric frame. Indeed the Xabs- and X-axes make an angle θabs, the same as between the Zabs- and Z-axes, the only common axes being Y and Yabs. All the values of θabs are reported in Tab. 1 as a function of the absorption peak wavelength. It clearly appears that the relative orientation between the dielectric and absorption frames strongly depend on the considered electronic transition, that is to say on the excited level since the fundamental one is common to all the transitions. It is important to notice that the orientation of the dielectric frame of Nd:YCOB does not depend on wavelength as in the case of undoped YCOB [6

6. P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, J. P. Fève, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the monoclinic Ca4YO(BO3)3 crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(4), 765 (2004). [CrossRef]

,8

8. P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterization of Ca4YO(BO3)3 and Nd:Ca4YO(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 29(8), 975–982 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

Table 1

Table 1. Rotation angle between the dielectric and absorption frames, θabs, and principal values of the absorption coefficient (αXabs, αYabs, αZabs) in the monoclinic crystal 5%Nd:YCOB, as a function of the excited energy levels of the Nd3+ electronic transitions with 4I9/2 as the common fundamental level.

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shows that the wavelength dependence of θabs is completely hieratic and does not follow a dispersion law. Note that when the orientation of the dielectric frame (X,Y,Z) of a monoclinic crystal has a variation as a function of the wavelength, which is the case of BiB3O6 for example, this variation exhibits a continuous behavior linked to the dispersion of the refractive indices [2

2. H. Hellwig, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, “Linear optical properties of the monoclinic bismuth BiB3O6,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 240 (2000). [CrossRef]

].

The absorption axes are also those allowing the imaginary part of the complex dielectric permittivity tensor to be diagonalized [3

3. A. M. Goncharenko, “Surfaces of refraction and absorption of absorbent monoclinic and triclinic crystals,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 4(1), 1 (1960).

]. Thus (Xabs,Yabs,Zabs) is the frame in which can be defined the principal values of the absorption coefficient. The corresponding values are given in Table 1. It is important to notice that they are completely different from those that would be measured in the directions of the dielectric frame, as can be easily seen in Fig. 3. Thus Table 1 provides essential tool to properly optimize absorption in devices that involve Nd:YCOB.

Fig. 4 Evolution of the oriented rotation angle θabs between the dielectric and absorption frames as a function of the different wavelengths corresponding to the excited energy levels of the seven electronic transitions studied in the monoclinic crystal 5%Nd:YCOB.

5. Conclusion

For the first time to the best of our knowledge, we demonstrated that the orientation of the angular distribution of the absorption coefficient of a monoclinic crystal depends on the considered electronic transition. This unexpected fundamental feature will find an explanation from a microscopic quantum model taking into account the symmetry of the wave functions of the considered energy levels as well as the symmetry of the ions host crystallographic sites. Then the present work constitutes a suited experimental basis for further theoretical studies that are essential for a predictive approach of this phenomenon. They may concern crystals belonging to any monoclinic crystal class, i.e. CS, C2 and C2h, which is a fortiori valuable for the triclinic classes C1 and Ci since their degree of symmetry is lower.

The present work also reveals the necessity to reconsider all the values of absorption coefficients of monoclinic crystals tabulated in Handbooks, since they systematically had been measured in the dielectric frame instead of the absorption frame. Such revision of tabulated values is indeed of prime importance for future optimized exploitation of the numerous monoclinic crystals for optics. It is not only important in the case of laser materials such as Nd:(Gd,Y)Ca4O(BO3)3 [7

7. A. Lupei, E. Antic-Fidancev, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Spectral and structural studies of GdCOB and YCOB crystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 380(1-2), 235–240 (2004). [CrossRef]

], Yb:KLu(WO4)2 [9

9. V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateo, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. Maria Solé, J. Liu, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2 and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007). [CrossRef]

], or Yb:LiGd6O5(BO3)3 [10

10. J. P. Chaminade, V Jubera, A Garcia, P Gravereau, and C Fouassier, “Crystal structure, crustal growth and optical properties of phases in the ternary systems Li20-M2O3-B2O3 (M = Ln,Y),” J. Opt. Adv. Mater. 2(5), 451 (2000).

], but also for several other optical materials: Pr:Lu2SiO5 (photoluminescence) [11

11. M. Nikl, H. Ogino, A. Beitlerova, A. Novoselov, and T. Fukuda, “Fast 5d-4f luminescence of Pr3+ in Lu2Si05 single crystal host,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 410(4–6), 218–221 (2005). [CrossRef]

], Pr:Y2SiO5 (slow light) [12

12. J. J. Longdell, E. Fraval, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Stopped light with storage time greater than one second using electromagnetically induced transparency in a Solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 063601 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], or Sn2P2O6 (photorefractivity) [13

13. A. Shumelyuk, A. Volkov, A. Selinger, M. Imlau, and S. Odoulov, “Frequency-degenerate nonlinear light scattering in low-symmetry crystals,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 150–152 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Aknowledgment

The authors wish to thank Prof. Gérard Aka from Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris (ENSCP) who grew the studied Nd:YCOB crystal.

References and links

1.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (Oxford Pergamon Press, 1965).

2.

H. Hellwig, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, “Linear optical properties of the monoclinic bismuth BiB3O6,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 240 (2000). [CrossRef]

3.

A. M. Goncharenko, “Surfaces of refraction and absorption of absorbent monoclinic and triclinic crystals,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 4(1), 1 (1960).

4.

Y. Petit, B. Boulanger, P. Segonds, C. Félix, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, and G. Aka, “Absorption and fluorescence anisotropies of monoclinic crystals: the case of Nd:YCOB,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7997–8002 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

L. X. Li, M. Guo, H. D. Jiang, X. B. Hu, Z. S. Shao, J. Y. Wang, J. Q. Wei, H. R. Xia, Y. G Liu, and M. H. Jiang, “Growth and spectra of YCOB and Nd:YCOB,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 35(11–12), 1361 (2000). [CrossRef]

6.

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, J. P. Fève, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the monoclinic Ca4YO(BO3)3 crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(4), 765 (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

A. Lupei, E. Antic-Fidancev, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Spectral and structural studies of GdCOB and YCOB crystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 380(1-2), 235–240 (2004). [CrossRef]

8.

P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterization of Ca4YO(BO3)3 and Nd:Ca4YO(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 29(8), 975–982 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateo, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. Maria Solé, J. Liu, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2 and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007). [CrossRef]

10.

J. P. Chaminade, V Jubera, A Garcia, P Gravereau, and C Fouassier, “Crystal structure, crustal growth and optical properties of phases in the ternary systems Li20-M2O3-B2O3 (M = Ln,Y),” J. Opt. Adv. Mater. 2(5), 451 (2000).

11.

M. Nikl, H. Ogino, A. Beitlerova, A. Novoselov, and T. Fukuda, “Fast 5d-4f luminescence of Pr3+ in Lu2Si05 single crystal host,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 410(4–6), 218–221 (2005). [CrossRef]

12.

J. J. Longdell, E. Fraval, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Stopped light with storage time greater than one second using electromagnetically induced transparency in a Solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 063601 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

A. Shumelyuk, A. Volkov, A. Selinger, M. Imlau, and S. Odoulov, “Frequency-degenerate nonlinear light scattering in low-symmetry crystals,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 150–152 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(140.3530) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, neodymium
(160.1190) Materials : Anisotropic optical materials
(300.1030) Spectroscopy : Absorption

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: June 16, 2010
Revised Manuscript: July 6, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: July 11, 2010
Published: August 25, 2010

Citation
Simon Joly, Patricia Segonds, Benoît Boulanger, Yannick Petit, Alexandra Peña Revellez, Corinne Félix, and Bertrand Ménaert, "Rotation of the absorption frame as a function of the electronic transition in the Nd3+:YCa4O(BO3)3 monoclinic crystal," Opt. Express 18, 19169-19174 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-18-19169


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References

  1. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (Oxford Pergamon Press, 1965).
  2. H. Hellwig, J. Liebertz, and L. Bohaty, “Linear optical properties of the monoclinic bismuth BiB3O6,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(1), 240 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. A. M. Goncharenko, “Surfaces of refraction and absorption of absorbent monoclinic and triclinic crystals,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 4(1), 1 (1960).
  4. Y. Petit, B. Boulanger, P. Segonds, C. Félix, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, and G. Aka, “Absorption and fluorescence anisotropies of monoclinic crystals: the case of Nd:YCOB,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7997–8002 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. X. Li, M. Guo, H. D. Jiang, X. B. Hu, Z. S. Shao, J. Y. Wang, J. Q. Wei, H. R. Xia, Y. G Liu, and M. H. Jiang, “Growth and spectra of YCOB and Nd:YCOB,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 35(11–12), 1361 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, J. P. Fève, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the monoclinic Ca4YO(BO3)3 crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(4), 765 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Lupei, E. Antic-Fidancev, G. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Spectral and structural studies of GdCOB and YCOB crystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 380(1-2), 235–240 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. P. Segonds, B. Boulanger, B. Ménaert, J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, R. Moncorgé, F. Porée, G. Gadret, J. Mangin, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, G. Aka, and D. Pelenc, “Optical characterization of Ca4YO(BO3)3 and Nd:Ca4YO(BO3)3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. 29(8), 975–982 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. V. Petrov, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateo, O. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguilo, R. Maria Solé, J. Liu, and F. Diaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2 and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photon. Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. J. P. Chaminade, V Jubera, A Garcia, P Gravereau, and C Fouassier, “Crystal structure, crustal growth and optical properties of phases in the ternary systems Li20-M2O3-B2O3 (M = Ln,Y),” J. Opt. Adv. Mater. 2(5), 451 (2000).
  11. M. Nikl, H. Ogino, A. Beitlerova, A. Novoselov, and T. Fukuda, “Fast 5d-4f luminescence of Pr3+ in Lu2Si05 single crystal host,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 410(4–6), 218–221 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. J. J. Longdell, E. Fraval, M. J. Sellars, and N. B. Manson, “Stopped light with storage time greater than one second using electromagnetically induced transparency in a Solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(6), 063601 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Shumelyuk, A. Volkov, A. Selinger, M. Imlau, and S. Odoulov, “Frequency-degenerate nonlinear light scattering in low-symmetry crystals,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 150–152 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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