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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 2 — Jan. 18, 2010
  • pp: 754–764
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plasmons for subwavelength terahertz circuitry

D. Martin-Cano, M. L. Nesterov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and Esteban Moreno  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 2, pp. 754-764 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.000754


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Abstract

A new approach for the spatial and temporal modulation of electromagnetic fields at terahertz frequencies is presented. The waveguid-ing elements are based on plasmonic and metamaterial notions and consist of an easy-to-manufacture periodic chain of metallic box-shaped elements protruding out of a metallic surface. It is shown that the dispersion relation of the corresponding electromagnetic modes is rather insensitive to the waveguide width, preserving tight confinement and reasonable absorption loss even when the waveguide transverse dimensions are well in the subwavelength regime. This property enables the simple implementation of key devices, such as tapers and power dividers. Additionally, directional couplers, waveguide bends, and ring resonators are characterized, demonstrating the flexibility of the proposed concept and the prospects for terahertz applications requiring high integration density.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz (THz) regime is a central resource for many scientific fields such as spectroscopy, sensing, imaging, and communications. We are currently witnessing the take off of THz technologies [1

1. B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1, 26–33 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 2

2. P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 50, 910–928 (2002). [CrossRef]

, 3

3. M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photon. 1, 97–105 (2007). [CrossRef]

] with applications as diverse as astronomy [4

4. S. Withington, “Terahertz astronomical telescopes and instrumentation,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 395–402 (2004). [CrossRef]

], medicine [5

5. P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in Biology and Medicine,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438–2447 (2004). [CrossRef]

], or security [6

6. J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 266–280 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Within this general endeavour, the building of compact THz circuits would stand out as an important accomplishment. This requires the design of THz waveguides carrying tightly confined electromagnetic (EM) modes, preferably with subwave-length transverse cross section. Besides circuit integration and compact device design, sub-λ localization may be advantageous for waveguide THz time-domain spectroscopy [7

7. J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, “Waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of nanometer water layers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1617–1619 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and non-diffraction-limited imaging [8

8. J. Cunningham, M. Byrne, P. Upadhya, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz evanescent field microscopy of dielectric materials using on-chip waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 032903 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Although a number of structures has been put forward, none of them passes all the following requirements. First, structures should be easily manufactured and, if possible, planar and monolithic. Second, as above motivated, subwavelength transverse size is also needed. Finally, absorption and bend losses should be small, and the waveguides sufficiently versatile for the design of key functional devices. Particularly important are in/out-couplers since they work as the interface to external waves. In this context, compact tapers able to laterally compress the modes down to the sub-λ level seem essential.

Geometrically-induced surface plasmons [14

14. J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] supported by periodically corrugated metallic surfaces overcome the low localization of Zenneck waves. A number of waveguiding structures based on this concept has been already suggested [15

15. W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, and A. Nahata, “Planar plasmonic terahertz guided-wave devices,” Opt. Express 16, 6216–6226 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 16

16. S. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Terahertz Surface Plasmon-Polariton Propagation and Focusing on Periodically Corrugated Metal Wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 17

17. A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal “Guiding terahertz waves along subwavelength channels,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 233104 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Terahertz wedge plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2063–2065 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], but they have failed to meet simultaneously all the above mentioned requirements. In this work we present structures based on this metamaterial approach that, thank to their superior properties, fulfill the requisite easy fabrication, subwavelength confinement, low loss, and device flexibility.

2. Modal properties of domino plasmons

The basic structure consists of a periodic arrangement of metallic parallelepipeds standing on top of a metallic surface and resembling a chain of domino pieces, see inset of Fig. 1(a). In contrast with corrugated wires [16

16. S. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Terahertz Surface Plasmon-Polariton Propagation and Focusing on Periodically Corrugated Metal Wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], this is a planar and monolithic system and should not pose significant manufacturing problems, its geometry being much simpler than corrugated V-grooves [17

17. A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal “Guiding terahertz waves along subwavelength channels,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 233104 (2009). [CrossRef]

] or wedges [18

18. A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Terahertz wedge plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2063–2065 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The properties of its guided modes, hereafter referred to as domino plasmons (DPs), are mainly controlled by the geometric parameters defining the dominoes, i.e., periodicity d, parallelepiped height h, lateral width L, and inter-domino spacing a.

Fig. 1. Modal properties of domino plasmons. (a), Dispersion relation of DPs for various lateral widths L. Black and grey (blue) lines correspond to height h = 1.5d (h = 0.75d). Dashed line stands for infinitely wide dominoes (L = ∞). Inset: diagram of the domino structure and geometric parameters (the arrow depicts the mode propagation direction). (b) and (c), Modal shape of DPs: transverse (xy) electric field (arrows) and horizontal (xz) electric field (color shading) for DPs of height h = 1.5d and widths L = 0.5d (b) and L = 8d (c). (d) and (e), Same as in panels (b) and (c), but now for a 1D array of freestanding metallic rods (h = 3d). The designations even and odd label the symmetries of the modes with respect to the corresponding white lines. The fields in (b)-(d) are plotted for d/λ = 0.125, marked with a red open dot in (a), the white bar in (c) being the wavelength (valid for panels (b)-(d)). The field in (e) is computed for the same k as in panels (b)-(d), corresponding now to d/λ = 0.056. In panels (a)-(e) metals are modelled as PECs. (f), DP modal effective index as a function of lateral dimension L in units of wavelength. Various operating frequency regimes are considered: λ = 1.6mm (red), λ = 0.16mm (green), λ = 0.016mm (blue), and λ = 1.5 μm (magenta). To compute panel (f), a realistic description of the metals is used. As described in the main text, the periodicity d is different for the various operating frequencies, and h = 1.5d, a = 0.5d, L = 0.5d,…, 24d.

This can be understood as follows. When L = ∞, dominoes become a one-dimensional (1D) array of grooves which supports a geometrically-induced plasmon mode. Its dispersion relation is represented, for h = 1.5d, with a dashed line in Fig. 1(a). An approximation for the dispersion relation in this limit, neglecting diffraction effects and for λ ≫ d, is [19

19. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S97–S101 (2005). [CrossRef]

]

k=k01+(ad)2tan2(qyh),
(1)

Fig. 2. Absorption (ohmic) and bend (radiation) losses. (a), Normalized propagation length of DPs in rectilinear guides of various L as a function of λ (h = 1.5d, a = 0.5d, d = 200μm). (b), Bend loss of DPs for three radii of curvature as a function of λ (h = 1.5d, a = 0.5d, L = 0.5d, d = 200μm). Inset: Poynting vector field (modulus) distribution in a horizontal plane slightly above (30μm) the height of the bend (top view). The chosen wavelength and radius of curvature are marked with an open black dot in panel (b). The red solid vertical lines in both panels indicate the operating wavelength used later, λ = 1.6mm.
Fig. 3. Subwavelength concentration of a domino plasmon. (a), Poynting vector field (modulus) distribution in a horizontal plane slightly above (30μm) the height of the tapered domino structure (top view). The lateral width is tapered from L in = 16d to L out = 0.5d (h = 1.5d, a = 0.5d, d = 200μm, λ = 1.6mm). (b)-(e), Amplitude of electric field in transverse vertical planes (longitudinal views) at the locations shown by white dashed lines in (a). The white bar in (b) showing the operating wavelength is valid for the last four panels.

3. Domino plasmon THz devices

In the rest of the paper we present a number of devices enabling the spatial and temporal modulation of EM fields. The operating wavelength is λ = 1.6 mm and d = 200 μm. In all ensuing computations the metal is considered as a PEC, to easily quantify the device radiation loss. Waveguide tapering [16

16. S. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Terahertz Surface Plasmon-Polariton Propagation and Focusing on Periodically Corrugated Metal Wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 25

25. A. Rusina, M. Durach, K. A. Nelson, and M. I. Stockman, “Nanoconcentration of terahertz radiation in plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 18576–18589 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 26

26. H. Liang, S. Ruan, and M. Zhang, “Terahertz surface wave propagation and focusing on conical metal wires,” Opt. Express 16, 18241–18248 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 18

18. A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Terahertz wedge plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2063–2065 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] is interesting for field concentration and amplification, both important requirements for imaging applications [27

27. S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nature Photon. 3, 388–394 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 28

28. K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, and H. Yokoyama, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with sub-wavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006). [CrossRef]

] and circuit integration [29

29. A. Ishikawa, S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Deep Subwavelength Terahertz Waveguides Using Gap Magnetic Plasmon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043904 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Tapering is expected to be easy in domino structures due to the insensitivity to lateral width L of the dispersion relation of DPs. This hypothesis is confirmed in Fig. 3(a), which shows a top view of the propagation of power along a tapered domino structure. The lateral widths of the waveguide are L in = 16d at the input port (bottom) and L out = 0.5d at the output port (top). The length of the taper is 16d, i.e., two wavelengths at the operating frequency, corresponding to a taper semi-angle of θ = 31°. Remarkably, reflection is smaller than 2% and only 5% of the incoming power is lost as radiation due to the shrinkage of the lateral dimension along the taper. Panels (b)-(e) are cross sections at different positions along the taper, vividly showing the process of field subwavelength concentration and enhancement. As mentioned above, the same design does not work in the telecom regime due to the sensitivity of DP bands to the lateral dimension L at those frequencies. A more adiabatic taper, i.e., with smaller change of n eff per unit length, would not circumvent the problem because absorption loss is high in the telecom regime (for instance, for λ = 1.5μm, d = 0.13μm, and L = 16d, the propagation length is ℓ = 1.2μm).

Fig. 4. Dispersion relations corresponding to one and two parallel domino structures. Black solid (blue dashed-dotted) line is for DP of L = 0.5d (L = 1.5d). Magenta solid (dashed) line is for the even (odd) supermode of parallel domino structures separated a distance s = 0.5d, whereas green solid (dashed) line is the corresponding supermode for s = 1.25d. The individual dominoes in double structures have L = 0.5d. The red solid horizontal line indicates the operating wavelength, λ = 1.6mm, used later. Insets: longitudinal electric field for the odd and even supermodes of two parallel domino structures separated a distance s = 1.25d at the operating wavelength, and displayed in a transverse cross section lying at the center of the inter-domino gaps. For all structures h = 1.5d, a = 0.5d, d = 200μm.

As a final example a waveguide ring resonator is demonstrated. This device enables the routing of various frequencies to different output ports [32

32. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Notice that, beside moulding the spatial flow of the EM fields, this filtering system performs discrimination of the temporal frequencies. Therefore it can be considered as a basic device providing passive temporal modulation of the EM signal. To show once more the robustness of our proposal, this device has been designed with posts of circular cross section as seen from above (radius r = 0.28d), instead of square cross section parallelepipeds. We have checked that similar results are obtained for the square geometry. The top view of this device is displayed in Fig. 5(c). For the chosen geometric parameters (ring radius R = 2mm, minimum separation in the coupling sections s = 1.25d), it is possible to drop a resonant wavelength λ = 1.54mm at the output port. Non-negligible radiation losses only occur at the bends in the waveguide ring and they are about 25% of the input power, reasonably small considering that no optimization was attempted.

Fig. 5. Domino plasmon devices. Top view of: (a), Power divider. (b), Directional coupler. (c), Waveguide ring resonator. The Poynting vector (modulus) is displayed in a horizontal plane slightly above (about 30μm) the height of the domino structures. White bars show the operating wavelength in each panel. The various geometric parameters are described in the main text, the periodicity being d = 200μm in all cases.

In summary, we have presented a new class of surface electromagnetic modes, termed domino plasmons, which feature an extraordinary characteristic: their insensibility to the lateral dimension of the structure supporting them. We have shown how the guiding properties of these modes enable the planar routing of THz radiation at a deep subwavelength level. Finally, the flexibility and versatility of waveguides based on domino plasmons have been demonstrated through the implementation of a variety of functional devices, which may thus prove very useful as a new concept for subwavelength THz circuitry.

4. Computational methods

All results in this paper have been obtained by means of numerical simulations performed with the Finite Element Method (FEM) using commercial (COMSOL Multiphysics) software. A summary of the main modelling details follows. The technique is a volume FEM operating in frequency domain. Due to the various length scales involved, highly non-uniform meshes are used. In order to ensure an adequate representation of the electromagnetic fields, the size of the elements is a fraction of the skin depth inside the metallic parallelepipeds, a fraction of the characteristic geometric dimension (e.g., a) in the neighborhood of the structure, and a fraction of the operating wavelength at the boundaries of the simulation domain. The mesh size is refined until the results are stable with an accuracy of 1%. For instance, in the case of band structure computations, the convergence criterium is based on the value of both the real and imaginary parts of the wave vector. The final mesh is different for each simulation, but typical values of the tetrahedra sizes in different regions of the simulation domain are of the order of 1/5 of the skin depth and characteristic geometric dimension, and 1/10 of the wavelength. The typical number of degrees of freedom lies between 3 × 105 and 3 × 106, a range in which the matrix equations are inverted with direct solvers. For the computation of band structures, the corresponding eigenvalue problem is posed in a single unit cell where Bloch boundary conditions together with Scattering boundary conditions are used. For device modelling, the excitation of the corresponding scattering problem is provided by Port boundary conditions, the ports being fed by the solutions of the corresponding eigenvalue problem. Open space is mimicked with Perfectly Matched Layers or/and Scattering boundary conditions. For the simulation of ideal metals, Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC) boundary conditions are employed. For realistic metals the dielectric permittivities are taken from Ref [33

33. M. A. Ordal, L. L. Long, R. J. Bell, S. E. Bell, R. R. Bell, R. W. Alexander, and C. A. Ward, “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1099–1119 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] for Al (ε Al = -3.39 × 104 + i3.5 × 106 at λ = 1.6 mm), and Ref. [34

34. P. Johnson, R. Christy, and R. “Optical constants of the nobel metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

] for Au (εAu = -103 + i8.7 at λ = 1.5 μm). At low frequencies it was often sufficient to simulate the domains outside the conductors together with Surface Impedance Boundary Conditions, as verified by comparison with simulations fully accounting for the EM fields inside the metals.

References and links

1.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1, 26–33 (2002). [CrossRef]

2.

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 50, 910–928 (2002). [CrossRef]

3.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photon. 1, 97–105 (2007). [CrossRef]

4.

S. Withington, “Terahertz astronomical telescopes and instrumentation,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 395–402 (2004). [CrossRef]

5.

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in Biology and Medicine,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438–2447 (2004). [CrossRef]

6.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, “THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 266–280 (2005). [CrossRef]

7.

J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, “Waveguide terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of nanometer water layers,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1617–1619 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

J. Cunningham, M. Byrne, P. Upadhya, M. Lachab, E. H. Linfield, and A. G. Davies, “Terahertz evanescent field microscopy of dielectric materials using on-chip waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 032903 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

S. P. Jamison, R. W. McGowan, and D. Grischkowsky, “Single-mode waveguide propagation and reshaping of sub-ps terahertz pulses in sapphire fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1987–1989 (2000). [CrossRef]

10.

H. Han, H. Park, M. Cho, and J. Kim, “Terahertz pulse propagation in a plastic photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2634–2636 (2002). [CrossRef]

11.

M. Nagel, A. Marchewka, and H. Kurz, “Low-index discontinuity terahertz waveguides,” Opt. Express 14, 9944–9954 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

T.-I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, “THz Zenneck surface wave (THz surface plasmon) propagation on a metal sheet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061113 (2006). [CrossRef]

13.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432, 376–379 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking Surface Plasmons with Structured Surfaces,” Science 305, 847–848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

W. Zhu, A. Agrawal, and A. Nahata, “Planar plasmonic terahertz guided-wave devices,” Opt. Express 16, 6216–6226 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

S. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Terahertz Surface Plasmon-Polariton Propagation and Focusing on Periodically Corrugated Metal Wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal “Guiding terahertz waves along subwavelength channels,” Phys. Rev. B 79, 233104 (2009). [CrossRef]

18.

A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, E. Moreno, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Terahertz wedge plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2063–2065 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S97–S101 (2005). [CrossRef]

20.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenovic, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire Plasmon Excitation by Adiabatic Mode Transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 203904 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484 (2000). [CrossRef]

22.

D. L. Sengupta, “On the phase velocity of wave propagation along an infinite Yagi structure,” IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 7, 234–239 (1959). [CrossRef]

23.

J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, J. C. Weeber, E. Bourillot, Y. Lacroute, J. P. Goudonnet, G. Schider, W. Gotschy, A. Leit-ner, F. R. Aussenegg, and C. Girard, “Squeezing the Optical Near-Field Zone by Plasmon Coupling of Metallic Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2590–2593 (1999). [CrossRef]

24.

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, and H. A. Atwater, “Electromagnetic energy transport along arrays of closely spaced metal rods as an analogue to plasmonic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 16–18 (2001). [CrossRef]

25.

A. Rusina, M. Durach, K. A. Nelson, and M. I. Stockman, “Nanoconcentration of terahertz radiation in plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 18576–18589 (2008). [CrossRef]

26.

H. Liang, S. Ruan, and M. Zhang, “Terahertz surface wave propagation and focusing on conical metal wires,” Opt. Express 16, 18241–18248 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nature Photon. 3, 388–394 (2009). [CrossRef]

28.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, and H. Yokoyama, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with sub-wavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201120 (2006). [CrossRef]

29.

A. Ishikawa, S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Deep Subwavelength Terahertz Waveguides Using Gap Magnetic Plasmon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043904 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

W. Huang, Y. Zhang, and B. Li, “Ultracompact wavelength and polarization splitters in periodic dielectric waveguides,” Opt. Express 16, 1600–1609 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

M. L. Nesterov, A. V. Kats, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Extremely short-length surface plasmon resonance devices,” Opt. Express 16, 20227–20240 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

M. A. Ordal, L. L. Long, R. J. Bell, S. E. Bell, R. R. Bell, R. W. Alexander, and C. A. Ward, “Optical properties of the metals Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, and W in the infrared and far infrared,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1099–1119 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

P. Johnson, R. Christy, and R. “Optical constants of the nobel metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(130.2790) Integrated optics : Guided waves
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(300.6495) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, teraherz
(050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: December 3, 2009
Revised Manuscript: December 30, 2009
Manuscript Accepted: December 30, 2009
Published: January 5, 2010

Virtual Issues
January 8, 2010 Spotlight on Optics

Citation
D. Martin-Cano, M. L. Nesterov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and Esteban Moreno, "Domino plasmons for subwavelength terahertz circuitry," Opt. Express 18, 754-764 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-754


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References

  1. B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002). [CrossRef]
  2. P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 50, 910-928 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photon. 1, 97-105 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Withington, "Terahertz astronomical telescopes and instrumentation," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 395-402 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in Biology and Medicine," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 266-280 (2005). [CrossRef]
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