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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 19 — Sep. 13, 2010
  • pp: 19966–19976
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Growth behavior of laser-induced damage on fused silica optics under UV, ns laser irradiation

Raluca A. Negres, Mary A. Norton, David A. Cross, and Christopher W. Carr  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 19, pp. 19966-19976 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.019966


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Abstract

The growth behavior of laser-induced damage sites is affected by a large number of laser parameters as well as site morphology. Here we investigate the effects of pulse duration on the growth rate of damage sites located on the exit surface of fused silica optics. Results demonstrate a significant dependence of the growth parameters on laser pulse duration at 351 nm from 1 ns to 15 ns, including the observation of a dominant exponential versus linear, multiple-shot growth behavior for long and short pulses, respectively. These salient behaviors are tied to the damage morphology and suggest a shift in the fundamental growth mechanisms for pulses in the 1-5 ns range.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Laser-induced damage on the exit surface of fused silica optics is a topic of considerable study [1

1. M. R. Kozlowski, R. Mouser, S. Maricle, P. Wegner, and T. Weiland, “Laser damage performance of fused silica optical components measured on the Beamlet laser at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 436–445 (1999). [CrossRef]

16

16. C. W. Carr, D. Cross, M. D. Feit, and J. D. Bude, “Using shaped pulses to probe energy deposition during laser-induced damage of SiO2 surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321C (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The size of damage initiation sites created by ns pulses is strongly influenced by the pulse duration but ranges from 1 to 30 μm [15

15. C. W. Carr, M. J. Matthews, J. D. Bude, and M. L. Spaeth, “The effect of laser pulse duration on laser-induced damage in KDP and SiO2,” Proc. SPIE 6403, K4030 (2007).

]. These sites tend to grow exponentially under subsequent laser irradiation [2

2. M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001). [CrossRef]

5

5. M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 197–205 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. The techniques which have been developed to repair these damage sites generally require treatment before a critical size (typically several hundred microns) is reached [12

12. B. Bertussi, P. Cormont, S. Palmier, P. Legros, and J.-L. Rullier, “Initiation of laser-induced damage sites in fused silica optical components,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11469–11479 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. As a result, preventing a single or several damage sites from growing too large for repair may require operating the laser system below its peak potential. Past work in the area of laser-induced damage growth has shown growth rates to be primarily dependent on the laser fluence and wavelength [2

2. M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001). [CrossRef]

5

5. M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 197–205 (2005). [CrossRef]

,7

7. L. Lamaignère, S. Reyne, M. Loiseau, J.-C. Poncetta, and H. Bercegol, “Effects of wavelengths combination on initiation and growth of laser-induced surface damage in SiO2,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200F (2007). [CrossRef]

,8

8. M. A. Norton, A. V. Carr, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, W. G. Hollingsworth, Z. Liao, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, and P. Wegner, “Laser damage growth in fused silica with simultaneous 351 nm and 1053 nm irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321H (2008). [CrossRef]

]. More recent studies suggest that growth rate, similar to the damage initiation process, is affected by a large number of additional parameters including pulse duration, pulse shape, site size, and internal structure. Hence, single-parameters studies are desirable to advance our fundamental understanding of damage initiation and growth mechanisms as well as form the foundation for accurate predictive models of laser optics performance in regards to optical damages.

In this work, we investigate the effect of pulse duration on exit surface damage growth on fused silica optical components under UV laser irradiation. Our experimental method involves a multi-site parallel damage growth technique using a large aperture laser with flexible pulse shapes, i.e. simultaneously irradiate 40-60 laser-induced damage (LID) sites for multiple shots at fixed fluences and discrete pulse durations from 1 ns up to 15 ns. In Ref. 13

13. R. A. Negres, M. A. Norton, Z. M. Liao, D. A. Cross, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750412 (2009). [CrossRef]

, we have presented a preliminary analysis based on single-shot growth coefficients and revealed that growth rate scales with pulse duration (τ) from 1 ns to 15 ns as τ0.3 (i.e., growth threshold and rate increase with fluence) for sites in the 50-100 μm size range. In particular, we noted the divergence of the growth parameters for 1 ns pulses from the general trend of linear dependence on pulse duration from ~2 ns to 15 ns [13

13. R. A. Negres, M. A. Norton, Z. M. Liao, D. A. Cross, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750412 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. In the present study we take a different approach to data analysis and focus on the salient attributes of long-term (i.e., multiple shot) growth behavior with short vs. long pulses, including growth rate and site morphology, leading up to these pulse duration effects.

2. Experimental procedure

All growth experiments presented in this work have been conducted at the Optical Science Laboratory (OSL) at LLNL [17

17. M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical components testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The laser characteristics as well as the growth experimental layout have been presented in detail elsewhere [17

17. M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical components testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004). [CrossRef]

,13

13. R. A. Negres, M. A. Norton, Z. M. Liao, D. A. Cross, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750412 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. In brief, OSL is a Nd:glass amplifier laser system with an adjustable pulse width and shape which can fire a single, 100-J pulse at the third harmonic (351 nm) with high quality beam profile once every 45 minutes. The sample is positioned in an image relay plane of the laser system and is housed in a stainless steel vacuum chamber. The beam diameter at 351 nm on the sample is ~30 mm and is collimated with respect to 1-cm thick samples (f/23 optical system). We take advantage of the large area beam to grow simultaneously a large number of sites. Laser beam diagnostics for the test beam on the part include measurements of the temporal pulse shape, energy and input & output beam near field fluence profiles. All test series were conducted in vacuum and at room temperature.

To investigate the damage growth behavior as a function of pulse duration from 1 ns to 15 ns, we employ the 3-cm beam at fixed fluence and pulse duration to simultaneously irradiate a large number of sites for multiple shots. Moreover, we use pulses with flat-in-time temporal profiles to ensure that any pulse shape effects are removed from these experiments. Fresh samples (with pre-initiated sites) were dedicated to each fluence/pulse duration combination. We take advantage of the ~17% spatial beam contrast in OSL to simultaneously test sites with a range of local fluences which vary within ~2-3 J/cm2 around the beam average fluence. The 10% uncertainties in local fluences are primarily due to small uncertainties in registration of the beam to the damage site array. Specific details on sample layout/experimental parameters are listed in Table 1

Table 1. Sample/experimental parameters at various pulse durations

table-icon
View This Table
. We note that growth behaviors with 10 ns and 15 ns pulses were qualitatively very similar; therefore, we do not show in great detail the growth results for the latter case.

The samples were 5-cm diameter and 1-cm thick UV grade Corning 7980 glass windows prepared with high damage resistance surfaces [18

18. T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” in press, J. Amer. Cer. Soc. (2010).

]. A table top Nd:YAG laser was then used to induce an array of 40 to 60 similar damage sites on the sample’s exit surface within a 3-cm aperture matching that of the OSL beam with either 4 mm or 3 mm spacing [13

13. R. A. Negres, M. A. Norton, Z. M. Liao, D. A. Cross, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750412 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Alignment beam fiducials are also placed on the same surface using a CO2 laser technique and aid in the accurate registration of the local fluence to an individual site on every laser shot to within 200 μm. More details on the sample preparation and fluence calibration methods can be found in [13

13. R. A. Negres, M. A. Norton, Z. M. Liao, D. A. Cross, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750412 (2009). [CrossRef]

,19

19. C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

The growth in the lateral size of the damage sites exposed to a single OSL laser pulse is measured offline (outside the vacuum chamber) using an automated robotic microscope that records backlit images of all sites before and after each laser shot with ~1 μm resolution. In this work, the metric for the individual damage pit size is the effective circular diameter based on image thresholding and the measurement error is on the order of 2 μm (see [13

13. R. A. Negres, M. A. Norton, Z. M. Liao, D. A. Cross, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750412 (2009). [CrossRef]

] for a more detailed discussion on the instrument errors).

The ‘multi-site parallel damage growth’ technique outlined above is essentially a shoot-and-look procedure in which a sequence of steps is repeated as follows:

  • Step 1: preparation of a large number of similar damage sites in a regular array on the exit surface of a fused silica substrate using the third harmonic of a 7 ns, Nd:YAG laser beam focused to a 450 μm spot.
  • Step 2: measurement of individual site diameters using a robotic microscope .
  • Step 3: simultaneous exposure of all sites with a single laser pulse (large area beam) and recording of incident and transmitted near field beam profiles.
  • Step 4: post-shot measurement of individual site diameters using a robotic microscope, the same as step 2.
  • Steps 3 and 4 are repeated for all shots in the growth sequence for a given sample.

3. Results and discussion

3.1 Pulse duration effects on multi-shot growth behavior

The exit surface damage growth has been generally described by an exponential increase in diameter with the number of shots at fixed fluence [2

2. M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001). [CrossRef]

5

5. M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 197–205 (2005). [CrossRef]

], as follows:
dN=d0exp[α(ϕ)N],
(1)
where di is the site diameter (in μm) measured after the ith shot, N is the total number of shots at fixed fluence ϕ (in J/cm2) and α is the average exponential growth coefficient (dimensionless), respectively. In practice, the α coefficient is found by plotting the measured site diameter during the growth sequence vs. shot number and fitting the data to an exponential curve. For a given pulse duration, this procedure is repeated for many sites grown at discrete fluences to reveal the average growth trend, i.e. the fluence dependence of the growth coefficient [2

2. M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001). [CrossRef]

5

5. M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 197–205 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. By comparison, our parallel growth approach takes advantage of the spatial beam contrast and the large number of sites grown simultaneously to achieve the same goal in a high throughput experiment despite the relatively low laser repetition rate. We note, however, that the average fluence can vary from shot to shot by as much as 15% around the target value during a ~30-shot sequence due to fluctuations in the OSL laser system.

In contrast, exit surface growth with shorter (1-2 ns) pulses is, in general, very different. We found that site diameter increases linearly with shot number, as illustrated in Fig. 1(b). A multiplicative growth factor as in Eq. (1) is no longer appropriate to describe this linear dependence, but rather is described by an additive term to quantify the incremental growth in diameter with shot number as follows:
dN=d0+g(ϕ)N,
(2)
where g is the average linear growth coefficient with the same units as the diameter, i.e. μm. Similar to the procedure outlined above, the growth coefficient corresponding to the average fluence for the shot sequence is extracted from linear fits to the diameter data based on Eq. (2), as shown in Fig. 1(b) for both 1 ns and 2 ns pulses (solid lines).This linear growth behavior was not expected on the exit surface, and is reminiscent of the input surface growth which was also found to be linear for 3-12 ns pulses [9

9. M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage on the input surface of SiO2 at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030L (2007). [CrossRef]

,10

10. W. Q. Huang, W. Han, F. Wang, Y. Xiang, F. Q. Li, B. Feng, F. Jing, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, and X. M. Zhang, “Laser –induced damage growth on large aperture fused silica optical components at 351 nm,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(1), 017901 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. In addition, the observation of a different growth behavior with short pulses coincides with the divergence of the growth parameters for the case of short pulses from the general trend of linear dependence on pulse duration from ~2 ns to 15 ns [13

13. R. A. Negres, M. A. Norton, Z. M. Liao, D. A. Cross, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750412 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

To better quantify the interplay of linear and exponential growth, we took advantage of the large number of sites and growth shots examined in our experiments to compute the growth behavior statistics as a function of pulse duration. Specifically, for each pulse duration experiment, we derived the fraction of shots involved in one or the other behavior for all growing sites (based on plots similar to those presented in Figs. 1 and 2) with respect to the total number of shots and sites, i.e. Plin/exp|τ=[no.shotslin/exp/(no.shots×no.sites)]|τ,where Plin/exp|τ is the probability to observe a specific growth behavior at pulse duration τ, either linear or exponential. We note that the number of sites and shots, as well as the fluence range, varied between experiments with different pulse durations (see Table 1). For the above calculation, we have examined 35 sites grown with 1 ns and 2 ns pulses at 4-6 J/cm2 and 50 sites grown with 5 ns and 10 ns pulses at 6-8 J/cm2, respectively.

The probability of observing linear or exponential growth behavior vs. pulse duration (1-10 ns) is illustrated in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Growth behavior statistics as a function of pulse duration.
. These results suggest that the incidence of linear growth behavior on the exit surface increases significantly for the case of 1-2 ns pulses compared to that at 5 ns pulses. The probabilities observed with 1 ns vs. 2 ns pulses are similar within 10%. While it is difficult to estimate the absolute errors in evaluating these probabilities, we attribute this difference in part to experimental and fitting procedure errors. It is also possible that the trend is real, i.e. higher probability for observing linear growth with 2 ns vs. 1 ns pulses, and warrants additional investigation in future growth studies with better site statistics, shorter pulse durations to reveal the underlying physics as well as improved metrics for discerning between growth behaviors. At this time, we will assume the upper bound for the absolute errors on the probability to be 10%. Hence, results in Fig. 3 indicate that linear growth dominates at about 75% with 1-2 ns pulses while growth behavior is mostly exponential in nature with longer pulses (~75% and 100% with 5 ns and 10 ns pulses, respectively); it then follows that there is a non-negligible (~25%) frequency of the nonconforming behavior with 1-5 ns pulses. Finally, growth is exclusively exponential with 10-15 ns pulses (the latter is not shown here). It is important to recognize that the implications of the pulse duration dependence to the growth behavior are twofold. From a practical point of view, the growth character can drastically alter the accuracy of long-term predictions on optics lifetime. For example, to a first order, it may take 20 shots at 6.5 J/cm2 to grow a site from 50 μm to 150 μm using 1 ns pulses versus only 12 shots at the same fluence with 5 ns pulses, i.e. which is a 1.7X difference. Secondly, the mixture of linear and exponential growth behaviors with 1-5 ns pulses demonstrates a shift in the dominant growth mechanisms with pulse duration rather than being site/fluence dependent.

The average growth coefficients vs. fluence are plotted in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Dominant growth behaviors vs. fluence and pulse duration: (a) Exponential growth coefficient from Eq. (1) for 5 ns and 10 ns pulses. (b) Linear growth coefficient from Eq. (2) for 1-2 ns pulses. Solid lines represent best linear fits to growth coefficient vs. fluence according to Eqs. (3) and (4), respectively. Also shown are the growth coefficients for atypical behaviors, i.e. linear growth with 5 ns pulses and exponential growth with 1-2 ns pulses.
for all pulse durations and are separated by growth character. Let us first discuss the dominant growth behaviors. The solid data points represent the average of observed growth coefficients from multiple sites grown at similar fluences within ~0.5 J/cm2 with error bars representing the standard deviation upon fluence binning. The solid lines represent best fits to the data according to Eqs. (3)-(4) with the fitting parameters (A, B) and R2 listed in each panel. These multi-shot results confirm that A and B coefficients depend on pulse duration, in qualitative agreement with those derived using the single-shot analysis approach described in Ref [13

13. R. A. Negres, M. A. Norton, Z. M. Liao, D. A. Cross, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750412 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Specifically, both the rate of change in growth rate with fluence and the fluence growth threshold increase at longer pulse durations, i.e., A and B coefficients. However, the different meaning of the exponential and linear growth parameters as defined by Eqs. (1)-(2) does not permit a straightforward comparison of the multi-shot (this study) and single-shot analysis results [13

13. R. A. Negres, M. A. Norton, Z. M. Liao, D. A. Cross, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750412 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The latter method assumed an exponential single shot growth coefficient <α> (dimensionless) for all pulse durations, thus all the growth parameters were plotted together and compared to one another (see Fig. 4 in Ref. 13

13. R. A. Negres, M. A. Norton, Z. M. Liao, D. A. Cross, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750412 (2009). [CrossRef]

).

3.2 Pulse duration effects on damage site morphology

In addition to the mixture of multi-shot growth behaviors discussed above, we also observed noticeably different damage morphologies with long vs. short pulses. These differences are apparent under scanning-electron microscope (SEM) examination immediately and become obvious to optical examination when sites reach about 100 μm in diameter during the growth sequence. SEM images of two damage sites exhibiting the dominant growth behavior after multi-shot irradiation with 1 ns and 5 ns pulses at similar fluences are shown in Figs. 5(a)
Fig. 5 SEM images of typical damage sites grown at ~6-7 J/cm2 with (a) 1 ns and (b) 5 ns pulses, respectively. Selected regions located at the periphery and at the center of the damage craters demonstrate the distinct morphological features associated with pulsed duration effects (higher spatial resolution images on the right hand side).
and 5(b), respectively. The lower resolution images to the left hand side illustrate the overall size and microscopic features (also visible with optical inspection). Specifically, the damage sites include a crater (core region) from which most of the material has been ejected earlier in the damage process [20

20. J. Wong, J. L. Ferriera, E. F. Lindsey, D. L. Haupt, I. D. Hutcheon, and J. H. Kinney, “Morphology and microstructure in fused silica induced by high fluence ultraviolet 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(3), 255–272 (2006). [CrossRef]

,21

21. R. N. Raman, R. A. Negres, and S. G. Demos, “Imaging system to measure kinetics of material cluster ejection during exit-surface damage initiation and growth in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750418 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The crater morphology is quite similar for 1 ns and 5 ns pulses, with clear evidence of re-solidified molten material as a consequence of localized extreme conditions of temperature and pressure created during and shortly after each laser pulse in the growth sequence. In addition, the outside border of the sites contains mechanically damaged material extending out to tens and hundreds of microns. However, the lower spatial resolution images in Fig. 5 are sufficient to draw attention to the noticeable different fracture morphologies in this outer region with 1 ns vs. 5 ns pulses. Namely, growth with long pulses is primarily due to lateral and radial fractures; in contrast, growth with short pulses proceeds with initiations around the periphery, very similar to the input growth morphology [9

9. M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage on the input surface of SiO2 at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030L (2007). [CrossRef]

].

4. Conclusion

Acknowledgements

We thank W. A. Steele, J. J. Adams, M. Bolourchi and the OSL team for assistance in the sample preparation and execution of the experiments. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-JRNL-439171

References and links

1.

M. R. Kozlowski, R. Mouser, S. Maricle, P. Wegner, and T. Weiland, “Laser damage performance of fused silica optical components measured on the Beamlet laser at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 436–445 (1999). [CrossRef]

2.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001). [CrossRef]

3.

G. Razè, J.-M. Morchain, M. Loiseau, L. Lamaignère, M. Josse, and H. Bercegol, “Parametric study of the growth of damage sites on the rear surface of fused silica windows,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 127–135 (2003). [CrossRef]

4.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, J. N. McElroy, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 527 nm,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 236–243 (2004). [CrossRef]

5.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 197–205 (2005). [CrossRef]

6.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005). [CrossRef]

7.

L. Lamaignère, S. Reyne, M. Loiseau, J.-C. Poncetta, and H. Bercegol, “Effects of wavelengths combination on initiation and growth of laser-induced surface damage in SiO2,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200F (2007). [CrossRef]

8.

M. A. Norton, A. V. Carr, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, W. G. Hollingsworth, Z. Liao, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, and P. Wegner, “Laser damage growth in fused silica with simultaneous 351 nm and 1053 nm irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321H (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage on the input surface of SiO2 at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030L (2007). [CrossRef]

10.

W. Q. Huang, W. Han, F. Wang, Y. Xiang, F. Q. Li, B. Feng, F. Jing, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, and X. M. Zhang, “Laser –induced damage growth on large aperture fused silica optical components at 351 nm,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(1), 017901 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

M. A. Norton, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, J. A. Jarboe, M. J. Matthews, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200H (2007). [CrossRef]

12.

B. Bertussi, P. Cormont, S. Palmier, P. Legros, and J.-L. Rullier, “Initiation of laser-induced damage sites in fused silica optical components,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11469–11479 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

R. A. Negres, M. A. Norton, Z. M. Liao, D. A. Cross, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750412 (2009). [CrossRef]

14.

C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041110 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

C. W. Carr, M. J. Matthews, J. D. Bude, and M. L. Spaeth, “The effect of laser pulse duration on laser-induced damage in KDP and SiO2,” Proc. SPIE 6403, K4030 (2007).

16.

C. W. Carr, D. Cross, M. D. Feit, and J. D. Bude, “Using shaped pulses to probe energy deposition during laser-induced damage of SiO2 surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321C (2008). [CrossRef]

17.

M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical components testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004). [CrossRef]

18.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” in press, J. Amer. Cer. Soc. (2010).

19.

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006). [CrossRef]

20.

J. Wong, J. L. Ferriera, E. F. Lindsey, D. L. Haupt, I. D. Hutcheon, and J. H. Kinney, “Morphology and microstructure in fused silica induced by high fluence ultraviolet 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(3), 255–272 (2006). [CrossRef]

21.

R. N. Raman, R. A. Negres, and S. G. Demos, “Imaging system to measure kinetics of material cluster ejection during exit-surface damage initiation and growth in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750418 (2009). [CrossRef]

22.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Investigation of processes leading to damage growth in optical materials for large-aperture lasers,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3628–3633 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

R. A. Negres, M. W. Burke, P. DeMange, S. B. Sutton, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Thermal imaging investigation of modified fused silica at surface damage sites for understanding the underlying mechanisms of damage growth,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 640306 (2006). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3330) Lasers and laser optics : Laser damage
(160.4670) Materials : Optical materials

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: July 1, 2010
Revised Manuscript: August 12, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: August 16, 2010
Published: September 3, 2010

Citation
Raluca A. Negres, Mary A. Norton, David A. Cross, and Christopher W. Carr, "Growth behavior of laser-induced damage on fused silica optics under UV, ns laser irradiation," Opt. Express 18, 19966-19976 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-19-19966


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References

  1. M. R. Kozlowski, R. Mouser, S. Maricle, P. Wegner, and T. Weiland, “Laser damage performance of fused silica optical components measured on the Beamlet laser at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 3578, 436–445 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. G. Razè, J.-M. Morchain, M. Loiseau, L. Lamaignère, M. Josse, and H. Bercegol, “Parametric study of the growth of damage sites on the rear surface of fused silica windows,” Proc. SPIE 4932, 127–135 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, J. N. McElroy, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 527 nm,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 236–243 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, W. G. Hollingsworth, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and R. P. Hackel, “Growth of laser initiated damage in fused silica at 1053 nm,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 197–205 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in SiO2 under multiple wavelength irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 599108 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. L. Lamaignère, S. Reyne, M. Loiseau, J.-C. Poncetta, and H. Bercegol, “Effects of wavelengths combination on initiation and growth of laser-induced surface damage in SiO2,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200F (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. M. A. Norton, A. V. Carr, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, W. G. Hollingsworth, Z. Liao, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, and P. Wegner, “Laser damage growth in fused silica with simultaneous 351 nm and 1053 nm irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321H (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. M. A. Norton, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage on the input surface of SiO2 at 351 nm,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 64030L (2007). [CrossRef]
  10. W. Q. Huang, W. Han, F. Wang, Y. Xiang, F. Q. Li, B. Feng, F. Jing, X. F. Wei, W. G. Zheng, and X. M. Zhang, “Laser –induced damage growth on large aperture fused silica optical components at 351 nm,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 26(1), 017901 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. M. A. Norton, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, W. G. Hollingsworth, J. A. Jarboe, M. J. Matthews, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. L. Spaeth, “Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 67200H (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. B. Bertussi, P. Cormont, S. Palmier, P. Legros, and J.-L. Rullier, “Initiation of laser-induced damage sites in fused silica optical components,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11469–11479 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. A. Negres, M. A. Norton, Z. M. Liao, D. A. Cross, J. D. Bude, and C. W. Carr, “The effect of pulse duration on the growth rate of laser-induced damage sites at 351 nm on fused silica surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750412 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. C. W. Carr, J. B. Trenholme, and M. L. Spaeth, “Effect of temporal pulse shape on optical damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041110 (2007). [CrossRef]
  15. C. W. Carr, M. J. Matthews, J. D. Bude, and M. L. Spaeth, “The effect of laser pulse duration on laser-induced damage in KDP and SiO2,” Proc. SPIE 6403, K4030 (2007).
  16. C. W. Carr, D. Cross, M. D. Feit, and J. D. Bude, “Using shaped pulses to probe energy deposition during laser-induced damage of SiO2 surfaces,” Proc. SPIE 7132, 71321C (2008). [CrossRef]
  17. M. C. Nostrand, T. L. Weiland, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, W. D. Sell, J. A. Stanley, J. Honig, J. Auerbach, R. P. Hackel, and P. Wegner, “A large aperture, high energy laser system for optics and optical components testing,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 325–333 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces,” in press, J. Amer. Cer. Soc. (2010).
  19. C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. J. Wong, J. L. Ferriera, E. F. Lindsey, D. L. Haupt, I. D. Hutcheon, and J. H. Kinney, “Morphology and microstructure in fused silica induced by high fluence ultraviolet 3ω (355 nm) laser pulses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(3), 255–272 (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. R. N. Raman, R. A. Negres, and S. G. Demos, “Imaging system to measure kinetics of material cluster ejection during exit-surface damage initiation and growth in fused silica,” Proc. SPIE 7504, 750418 (2009). [CrossRef]
  22. S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, and M. R. Kozlowski, “Investigation of processes leading to damage growth in optical materials for large-aperture lasers,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3628–3633 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. A. Negres, M. W. Burke, P. DeMange, S. B. Sutton, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Thermal imaging investigation of modified fused silica at surface damage sites for understanding the underlying mechanisms of damage growth,” Proc. SPIE 6403, 640306 (2006). [CrossRef]

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