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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 18 — Aug. 30, 2010
  • pp: 19429–19437
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Bidirectional 60-GHz radio-over-fiber systems with downstream OFDMA and wavelength reuse upstream SC-FDMA

Cheng Zhang, Jun Duan, Juhao Li, Weiwei Hu, Hongbin Li, Hequan Wu, and Zhangyuan Chen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 18, pp. 19429-19437 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.019429


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Abstract

We have proposed and experimentally demonstrated a 60-GHz bidirectional radio-over-fiber system with downstream orthogonal frequency division multiplexing address (OFDMA) and wavelength reuse upstream single-carrier frequency division multiple address (SC-FDMA). In the downstream, a 3-dB optical coupler is used for two-carrier injection-locking a distributed feedback (DFB) laser in order to realize the single-sideband modulation. In the upstream, the weakly modulated one of the two downstream carriers is filtered out for wavelength reuse. Transmission of 9.65-Gb/s 16-QAM downstream OFDMA on 60-GHz carrier and 5-Gb/s QPSK upstream SC-FDMA (2.5 Gb/s for each user) are both successfully demonstrated over 53-km standard single mode fiber without chromatic dispersion compensation. The crosstalk between the downstream OFDMA and the upstream SC-FDMA can be neglected.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

2. Proposed system architecture

As shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Time-domain and frequency-domain slots of downstream OFDMA or upstream SC-FDMA frames. Different colors of time/frequency slots represent the channel source assigned to different services or users. Each user will select those pre-assigned time/frequency slots to receive or transmit his information.
, the OFDMA technology is a combination of time division multiple address (TMDA) and OFDM, in which the orthogonal subcarriers can be dynamically assigned to different services in different time slots. For the downstream data traffic, the CO encapsulates the services for each user into the given subcarriers and time slots according to the frequency/time domain schedule. In this architecture, the pre-assigned sub-channels, which contain one or more subcarriers, become transparent media for delivery of the various multiple services in packet- or circuit-switching. For example, the dedicated subcarriers, red and blue slots in Fig. 2, can be reserved as the simultaneous pipes for different services respectively. At the user side, each user picks out his own data from the proper orthogonal subcarriers which have been allocated to him. For the upstream data traffic, each user maps the frequency components of the single-carrier data to the pre-assigned subcarriers, sets all the other subcarriers to zero, and completes the modulation to generate an SC-FDMA mm-wave signal. Since they transmit the subcarriers sequentially rather than in parallel, the envelope fluctuations in the transmitted waveform of SC-FDMA signals is reduced and the burden of linear amplification at the user is mitigated. Moreover, if the traffic is organized with SC-FDMA frames, each of which consists of multiple SC-FDMA slots or symbols, the resource allocation may also be two-dimensional in both frequency and time domains as shown in Fig. 2. In the CO, the combined SC-FDMA signals are demodulated together and the data from different users are separated according to their pre-allocated orthogonal frequencies.

We have experimentally demonstrated a SSB modulation scheme using an injection-locked Fabry-Perot Laser, which has a large injection-locking wavelength range and is relatively cheaper for network deployment [29

29. C. Zhang, M. Li, S. Liu, C. Hong, W. Hu, and Z. Chen, “Single-mode Modulation Using Injection-locked Fabry-Perot Laser in Radio-over-Fiber system,” in Proceedings of Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, (Academic, Beijing, China, 2009), pp. 614–616.

]. Its flexibility on data transmission has also validated using similar experiment setup in [32

32. Y. Y. Won, H. S. Kim, and S. K. Han, “1.25 Gbit/s millimetre-wave band wired/wireless radio-over-fibre system based on RSOA using injection-locking effect,” Electron. Lett. 45(7), 365–366 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. So this SSB modulation scheme based on injection-locked semiconductor laser can be simply integrated with the future wavelength division multiplexing ROF passive optical network (WDM-ROF-PON) to support more users, which is illustrated in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The proposed bidirectional WDM-ROF-PON System. (LD: laser diode, SLD: slave laser diode, MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator, OBPF: optical band-pass filter)
.

3. Experiment setup

The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The experiment setup of the proposed bidirectional ROF System. (FM: frequency multiplier, VOA: variable optical attenuator, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer).
. The optical carrier suppression modulation is used to generate two phase-coherent carriers. It is realized by driving a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) biased at Vπ with a 30-GHz reference signal. The modulator output is sent to an optical notch filter to select the two first-order modulation sidebands and reject the carrier. An erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is introduced to get the proper injection power. The two phase-correlated optical carriers with 60-GHz spacing and 8.2-dBm total power are injected into a DFB laser through a 3-dB optical coupler. A polarization controller (PC) is used to align the polarization state of input light with that of the DFB laser. Only one of the two phase-correlated carriers is tuned to lock the slave laser. The DFB laser has a threshold current of 14 mA and is biased at 27 mA. The optical injection locking is maintained by controlling its temperature at 25 °C. The 9.65-Gb/s 16-QAM centered at 2.5 GHz is generated from an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) to directly modulate the slave laser. The modulated output is launched into 53-km SSMF and the loss is compensated by two EDFAs at the two ends. After transmission, the received optical signal is divided into two parts by a 3-dB optical coupler. One is detected by a photodiode with 3-dB bandwidth of 70 GHz. The received 60-GHz subcarrier OFDMA signal is down-converted for further evaluation using a mixer and a local oscillator (LO). The other part is fed into an optical band-pass filter and the weakly-modulated optical carrier is filtered out for the upstream modulation. A 2.5-GHz-centered 5-Gb/s QPSK SC-FDMA signal from the AWG is used to simulate the down-converted two end users’ information coming from the antenna. After upstream transmission over the same length SSMF as the downstream channel, a photodiode with 3-dB bandwidth of 10 GHz and a low noise amplifier are employed to detect the SC-FDMA signal.

4. Results and discussion

Since the PAPR of OFDMA signal is inherently high, the modulation current intensity of the injection-locked slave laser should be optimized to avoid the improper signal clipping. As shown in Fig. 7(a)
Fig. 7 The received BER performance under different modulation intensity. (a) downstream OFDMA (2.5 dBm into PD); (b) upstream SC-FDMA (−11 dBm into PD).
, the received bit error rate (BER) performances of downstream OFDMA under different modulation index is measured by adjusting the modulation voltage amplitude on the slave laser. When the modulation intensity is below 1.2, the BER performance is getting better with increase of modulation intensity, because the received signal intensity is larger under bigger modulation amplitude. However, as the modulation intensity gets larger than 1.2, the signal clipping problem appears, and the received BER performance degrades. So a modulation intensity of 1.2 is chosen for further downstream BER evaluation. When the upstream SC-FDMA signal is applied to the MZM, the modulation intensity should also be optimized since the transfer function of MZM is nonlinear and periodic. We also tested the BER performance of upstream SC-FDMA under different modulation intensity to find the optimal point. As shown in Fig. 7(b), the BER performance below modulation intensity 1.5 is not good due to the small received signal. It is also getting worse with increasing modulation intensity beyond 1.5 because of the modulation nonlinearity and the periodic transfer function of MZM. So the optimal modulation intensity for the upstream SC-FDMA is chosen at 1.5.

The received BER performances of the downstream OFDMA and upstream SC-FDMA shown in Figs. 8(a)
Fig. 8 BER performance of (a) the downstream 16-QAM OFDMA and (b) upstream QPSK SC-FDMA. Insets: Equalized constellation diagrams of (i) downstream in the BTB case; (ii) downstream after SSMF transmission; (iii) upstream from User-1 after SSMF transmission with downstream on; (iv) upstream from User-2 after SSMF transmission with downstream on.
and 8(b) are calculated from the measured error vector magnitude (EVM) [34

34. V. J. Urick, J. X. Qiu, and F. Bucholtz, “Wide-band QAM-over-fiber using phase modulation and interferometric demodulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2374–2376 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The insets also show the equalized constellation diagrams of some cases. For the downstream, the measured BER of 16-QAM exhibits 1.3-dB power penalty at BER of 10−4 compared with the back-to-back (BTB) case. It is due to the residual dispersion of the non-ideal SSB modulation and the additional ASE noise introduced by EDFA at the receiver side. The receiver sensitivity in our downstream experiment is much larger compared to the former studies [16

16. Z. Cao, Z. Dong, J. Lu, M. Xia, and L. Chen, Optical OFDM Signal Generation by Optical Phase Modulator and Its Application in ROF System,” in Proc. 35th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2009), paper 2.4.4, 2009.

,27

27. A. Ng'oma, D. Fortusini, D. Parekh, W. Yang, M. Sauer, S. Benjamin, W. Hofmann, M. C. Amann, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Performance of a Multi-Gb/s 60 GHz Radio Over Fiber System Employing a Directly Modulated Optically Injection-Locked VCSEL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(16), 2436–2444 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. That is due to the lack of 60-GHz amplifier. For the upstream, the power penalties of the two users at BER of 10−4 can be neglected. Since the upstream and the downstream signals occupy the same frequency band, the BER performance of upstream after SSMF transmission with downstream off is also tested in the experiment to evaluate the interference between downstream and upstream. As shown in Fig. 8(b), the crosstalk between downstream and upstream can be neglected because of the small modualtion index of the unlocked downstream carrier.

5. Conclusion

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their constructive suggestions that help improve the manuscript. The authors would also like to thank Dr. Guangyuan Li for the instructive discussion with him. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant 60736003 and the National Basic Research Program (973 Program) (No. 2010CB328201 and 2010CB328202).

References and links

1.

J. Wells, “Faster than fiber: The future of multi-G/s wireless,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 10(3), 104–112 (2009). [CrossRef]

2.

H. Ogawa, D. Polifko, and S. Banba, “Millimeter-wave fiber optics systems for personal radio-communication,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 40(12), 2285–2293 (1992). [CrossRef]

3.

L. Noel, D. Wake, D. G. Moodie, D. D. Marcenac, L. D. Westbrook, and D. Nesset, “Novel techniques for high-capacity 60-GHz fiber-radio transmission systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1416–1423 (1997). [CrossRef]

4.

T. Kuri, K. Kitayama, A. Stohr, and Y. Ogawa, “Fiber-Optic Millimeter-Wave Downlink System using 60 GHz-Band External Modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(5), 799–806 (1999). [CrossRef]

5.

J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Yi, Y. Su, G. Chang, and T. Wang, “Optical millimeter-wave generation or up-conversion using external modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 265–267 (2006). [CrossRef]

6.

P.-T. Shih, C.-T. Lin, W.-J. Jiang, Y.-H. Chen, J. J. Chen, and S. Chi, “Full duplex 60-GHz RoF link employing tandem single sideband modulation scheme and high spectral efficiency modulation format,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19501–19508 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-19501. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

3rd Generation Partnership Project, “Physical Layer Aspects for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA),” (2006), http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25814.htm.

8.

H. Ekström, A. Furuskär, J. Karlsson, M. Meyer, S. Parkvall, J. Torsner, and M. Wahlqvist, “Technical Solutions for the 3G Long-Term Evolution,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44(3), 38–45 (2006). [CrossRef]

9.

A. J. Lowery, L. Du, and J. Armstrong, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing for Adaptive Dispersion Compensation in Long Haul WDM Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP39.

10.

M. Mayrock, and H. Haunstein, “PMD Tolerant Direct-Detection Optical OFDM System,” in Proc. 33th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2007), paper Tu. 5.2.5, 2007.

11.

D. Qian, J. Hu, J. Yu, P. N. Ji, L. Xu, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, and T. Kusano, “Experimental demonstration of a novel OFDMA-based 10 Gb/s PON architecture,” in Proc. 33th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2007), paper Mo 5.4.1, 2007.

12.

J. Yu, J. Hu, D. Qian, Z. Jia, G. K. Chang, and T. Wang, “Transmission of Microwave-Photonics Generated 16Gbit/s Super Broadband OFDM Signals in Radio-over-Fiber System,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OThP2.

13.

C.-T. Lin, Y.-M. Lin, J. J. Chen, S.-P. Dai, P. T. Shih, P.-C. Peng, and S. Chi, “Optical direct-detection OFDM signal generation for radio-over-fiber link using frequency doubling scheme with carrier suppression,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6056–6063 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-9-6056. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. Mohamed, B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, M. N. Sakib, and K. Wu, “Frequency Quadrupler for Millimeter-Wave Multiband OFDM Ultrawideband Wireless Signals and Distribution over Fiber Systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1(5), 428–438 (2009). [CrossRef]

15.

L. Chen, J. G. Yu, S. Wen, J. Lu, Z. Dong, M. Huang, and G. K. Chang, “A Novel Scheme for Seamless Integration of ROF With Centralized Lightwave OFDM-WDM-PON System,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(14), 2786–2791 (2009). [CrossRef]

16.

Z. Cao, Z. Dong, J. Lu, M. Xia, and L. Chen, Optical OFDM Signal Generation by Optical Phase Modulator and Its Application in ROF System,” in Proc. 35th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2009), paper 2.4.4, 2009.

17.

M. Huang, J. Yu, D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, and G. Chang, “Lightwave Centralized WDM-OFDM-PON Network Employing Cost-Effective Directly Modulated Laser,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMV5.

18.

B. Liu, X. Xin, L. Zhang, K. Zhao, and C. Yu, “Broad Convergence of 32QAM-OFDM ROF and WDM-OFDM-PON System Using an Integrated Modulator for Bidirectional Access Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThA26.

19.

J. Park, W. V. Sorin, and K. Y. Lau, “Elimination of the fiber chromatic dispersion penalty on 1550 nm millimeter-wave optical transmission,” Electron. Lett. 33(6), 512–513 (1997). [CrossRef]

20.

Y. Shen, X. Zhang, and K. Chen, “Optical Single Sideband Modulation of 11-GHz RoF System Using Stimulated Brillouin Scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1277–1279 (2005). [CrossRef]

21.

R. Hofstetter, H. Schmuck, and R. Heidemann, “Dispersion effects in optical millimeter-wave systems using self-heterodyne method for transport and generation,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43(9), 2263–2269 (1995). [CrossRef]

22.

A. Wiberg, B.-E. Olsson, P. O. Hedekvist, and P. A. Andrekson, “Dispersion-Tolerant Millimeter-Wave Photonic Link Using Polarization-Dependent Modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(10), 2984–2991 (2007). [CrossRef]

23.

C. Lin, S. Dai, J. Chen, P. Shih, P. Peng, and S. Chi, “A novel direct detection microwave photonic vector modulation scheme for radio-over-fiber system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1106–1108 (2008). [CrossRef]

24.

Z. Jia, J. Yu, Y. Hsueh, A. Chowdhury, H. Chien, J. A. Buck, and G. Chang, “Multiband Signal Generation and Dispersion-Tolerant Transmission Based on Photonic Frequency Tripling Technology for 60-GHz Radio-Over-Fiber Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1470–1472 (2008). [CrossRef]

25.

H.-K. Sung, E. K. Lau, and M. C. Wu, “Optical single sideband modulation using strong optical injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(13), 1005–1007 (2007). [CrossRef]

26.

M. Schuster, S. Randel, C. Bunge, S. Lee, F. Breyer, B. Spinnler, and K. Petermann, “Spectrally efficient compatible single sideband modulation for OFDM transmission with direct detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 670–672 (2008). [CrossRef]

27.

A. Ng'oma, D. Fortusini, D. Parekh, W. Yang, M. Sauer, S. Benjamin, W. Hofmann, M. C. Amann, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Performance of a Multi-Gb/s 60 GHz Radio Over Fiber System Employing a Directly Modulated Optically Injection-Locked VCSEL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(16), 2436–2444 (2010). [CrossRef]

28.

C. Hong, M. Li, C. Zhang, C. Peng, W. Hu, A. Xu, and Z. Chen, “Single Mode Modulation using Injection Locked DFB Lasers for Millimetre Wave Radio over Fibre System,” in Proceedings of International Nano-Optoelectronics Workshop, (Academic, Tokyo, Japan, 2008), pp. 129–130.

29.

C. Zhang, M. Li, S. Liu, C. Hong, W. Hu, and Z. Chen, “Single-mode Modulation Using Injection-locked Fabry-Perot Laser in Radio-over-Fiber system,” in Proceedings of Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, (Academic, Beijing, China, 2009), pp. 614–616.

30.

C. Hong, C. Zhang, M. Li, L. Zhu, L. Li, W. Hu, A. Xu, and Z. Chen, “Single Sideband Modulation Based on an Injection-Locked DFB Laser in Radio-over-Fiber Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(7), 462–464 (2010). [CrossRef]

31.

C. Zhang, C. Hong, P. Guo, J. Duan, W. Hu, and Z. Chen, “Single-Sideband Modulation of Vector Signals Based on an Injection-Locked DFB Laser in 60-GHz RoF Systems,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThK5.

32.

Y. Y. Won, H. S. Kim, and S. K. Han, “1.25 Gbit/s millimetre-wave band wired/wireless radio-over-fibre system based on RSOA using injection-locking effect,” Electron. Lett. 45(7), 365–366 (2009). [CrossRef]

33.

X. Zhao and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “A New Amplifier Model for Resonance Enhancement of Optically Injection-Locked Lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 395–397 (2008). [CrossRef]

34.

V. J. Urick, J. X. Qiu, and F. Bucholtz, “Wide-band QAM-over-fiber using phase modulation and interferometric demodulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(10), 2374–2376 (2004). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(140.3520) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, injection-locked
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: July 16, 2010
Revised Manuscript: August 23, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: August 24, 2010
Published: August 27, 2010

Citation
Cheng Zhang, Jun Duan, Juhao Li, Weiwei Hu, Hongbin Li, Hequan Wu, and Zhangyuan Chen, "Bidirectional 60-GHz radio-over-fiber systems with downstream OFDMA and wavelength reuse upstream SC-FDMA," Opt. Express 18, 19429-19437 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-18-19429


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References

  1. J. Wells, “Faster than fiber: The future of multi-G/s wireless,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 10(3), 104–112 (2009). [CrossRef]
  2. H. Ogawa, D. Polifko, and S. Banba, “Millimeter-wave fiber optics systems for personal radio-communication,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 40(12), 2285–2293 (1992). [CrossRef]
  3. L. Noel, D. Wake, D. G. Moodie, D. D. Marcenac, L. D. Westbrook, and D. Nesset, “Novel techniques for high-capacity 60-GHz fiber-radio transmission systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1416–1423 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Kuri, K. Kitayama, A. Stohr, and Y. Ogawa, “Fiber-Optic Millimeter-Wave Downlink System using 60 GHz-Band External Modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(5), 799–806 (1999). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Yi, Y. Su, G. Chang, and T. Wang, “Optical millimeter-wave generation or up-conversion using external modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 265–267 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. P.-T. Shih, C.-T. Lin, W.-J. Jiang, Y.-H. Chen, J. J. Chen, and S. Chi, “Full duplex 60-GHz RoF link employing tandem single sideband modulation scheme and high spectral efficiency modulation format,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19501–19508 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-22-19501 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. 3rd Generation Partnership Project, “Physical Layer Aspects for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA),” (2006), http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/25814.htm .
  8. H. Ekström, A. Furuskär, J. Karlsson, M. Meyer, S. Parkvall, J. Torsner, and M. Wahlqvist, “Technical Solutions for the 3G Long-Term Evolution,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 44(3), 38–45 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. A. J. Lowery, L. Du, and J. Armstrong, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing for Adaptive Dispersion Compensation in Long Haul WDM Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper PDP39.
  10. M. Mayrock, and H. Haunstein, “PMD Tolerant Direct-Detection Optical OFDM System,” in Proc. 33th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2007), paper Tu. 5.2.5, 2007.
  11. D. Qian, J. Hu, J. Yu, P. N. Ji, L. Xu, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, and T. Kusano, “Experimental demonstration of a novel OFDMA-based 10 Gb/s PON architecture,” in Proc. 33th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2007), paper Mo 5.4.1, 2007.
  12. J. Yu, J. Hu, D. Qian, Z. Jia, G. K. Chang, and T. Wang, “Transmission of Microwave-Photonics Generated 16Gbit/s Super Broadband OFDM Signals in Radio-over-Fiber System,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper OThP2.
  13. C.-T. Lin, Y.-M. Lin, J. J. Chen, S.-P. Dai, P. T. Shih, P.-C. Peng, and S. Chi, “Optical direct-detection OFDM signal generation for radio-over-fiber link using frequency doubling scheme with carrier suppression,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6056–6063 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-9-6056 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Mohamed, B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, M. N. Sakib, and K. Wu, “Frequency Quadrupler for Millimeter-Wave Multiband OFDM Ultrawideband Wireless Signals and Distribution over Fiber Systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1(5), 428–438 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. L. Chen, J. G. Yu, S. Wen, J. Lu, Z. Dong, M. Huang, and G. K. Chang, “A Novel Scheme for Seamless Integration of ROF With Centralized Lightwave OFDM-WDM-PON System,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(14), 2786–2791 (2009). [CrossRef]
  16. Z. Cao, Z. Dong, J. Lu, M. Xia, and L. Chen, Optical OFDM Signal Generation by Optical Phase Modulator and Its Application in ROF System,” in Proc. 35th European Conf. on Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2009), paper 2.4.4, 2009.
  17. M. Huang, J. Yu, D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, and G. Chang, “Lightwave Centralized WDM-OFDM-PON Network Employing Cost-Effective Directly Modulated Laser,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMV5.
  18. B. Liu, X. Xin, L. Zhang, K. Zhao, and C. Yu, “Broad Convergence of 32QAM-OFDM ROF and WDM-OFDM-PON System Using an Integrated Modulator for Bidirectional Access Networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThA26.
  19. J. Park, W. V. Sorin, and K. Y. Lau, “Elimination of the fiber chromatic dispersion penalty on 1550 nm millimeter-wave optical transmission,” Electron. Lett. 33(6), 512–513 (1997). [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Shen, X. Zhang, and K. Chen, “Optical Single Sideband Modulation of 11-GHz RoF System Using Stimulated Brillouin Scattering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1277–1279 (2005). [CrossRef]
  21. R. Hofstetter, H. Schmuck, and R. Heidemann, “Dispersion effects in optical millimeter-wave systems using self-heterodyne method for transport and generation,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 43(9), 2263–2269 (1995). [CrossRef]
  22. A. Wiberg, B.-E. Olsson, P. O. Hedekvist, and P. A. Andrekson, “Dispersion-Tolerant Millimeter-Wave Photonic Link Using Polarization-Dependent Modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(10), 2984–2991 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. C. Lin, S. Dai, J. Chen, P. Shih, P. Peng, and S. Chi, “A novel direct detection microwave photonic vector modulation scheme for radio-over-fiber system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1106–1108 (2008). [CrossRef]
  24. Z. Jia, J. Yu, Y. Hsueh, A. Chowdhury, H. Chien, J. A. Buck, and G. Chang, “Multiband Signal Generation and Dispersion-Tolerant Transmission Based on Photonic Frequency Tripling Technology for 60-GHz Radio-Over-Fiber Systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1470–1472 (2008). [CrossRef]
  25. H.-K. Sung, E. K. Lau, and M. C. Wu, “Optical single sideband modulation using strong optical injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(13), 1005–1007 (2007). [CrossRef]
  26. M. Schuster, S. Randel, C. Bunge, S. Lee, F. Breyer, B. Spinnler, and K. Petermann, “Spectrally efficient compatible single sideband modulation for OFDM transmission with direct detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 670–672 (2008). [CrossRef]
  27. A. Ng'oma, D. Fortusini, D. Parekh, W. Yang, M. Sauer, S. Benjamin, W. Hofmann, M. C. Amann, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Performance of a Multi-Gb/s 60 GHz Radio Over Fiber System Employing a Directly Modulated Optically Injection-Locked VCSEL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(16), 2436–2444 (2010). [CrossRef]
  28. C. Hong, M. Li, C. Zhang, C. Peng, W. Hu, A. Xu, and Z. Chen, “Single Mode Modulation using Injection Locked DFB Lasers for Millimetre Wave Radio over Fibre System,” in Proceedings of International Nano-Optoelectronics Workshop, (Academic, Tokyo, Japan, 2008), pp. 129–130.
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