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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 18 — Aug. 30, 2010
  • pp: 19201–19208
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Continuous-wave and modelocked Yb:YCOB thin disk laser: first demonstration and future prospects

O. H. Heckl, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 18, pp. 19201-19208 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.019201


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Abstract

Yb:YCOB is a very attractive material for femtosecond pulse generation given its broad emission bandwidth. We demonstrate continuous-wave power scaling in the thin disk geometry to the 100-W level with a 40% optical-to-optical efficiency in multi-mode operation. Furthermore, we present initial modelocking results in the thin disk geometry, achieving pulse durations as short as 270 fs. The modelocked average power is, however, limited to less than 5 W because of transverse mode degradation. This is caused by anisotropic thermal aberrations in the 15% Yb-doped thin disks which were 300 to 400 µm thick. This result confirms the potential of Yb:YCOB to generate short femtosecond pulses in the thin disk geometry but also makes clear that significantly thinner disks are required to overcome the thermal limitations for high power operation.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

The power scalable concept of the thin disk laser [1

1. A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

] has led to kilowatt continuous-wave (cw) power levels with high beam quality and high efficiencies [2

2. A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen Years of Work on Thin-Disk Lasers: Results and Scaling Laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007). [CrossRef]

] directly out of an oscillator. Furthermore, it is also highly suitable for ultrafast pulse generation using Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirrors (SESAMs) [3

3. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996). [CrossRef]

,4

4. U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Nowadays, femtosecond thin disk lasers generate higher average output powers (i.e. >140 W) [5

5. C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and pulse energies (i.e. >10 µJ) [6

6. S. V. Marchese, C. R. E. Baer, A. G. Engqvist, S. Hashimoto, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin disk laser oscillator with pulse energy beyond the 10-microjoule level,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6397–6407 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. J. Neuhaus, D. Bauer, J. Zhang, A. Killi, J. Kleinbauer, M. Kumkar, S. Weiler, M. Guina, D. H. Sutter, and T. Dekorsy, “Subpicosecond thin-disk laser oscillator with pulse energies of up to 25.9 microjoules by use of an active multipass geometry,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20530–20539 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] than any other type of modelocked laser oscillator. The output power can be scaled up by increasing the pump power and mode areas on both the gain medium and the SESAM by the same factor. Successful power scaling recently resulted in 141 W average output power [5

5. C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] directly from a femtosecond SESAM modelocked thin disk laser oscillator.

The shortest pulses in the thin disk laser setup have been obtained with Yb:LuScO3. The large gain bandwidth of this material supported pulse durations as short as 227 fs at 7.2 W average power. The output power was in this case limited by the crystal quality of the first manufactured disks [8

8. C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “227-fs pulses from a mode-locked Yb:LuScO3 thin disk laser,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10725–10730 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For many application areas such as high harmonic generations at MHz repetition rates with pulse energies in the microjoule range [9

9. O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. V. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 369–373 (2009). [CrossRef]

,10

10. S. Kim, J. H. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] even shorter pulse durations are crucial. There are several other Yb-doped gain materials with larger bandwidths, which appear attractive for the thin disk configuration [11

11. T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. One of these materials is the monoclinic material Yb:YCa4O(BO3)3 (Yb:YCOB). It can be grown by the Czochralski method, which simplifies the growth process in comparison to other promising materials like Yb:KYW [12

12. F. Brunner, T. Südmeyer, E. Innerhofer, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Paschotta, V. E. Kisel, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, J. Gao, K. Contag, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “240-fs pulses with 22-W average power from a mode-locked thin-disk Yb:KY(WO(4))(2) laser,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1162–1164 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. The first modelocked Yb:YCOB laser delivered 210 fs [13

13. G. J. Valentine, A. J. Kemp, D. J. L. Birkin, D. Burns, F. Balembois, P. Georges, H. Bernas, A. Aron, G. Aka, W. Sibbett, A. Brun, M. D. Dawson, and E. Bente, “Femtosecond Yb:YCOB laser pumped by narrow-stripe laser diode and passively modelocked using ion implanted saturable-absorber mirror,” Electron. Lett. 36(19), 1621–1623 (2000). [CrossRef]

] pulses with an average output power of 16 mW. Very recently, SESAM modelocking of this material has supported the shortest pulses from any modelocked Yb-doped oscillator so far: 46 fs at 46 mW of average output power [14

14. A. Yoshida, A. Schmidt, H. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Liu, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Sub-50 fs Diode-Pumped Yb:YCOB Laser,” OSA / CLEO/QELS (2010).

]. This was further reduced to 42 fs with external compression, demonstrating the extremely broad gain bandwidth of Yb:YCOB. To date, however, the highest average output power in modelocked operation was limited to 275 mW [15

15. X. Mateos, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and J. H. Liu, “Femtosecond Mode-Locking of the Yb3+:YCa4O(BO3)3 Laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP) (Denver, Colorado (USA), 2009), p. Paper MB9.

].

In this paper we discuss Yb:YCOB thin disk laser operation. First we discuss cw power scaling up to the 100-W level, then we present the first modelocking results, discuss their thermal challenges and give recommendations for optimized thin disk laser material parameters. Average power scaling of Yb:YCOB lasers is challenging because of the low thermal conductivity of this material, which is about 5 times smaller than for Yb:YAG (κ Yb:YCOB = 1.9 W/(m·K) [16

16. S. Chenais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers - Part I: Theoretical analysis and wavefront measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 (2004). [CrossRef]

]). The excellent heat management in the thin disk laser geometry is therefore highly attractive for this material. Recently, a cw thin disk laser generated up to 26 W in transverse multi-mode operation at 58% optical-to-optical efficiency (η opt) with E||Z-polarized output [17

17. C. Kränkel, R. Peters, K. Petermann, P. Loiseau, G. Aka, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous-wave thin disk laser operation of Yb:Ca4YO(BO3)3 in EIIZ and EIIX orientations with 26 W output power,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(7), 1310–1314 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. So far, modelocked operation of an Yb:YCOB thin disk laser has not been reported. This requires a laser cavity with a nearly diffraction-limited output beam, because the presence of higher order modes usually destabilizes the pulse formation.

In comparison to YAG, YCOB has a lower density of Y-sites. This means that the Yb doping concentration of 15at.% used in our experiments corresponds to an active ion concentration of only 4.85% in Yb:YAG. Furthermore, the emission cross section σ em,L of Yb:YCOB peaks at 1034 nm and is only 0.3·10−20 cm2. This is more than seven times lower than for Yb:YAG (σ em, YAG = 2.2·10−20 cm2) which leads to a stronger tendency for Q-switching instabilities with a higher Q-switched modelocking (QML) threshold [18

18. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]

].

The absorption cross sections in Yb:YCOB at 940 nm are also much lower than in Yb:YAG. The recent progress on Volume Bragg Grating (VBG) [19

19. L. B. Glebov, “High-brightness laser design based on volume Bragg gratings,” in Laser Source and System Technology for Defense and Security II(SPIE, Orlando (Kissimmee), FL, USA, 2006), pp. 621601–621610.

] stabilized pump diodes allows for pumping in the much narrower but stronger zero-phonon absorption line around 975 nm. The corresponding absorption cross sections are σ abs, E|| X = 0.91·10−20 cm2, σ abs, E|| Y = 1.4·10−20 cm2 and σ abs, E|| Z = 0.91·10−20 cm2, which are comparable to those of Yb:YAG. Therefore efficient pump absorption can in principle be achieved in Yb:YCOB thin disk lasers. We used relatively thick Yb:YCOB disks in the range of 300-400 µm because the doping concentration of the available crystals was limited to 15at.%. This limited the average output power in the fundamental mode to less than 10 W due to strong anisotropic thermal effects, but still allowed for power scaling to more than 100 W in multi-mode operation.

2. Continuous-wave multi-mode laser experiments

The simple linear multi-mode resonator for the cw experiments was formed by the thin disk and an output coupler with a radius of curvature of 500 mm. The disk has an anti-reflective coating on the front side and a highly reflective coating for both the pump and the laser wavelength on the backside. It is soldered with indium-tin on a water cooled copper heat sink. The pump source is a fiber coupled VBG-stabilized pump diode [20

20. B. Köhler, T. Brand, M. Haag, and J. Biesenbach, “Wavelength stabilized high-power diode laser modules,” in Photonics West(2009).

] delivering up to 400 W of output power and emitting at 976.4 nm with an emission bandwidth of 0.55 nm.

The highest power was obtained with a Z-cut Yb:YCOB thin disk crystal. The disk was 400 µm thick, 15at.%-doped and had an aperture of 6.3 mm × 7.0 mm cut perpendicular to the Z-axis (Z-cut). Despite the moderate density of the active ions as discussed in the introduction, the crystal absorbed 93% of the incident pump power due to the relatively large disk thickness and the 24 pump passes through the disk.

With a 1.2% output coupler we obtained a cw multi-mode output power of 101 W with 254 W of incident pump power, resulting in an optical-to-optical efficiency of 40% and a slope efficiency of 53% (see Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Yb:YCOB thin disk laser cw multi-mode output power (solid lines) and optical-to-optical efficiency (dashed lines). The 15at.% Yb:YCOB disk is 400 μm thick, and oriented in (Z)-cut with a pump spot diameter of 4 mm. Results are presented for two different output couplers.
). No correction was applied for the unabsorbed pump power. With a higher output coupler of 1.6% a maximum output power of 80 W with a slightly lower slope efficiency of 51% was achieved.

A thinner 300-µm Z-cut Yb:YCOB thin disk laser with a 2.4-mm pump spot diameter delivered a cw multi-mode output power of 35 W with 80 W of incident pump power, resulting in an optical-to-optical efficiency of 43% and a slope efficiency of 43% even though only 86% was absorbed (Fig. 2
Fig. 2 CW multi-mode output power (solid lines) and optical-to-optical efficiency (dashed lines) vs. incident pump power for a 350-µm thick, (X)-cut (red) and a 300-µm thick, (Z)-cut (blue) 15at.% doped Yb:YCOB disks. These are the same disks that were used for the modelocking experiments. The pump spot diameters were chosen to be 2.4 mm for the (Z)-cut disk and 1.9 mm for the (X)-cut disk. The thinner thickness led to a pump absorption of 86% for the 300 µm, and 90% for the 350 µm thick crystal.
, blue line). The reduced pump spot diameter of 2.4 mm was chosen according to the size and quality of the disk.

With a X-cut Yb:YCOB thin disk we observed better efficiency (Fig. 2, red line), but since the available X-cut crystals were too small we could only use a 1.9-mm pump spot diameter. The crystal thickness of 350 µm led to a pump absorption of 90%. The good efficiency which we obtained with this crystal also indicates that a further decrease in crystal thickness should be possible.

The pump threshold for the smaller pump diameters is about 2 times better than expected from simple power density scaling (compare Fig. 1 and 2). We assume that this is due to some residual crystal inhomogeneity and that with a smaller laser mode on the crystal a pump spot with higher quality could be selected.

The latter two Yb:YCOB crystals and pump geometries were used for the subsequent modelocking experiments and hence we stopped measuring output slopes before we reached a thermal rollover and before we risk damage of the disks.

3. Modelocking experiments

As discussed in the introduction, the gain material Yb:YCOB has a stronger tendency for Q-switching instabilities compared to Yb:YAG. Since we were limited in single mode output power, we increased the predicted intracavity pulse energy to overcome the QML threshold [18

18. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]

] with a lower pulse repetition rate. A simple 4-f extension was added into the cavity, consisting of two mirrors separated by their radius of curvature R = 2f, thus adding a total of 2R to the cavity length (Fig. 3) [21

21. S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, M. Golling, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Pulse energy scaling to 5 microJ from a femtosecond thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2728–2730 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

With 300-µm thick Z-cut Yb:YCOB thin disk crystal stable soliton modelocking was achieved by inserting a SESAM with a saturation fluence of FSat = 28 µJ/cm2, a modulation depth of ∆R = 0.76% and nonsaturable losses below 0.1%. The size of the laser mode on the disk is estimated to have a radius of w0 ≈500 µm and on the SESAM of w0 ≈440 µm, resulting in a QML threshold intracavity power of 29 W taking into account the additional soliton stabilization [18

18. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. The negative group delay dispersion (GDD) in the cavity was obtained with two GTI-type dispersive mirrors accounting for −2200 fs2 per roundtrip. The Brewster plate had a thickness of 1 mm, providing the required SPM for stable soliton modelocking [18

18. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]

] and was situated close to the output coupler. The low output coupling rate of only 1.4% was chosen because of the low emission cross section of Yb:YCOB in the E║X direction (σem,E║X = 0.25·10−20 cm2) [17

17. C. Kränkel, R. Peters, K. Petermann, P. Loiseau, G. Aka, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous-wave thin disk laser operation of Yb:Ca4YO(BO3)3 in EIIZ and EIIX orientations with 26 W output power,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(7), 1310–1314 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The final cavity including the 4-f extension (f = 1 m) had a total length of 6.15 m resulting in a repetition rate of 24.4 MHz. The average output power was measured to be 4.7 W with an M 2 of below 1.1. The achieved pulse duration was 455 fs with a spectral bandwidth of ∆λ = 2.6 nm (Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SESAM modelocked (Z)-cut Yb:YCOB thin disk laser: autocorrelation trace and optical spectrum at an average output power of 4.7 W and a pulse repetition rate of 24.4 MHz.
). This results in a time bandwidth product of 0.33 which is close to the ideal case of 0.315 assuming a soliton pulse shape.

With the slightly thicker X-cut Yb:YCOB thin disk crystal we were able to achieve stable soliton modelocking in a modified cavity with a length of 7.6 m, resulting in a repetition rate of 19.7 MHz. In these experiments, the SESAM had a saturation fluence of FSat = 61 µJ/cm2, a modulation depth of ∆R = 1.47% and nonsaturable losses around 0.15%. The laser mode size radius on the active medium was again w0 ≈500 µm, but had a slightly larger diameter of ≈650 µm on the SESAM. Despite the lower repetition rate and the higher cross sections in E║Z polarization, this results in a higher intracavity power threshold for stable modelocking of 73 W because of the larger spot size on the SESAM and its higher saturation fluence. Again, two GTI-type dispersive mirrors introduced the required negative GDD of −2200 fs2 per roundtrip. The Brewster plate had a thickness of 5 mm and was placed after the 4-f extension (f = 1.5 m) in front of the SESAM. The laser output was polarized parallel to the Z-axis of the crystal. Due to the higher emission cross section a higher output coupler of 2.2% was found to be optimal. With these operation parameters we achieved pulses as short as 270 fs with an optical bandwidth of ∆λ = 4.38 nm (Fig. 6
Fig. 6 SESAM modelocked (X)-cut Yb:YCOB thin disk laser: autocorrelation trace and optical spectrum of the shortest pulses obtained at an average output power of 2 W and a pulse repetition rate 19.7 MHz.
), resulting in a time bandwith product (TBP) of 0.33. The output power was 2 W and the beam was almost diffraction limited with an M 2 <1.1. A summary of the continuous wave and modelocking results and parameters can be found in the Tables 1

Table 1. Summary of multimode continuous wave results

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and 2

Table 2. Summary of modelocking results and parameters

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.

Yb:YCOB is a self frequency doubling material [22

22. D. A. Hammons, J. M. Eichenholz, Q. Ye, B. H. T. Chai, L. Shah, R. E. Peale, M. Richardson, and H. Qiu, “Laser action in Yb3+:YCOB (Yb3+:YCa4O(BO3)3),” Opt. Commun. 156(4-6), 327–330 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore we observed green light in modelocked operation, which was however limited to only 1 mW after the first folding mirror inside the cavity due to the short interaction length with the active medium in our setup. We did not observe any destabilization of the modelocking due to the green light generation [23

23. M. J. Lederer, M. Hildebrandt, V. Z. Kolev, B. Luther-Davies, B. Taylor, J. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. Piper, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Passive mode locking of a self-frequency-doubling Yb:YAl(3) (BO(3))(4) laser,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 436–438 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. This folding mirror had a >95% transmission for the green light.

Parameters of cw multimode lasers presented in Fig. 1 and 2 with TOC being the output coupling rate, Pout the average output power and ηopt the optical-to-optical efficiency.

Parameters of the modelocked lasers presented in section 3. The output coupling rates changed in comparison to the cw results due to the double passes through the disk in the modelocking cavities along with small additional losses from SESAM, Brewster Plate and additional mirrors.

3. Conclusion

Acknowedgements

We would like to acknowledge the financial support by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF) in Zurich, Switzerland as well as the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, contract number 13N8382) in Hamburg, Germany. C. Kränkel acknowledges financial support by the Joachim Herz Stiftung.

References and links

1.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

2.

A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen Years of Work on Thin-Disk Lasers: Results and Scaling Laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007). [CrossRef]

3.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996). [CrossRef]

4.

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

S. V. Marchese, C. R. E. Baer, A. G. Engqvist, S. Hashimoto, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin disk laser oscillator with pulse energy beyond the 10-microjoule level,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6397–6407 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

J. Neuhaus, D. Bauer, J. Zhang, A. Killi, J. Kleinbauer, M. Kumkar, S. Weiler, M. Guina, D. H. Sutter, and T. Dekorsy, “Subpicosecond thin-disk laser oscillator with pulse energies of up to 25.9 microjoules by use of an active multipass geometry,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20530–20539 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “227-fs pulses from a mode-locked Yb:LuScO3 thin disk laser,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10725–10730 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. V. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 369–373 (2009). [CrossRef]

10.

S. Kim, J. H. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

F. Brunner, T. Südmeyer, E. Innerhofer, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Paschotta, V. E. Kisel, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, J. Gao, K. Contag, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “240-fs pulses with 22-W average power from a mode-locked thin-disk Yb:KY(WO(4))(2) laser,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1162–1164 (2002). [CrossRef]

13.

G. J. Valentine, A. J. Kemp, D. J. L. Birkin, D. Burns, F. Balembois, P. Georges, H. Bernas, A. Aron, G. Aka, W. Sibbett, A. Brun, M. D. Dawson, and E. Bente, “Femtosecond Yb:YCOB laser pumped by narrow-stripe laser diode and passively modelocked using ion implanted saturable-absorber mirror,” Electron. Lett. 36(19), 1621–1623 (2000). [CrossRef]

14.

A. Yoshida, A. Schmidt, H. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Liu, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Sub-50 fs Diode-Pumped Yb:YCOB Laser,” OSA / CLEO/QELS (2010).

15.

X. Mateos, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and J. H. Liu, “Femtosecond Mode-Locking of the Yb3+:YCa4O(BO3)3 Laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP) (Denver, Colorado (USA), 2009), p. Paper MB9.

16.

S. Chenais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers - Part I: Theoretical analysis and wavefront measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 (2004). [CrossRef]

17.

C. Kränkel, R. Peters, K. Petermann, P. Loiseau, G. Aka, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous-wave thin disk laser operation of Yb:Ca4YO(BO3)3 in EIIZ and EIIX orientations with 26 W output power,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(7), 1310–1314 (2009). [CrossRef]

18.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]

19.

L. B. Glebov, “High-brightness laser design based on volume Bragg gratings,” in Laser Source and System Technology for Defense and Security II(SPIE, Orlando (Kissimmee), FL, USA, 2006), pp. 621601–621610.

20.

B. Köhler, T. Brand, M. Haag, and J. Biesenbach, “Wavelength stabilized high-power diode laser modules,” in Photonics West(2009).

21.

S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, M. Golling, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Pulse energy scaling to 5 microJ from a femtosecond thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2728–2730 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

D. A. Hammons, J. M. Eichenholz, Q. Ye, B. H. T. Chai, L. Shah, R. E. Peale, M. Richardson, and H. Qiu, “Laser action in Yb3+:YCOB (Yb3+:YCa4O(BO3)3),” Opt. Commun. 156(4-6), 327–330 (1998). [CrossRef]

23.

M. J. Lederer, M. Hildebrandt, V. Z. Kolev, B. Luther-Davies, B. Taylor, J. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. Piper, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Passive mode locking of a self-frequency-doubling Yb:YAl(3) (BO(3))(4) laser,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 436–438 (2002). [CrossRef]

24.

S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Degradation of Laser Performance in Yb-Doped Oxide Thin-Disk Lasers at High Inversion Densities,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics(Optical Society of America, 2009), p. TuB18.

25.

B. H. T. Chai, D. A. Hammons, J. M. Eichenholz, Q. Ye, W. K. Jang, L. Shah, G. M. Luntz, M. Richardson, and H. Qiu, “Lasing, Second Harmonic Conversion and Self-frequency Doubling of Yb:YCOB (Yb:YCa4B3O10),” in Advanced Solid State Lasers(Coeur d'Arlene (USA), 1998), pp. 59–61.

26.

A. Aron, G. Aka, B. Viana, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Lenain, and M. Jacquet, “Spectroscopic properties and laser performances of Yb:YCOB and potential of the Yb:LaCOB material,” in 4th French-Israeli Workshop on Optical Properties of Inorganic Materials(Villeurbanne, France, 1999), pp. 181–188.

OCIS Codes
(140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
(140.3380) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 14, 2010
Revised Manuscript: August 20, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: August 22, 2010
Published: August 25, 2010

Citation
O. H. Heckl, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, "Continuous-wave and modelocked Yb:YCOB thin disk laser: first demonstration and future prospects," Opt. Express 18, 19201-19208 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-18-19201


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References

  1. A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).
  2. A. Giesen and J. Speiser, “Fifteen Years of Work on Thin-Disk Lasers: Results and Scaling Laws,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 598–609 (2007). [CrossRef]
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  8. C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “227-fs pulses from a mode-locked Yb:LuScO3 thin disk laser,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10725–10730 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Kränkel, S. V. Marchese, F. Schapper, M. Holler, T. Südmeyer, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, and U. Keller, “High harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 369–373 (2009). [CrossRef]
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  11. T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. F. Brunner, T. Südmeyer, E. Innerhofer, F. Morier-Genoud, R. Paschotta, V. E. Kisel, V. G. Shcherbitsky, N. V. Kuleshov, J. Gao, K. Contag, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “240-fs pulses with 22-W average power from a mode-locked thin-disk Yb:KY(WO(4))(2) laser,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1162–1164 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. G. J. Valentine, A. J. Kemp, D. J. L. Birkin, D. Burns, F. Balembois, P. Georges, H. Bernas, A. Aron, G. Aka, W. Sibbett, A. Brun, M. D. Dawson, and E. Bente, “Femtosecond Yb:YCOB laser pumped by narrow-stripe laser diode and passively modelocked using ion implanted saturable-absorber mirror,” Electron. Lett. 36(19), 1621–1623 (2000). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Yoshida, A. Schmidt, H. Zhang, J. Wang, J. Liu, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Sub-50 fs Diode-Pumped Yb:YCOB Laser,” OSA / CLEO/QELS (2010).
  15. X. Mateos, A. Schmidt, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and J. H. Liu, “Femtosecond Mode-Locking of the Yb3+:YCa4O(BO3)3 Laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP) (Denver, Colorado (USA), 2009), p. Paper MB9.
  16. S. Chenais, F. Balembois, F. Druon, G. Lucas-Leclin, and P. Georges, “Thermal lensing in diode-pumped ytterbium lasers - Part I: Theoretical analysis and wavefront measurements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1217–1234 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. C. Kränkel, R. Peters, K. Petermann, P. Loiseau, G. Aka, and G. Huber, “Efficient continuous-wave thin disk laser operation of Yb:Ca4YO(BO3)3 in EIIZ and EIIX orientations with 26 W output power,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(7), 1310–1314 (2009). [CrossRef]
  18. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. L. B. Glebov, “High-brightness laser design based on volume Bragg gratings,” in Laser Source and System Technology for Defense and Security II(SPIE, Orlando (Kissimmee), FL, USA, 2006), pp. 621601–621610.
  20. B. Köhler, T. Brand, M. Haag, and J. Biesenbach, “Wavelength stabilized high-power diode laser modules,” in Photonics West(2009).
  21. S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, M. Golling, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Pulse energy scaling to 5 microJ from a femtosecond thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2728–2730 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. A. Hammons, J. M. Eichenholz, Q. Ye, B. H. T. Chai, L. Shah, R. E. Peale, M. Richardson, and H. Qiu, “Laser action in Yb3+:YCOB (Yb3+:YCa4O(BO3)3),” Opt. Commun. 156(4-6), 327–330 (1998). [CrossRef]
  23. M. J. Lederer, M. Hildebrandt, V. Z. Kolev, B. Luther-Davies, B. Taylor, J. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. Piper, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Passive mode locking of a self-frequency-doubling Yb:YAl(3) (BO(3))(4) laser,” Opt. Lett. 27(6), 436–438 (2002). [CrossRef]
  24. S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, R. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Degradation of Laser Performance in Yb-Doped Oxide Thin-Disk Lasers at High Inversion Densities,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics(Optical Society of America, 2009), p. TuB18.
  25. B. H. T. Chai, D. A. Hammons, J. M. Eichenholz, Q. Ye, W. K. Jang, L. Shah, G. M. Luntz, M. Richardson, and H. Qiu, “Lasing, Second Harmonic Conversion and Self-frequency Doubling of Yb:YCOB (Yb:YCa4B3O10),” in Advanced Solid State Lasers(Coeur d'Arlene (USA), 1998), pp. 59–61.
  26. A. Aron, G. Aka, B. Viana, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, A. Brun, N. Lenain, and M. Jacquet, “Spectroscopic properties and laser performances of Yb:YCOB and potential of the Yb:LaCOB material,” in 4th French-Israeli Workshop on Optical Properties of Inorganic Materials(Villeurbanne, France, 1999), pp. 181–188.

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