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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 20 — Sep. 27, 2010
  • pp: 20774–20785
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Study on dispersion-induced phase noise in an optical OFDM radio-over-fiber system at 60-GHz band

Chia Chien Wei and Jason (Jyehong) Chen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 20, pp. 20774-20785 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.020774


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Abstract

Abstract: While coherency between an RF-tone and OFDM signals in RoF systems at 60 GHz is de-correlated by fiber dispersion, both phase rotation term (PRT) on each subcarrier and inter-carrier interference (ICI) between subcarriers are induced at a receiver. We analytically calculate the powers of PRT and ICI under different parameters, such as subcarrier number, modulation format, laser linewidth and transmission distance. Moreover, dispersion-induced ICI is shown to be non-Gaussian distributed by its kurtosis, and its distribution depends on system parameters. Therefore, using only the power of ICI cannot predict accurate bit error rate (BER) and corresponding power penalty. We propose to use t-distribution to fit the distribution of ICI, and it can be used to compute BER precisely.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

In this work, we analytically calculate the powers of PRT and ICI, and compute kurtosis to show the ICI induced by dispersion is non-Gaussian distributed. Non-Gaussian distribution implies that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) cannot predict bit error rate (BER) well. Accordingly, a distribution with variable kurtosis is required to simulate a non-Gaussian distribution. While t-distribution is a suitable candidate, it can be used to compute BER precisely under different parameters, such as subcarrier number, modulation format and transmission distance.

2. System model

Figure 1
Fig. 1 OFDM RoF transmission at 60-GHz band
depicts the setup of an OFDM RoF system at 60-GHz band. At the transmitter, a laser source is modulated into two coherent monochromatic tones with 60-GHz frequency difference [11

11. C.-T. Lin, P.-T. Shih, J. Chen, W.-Q. Xue, P.-C. Peng, and S. Chi, “Optical millimeter-wave signal generation using frequency quadrupling technique and no optical filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1027–1029 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 12

12. P.-T. Shih, J. Chen, C.-T. Lin, W.-J. Jiang, H.-S. Huang, P.-C. Peng, and S. Chi, “Optical millimeter-wave signal generation via frequency 12-tupling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 71–78 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. When one of them is used as the RF-tone without further modulation, the other will be modulated by an optical I/Q modulator to carry complex OFDM signals [13

13. K. Higuma, S. Oikawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Nagata, and M. Izutsu, “X-cut lithium niobate optical single-sideband modulator,” Electron. Lett. 37(8), 515–516 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Although various architectures can realize identical optical single-sideband OFDM RoF signals [5

5. C. T. Lin, E. Z. Wong, W. J. Jiang, P. T. Shih, J. Chen, and S. Chi, “28‐Gb/s 16‐QAM OFDM radio‐over‐fiber system within 7‐GHz license‐free band at 60 GHz employing all-optical up-conversion,” in Proc. CLEO 2009, Maryland, Baltimore, CPDA8 (2009).

7

7. C.-T. Lin, J. Chen, P.-T. Shih, W.-J. Jiang, and S. Chi, “Ultra-high data-rate 60 GHz radio-over-fiber systems employing optical frequency multiplication and OFDM formats,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(16), 2296–2306 (2010). [CrossRef]

], the advantages and disadvantages of different architectures will not be included in this work. While coherent RF-tone and OFDM signals with frequency difference of 60 GHz are generated, electrical OFDM signals at 60-GHz band can be obtained at the receiver by square-law detection. After down conversion, removing the cyclic prefix (CP) and taking discrete Fourier transform (DFT), the received qth subcarrier in an OFDM symbol without transmission is given as,
Rq=HqSq+Wq,
(1)
where Sq , Hq and Wq are the transmitted data, the channel response and the white noise at the qth subcarrier. Since the proper cyclic prefix is added at the transmitter, CD of fiber only affects the phase of the channel response. However, the PN induced by different group delays is not considered in Eq. (1). Since the subcarrier number of OFDM signals, N, is usually large to make each subcarrier bandwidth small, in order to be tolerant to uneven frequency response, each subcarrier can be treated as a monochromatic carrier for simplicity, as shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic plot of dispersion-induced phase difference between the RF-tone and subcarriers. (Media 1)
. Consequently, while the RF-tone and the OFDM subcarriers propagate in fiber with different group velocities, the phase difference between the RF-tone and the qth subcarrier can be simply approximated as φq(t)=θ(t+tq)θ(t) . θ(t) is the laser phase modeled by the Wiener process [14

14. M. S. El-Tanany, Y. Wu, and L. Hazy, “Analytical modeling and simulation of phase noise interference in OFDM-based digital television terrestrial broadcasting systems,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 47(1), 20–31 (2001). [CrossRef]

], and tq is the relative time delay between the RF-tone and the qth subcarrier. Hence, φq is Gaussian distributed with the variance of 2πβtq , while β is the 3-dB laser linewidth. Considering the discrete frequency component of exp(jφq(t)) :
Iq(k)=1Nn=0N1ejφq(n)ej2πNnk,
(2)
where φq(n)φq(nΔt) is the sampled phase difference at the sampling rate of 1/Δt , the PN will not only affect the qth subcarrier by Iq(0) , but also expand in frequency domain to interfere neighboring subcarriers by Iq(k)|k0 . Accordingly, Eq. (1) should be modified as [10

10. W.-R. Peng, J. Chen, and S. Chi, “On the phase noise impact in direct-detection optical OFDM transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 649–651 (2010). [CrossRef]

],
Rq=HqSqIq(0)+m=0mqN1HmSmIm(qm)+Wq.
(3)
Since PN is typically small, Iq(0) can be approximated as exp(jφ¯q) [15

15. X. Yi, W. Shieh, and Y. Ma, “Phase noise effects on high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(10), 1309–1316 (2008). [CrossRef]

], where,
φ¯q=1Nn=0N1φq(n).
(4)
As a result, Iq(0) provides a PRT, φ¯q , on the qth subcarrier, and φ¯q varies from a subcarrier to another one. In addition to the PRT, ICI described by the second term of Eq. (3) is contributed by the other subcarriers, and it will also distort the received data.

3. The properties of PRT and ICI

Using the autocorrelation of φq : φq(n)φq(n+Δn)= 2πβmax(0,tq|Δn|Δt) [14

14. M. S. El-Tanany, Y. Wu, and L. Hazy, “Analytical modeling and simulation of phase noise interference in OFDM-based digital television terrestrial broadcasting systems,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 47(1), 20–31 (2001). [CrossRef]

], the variance of φ¯q can be derived as,
σPRT2(q)=2πβN2[Ntq+2Δn=1nq(NΔn)(tqΔnΔt)],
(5)
where nq=min(N1,tq/Δt) , and x indicates the largest integer x . Moreover, assuming that |Hq|2=1 and SqSq'*=PSδ(qq') , and the normalized power of ICI can be represented as:
σ˜ICI2(q)=σICI2(q)PS=m=0mqN1|Im(qm)|2.
(6)
To proceed, |Im(k)|2 is rewritten as
|Im(k)|2=1N2Δn=1NN1fm(Δn)ej2πNΔnk,
where

fm(Δn)=k=|Δn|N1esgn(Δn)j(φm(k)φm(k|Δn|)).

Because of exp(jA)=exp(A2/2) , where A is a random variable, the fm(Δn) is derived as (N|Δn|)× exp(2πβmin(|Δn|Δt,tm)) and we have,

|Im(k)|2=1N+2N2Δn=1N1(NΔn)cos(2πNΔnk)e2πβmin(ΔnΔt,tm).
(7)

Since this work focus on the case of OFDM signals at unlicensed band within 57 GHz and 64 GHz, the dispersion-induced relative time delay is set as tq=DLc/λ2×(f0+Δf×q/N) , where D=16 ps/nm/km is the dispersion parameter, λ=1550 nm is the signal wavelength, c is the light speed, L is the transmission distance, and the frequency difference between the first (last) subcarrier and the RF-tone is f0=57 GHz ( f0+Δf=64 GHz). Figure 3
Fig. 3 The ICI and PRT powers of OFDM signals over 32 subcarriers with 1-MHz laser linewidth after 100-km transmission.
shows ICI power and PRT power of OFDM signals over 32 subcarriers calculated by Eqs. (5)-(7), and each subcarrier has different noise power due to different group delay. In Fig. 3, higher frequency corresponding to more relative group delay results in more differential PN and higher PRT power. Nevertheless, since |Im(k)|2 is a circular function and σ˜ICI2(N1) is mainly contributed by |IN2(1)|2 (high relative group delay) and |I0(1)|2 (low relative group delay), σ˜ICI2(N1) is lower than σ˜ICI2(N2) . However, higher frequency basically corresponds to higher ICI power.

According to Eqs. (5)-(7), Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Variances of (a) PRT and (b) normalized ICI for with 1-MHz linewidth
plots the theoretical values of σPRT2(N/2) and σ˜ICI2(N/2) with β of 1 MHz. The OFDM signals over fewer subcarriers show lower ICI power but higher PRT power, and the PRT power increases faster than ICI power as CD increasing. Therefore, both of them have to be considered to evaluate the transmission performance. Furthermore, while the relative group delay is small and tq<<NΔt , σPRT2(q) can be approximated as,

σPRT2(q)nq<<N2πβ[tq(2nq+1)nqΔt(nq+1)]tqnqΔt2πβtq2NΔt.
(8)

Under this condition, PRT is proportional to the square of the relative time delay which is determined by the transmission distance and its frequency difference from the RF-tone. Additionally, PRT is inverse proportional to the subcarrier number. Furthermore, if the relative group delay is large and tq>NΔt , Eq. (5) becomes
σPRT2(q)=nq=N2πβ[tqN(N21)3N2Δt]N2>>12πβ(tqNΔt3),
(9)
and PRT is proportional to the relative time delay.

For simplicity, although ICI is contributed by the other subcarriers at different frequencies, we may assume their relative time delays are similar due to the small signal bandwidth (7 GHz) compared with the radio frequency (60 GHz). As a result, Eq. (4) can be approximated as,

σ˜ICI2(q)tm=tqm=0mqN1|Iq(qm)|2=1|Iq(0)|2.

The second equality of the above equation is derived from m=0N1|Iq(m)|2=1 [16

16. D. Petrovic, W. Rave, and G. Fettweis, “Properties of the intercarrier interference due to phase noise in OFDM,” in Proc. ICC’05, 2605–2610 (2005)

]. According to Eq. (7) and using the first-order approximation,

σ˜ICI2(q)11N2N2[Δn=1nq(12πβΔnΔt)(NΔn)+(12πβtq)Δn=nq+1N1(NΔn)]
=2πβN2[(Nnq1)(Nnq)tq+(N2nq+13)(nq+1)nqΔt].

As a result, when the relative group delay is small and nq<<N , the normalized ICI power is,
σ˜ICI2(q)tqnqΔt2πβtq(1tqNΔt)
(10)
which is proportional to the relative time delay and depends on the subcarrier number little. However, if the relative group delay is large and nq=N1 , the ICI becomes

σ˜ICI2(q)N2>>12πβNΔt3.
(11)

In this case, ICI is proportional to the subcarrier number, but it is independent on the relative time delay implying that it does not increase as further extending the transmission distance. This approximated results of Eqs. (9) and (11) are identical to the results in coherent-detected OFDM systems [17

17. E. Costa and S. Pupolin, “M-QAM-OFDM system performance in the presence of a nonlinear amplifier and phase noise,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50(3), 462–472 (2002). [CrossRef]

], since large group delay makes the RF-tone and OFDM signals to be completely incoherent. Moreover, Eqs. (8) and (10) are plotted by the dotted lines in Figs. 4(a) and (b) for comparison, respectively. However, the dashed lines representing Eqs. (9) and (11) only show the case of N = 32 in Figs. 4(a) and (b), because tq/Δt is only about 38 after transmission of 700 km.

From Eq. (4), PRT is approximated as the summation of Gaussian distributed random variables, and therefore, it is also Gaussian distributed. However, according to Eq. (3), since ICI is the summation of independent but non-identical distributed random variables, the central limit theory cannot be applied, and ICI may not be normally distributed. Actually, ICI is not Gaussian distributed, and this can be shown by calculating its kurtosis excess. The definition of kurtosis excess, γ2 , is μ4/σ43 , where μ4 is the forth central moment and σ2 is the variance. For a normal distribution, μ4 is 3σ2 , and therefore, γ2 is zero. While the real and imaginary parts of ICI have independent and identical distribution, the kurtosis excess of the real part (or imaginary part) can be derived as 2|ICI|4/|ICI|224 :

γ2,ICI(q)=2|Sm|4σ˜ICI4(q)PS2m=0mqN1|Im(qm)|4+4σ˜ICI4(q)m=0mqN1m'=0m'q,mN1|Im(qm)Im'(qm')|24.
(12)

The results of Eq. (12) with q = N/2 are plotted in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The kurtosis excess of the real part of ICI
. For ICI, fewer subcarriers and higher dispersion will result in higher kurtosis and more deviation from a normal distribution. Moreover, since |Xm|4/PS2 depends on its modulation format, such as 1 for 4-QAM and 1.32 for 16-QAM, γ2,ICI are slightly different for different formats.

To compare the distributions more directly, Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Normalized CDF of (a) PRT and (b) the real part of ICI for 16-QAM OFDM signals
shows numerical simulation results of the normalized cumulative distribution functions (CDF). The normalized CDFs of PRT and the real part of ICI are plotted in Fig. 6(a) and (b), respectively, and the transmission distance and the laser linewidth are 350 km and 1 MHz. The scales of vertical axes in Fig. 6 are adjusted to make the CDF of a normal distribution linear. For ICI, γ2,ICI(N/2) are about 2 and 0.5 with N=32 and 128, and their cumulative densities are about 100 and 10 times higher than that of a normal distribution at x=4.3 . Furthermore, Fig. 6(a) demonstrates that the distribution of PRT fits a normal distribution well. Hence, to estimate the influence of ICI by Gaussian approximation may underestimate corresponding signal degradation. Figure 7
Fig. 7 BER curves of OFDM signals over (a) 32 subcarriers and (b) 128 subcarriers after 1400 km (4-QAM), 350 km (16-QAM) and 87.5 km (64-QAM) SMF transmission with 1-MHz laser linewidth.
shows the BER curves of theoretical prediction for rectangular M-ary QAM ( log2M is even), the ICI of which is assumed to be a normal distribution, and the BER is calculated by [10

10. W.-R. Peng, J. Chen, and S. Chi, “On the phase noise impact in direct-detection optical OFDM transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 649–651 (2010). [CrossRef]

],
BER=8NMlog2Mq=0N1ππeθ22σPRT2(q)2πσPRT(q)[k,k'=1M/2Q(ηΘk,k'(θ))+   k,k'=1kM/2M/2Q(ηΘ^k,k'(θ))]  dθ,
(13)
where
η=3M1(ρ1+σ˜ICI2(q))1,
(14)
Θk,k'(θ)=(2k1)cosθ(2k'1)sinθ2(k1),
(15)
Θ^k,k'(θ)=(2k1)cosθ+(2k'1)sinθ+2k,
(16)
Q(x)=erfc(x/2)/2 is a normalized form of the cumulative normal distribution function, and ρ=PS/|Wq|2 is the SNR. Numerical simulation results are plotted in Fig. 7 to show the estimation error by setting ICI Gaussian-distributed. The estimation error will increase as γ2,ICI or σ˜ICI2 increasing. For 4-QAM, the case of N = 128 shows higher error, compared with the case of N = 32, due to larger σ˜ICI2 . However, the error reduces from N = 32 to N = 128 for 64-QAM owing to the reduction of γ2,ICI . Furthermore, although the dispersion-induced ICI is assumed to be Gaussian-distributed to estimate theoretical BER in direct-detection optical OFDM systems [10

10. W.-R. Peng, J. Chen, and S. Chi, “On the phase noise impact in direct-detection optical OFDM transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 649–651 (2010). [CrossRef]

], the underestimation of BER increases after longer transmission distance corresponding to the higher power and the higher kurtosis of ICI.

4. Using t-distribution to simulate ICI

From Figs. 5-7, it is evident that assuming ICI to be Gaussian distributed is not precise. While the kurtosis excess can be computed by Eq. (12), a known distribution with adjustable kurtosis and zero skewness may be utilized to approach the exact distribution. A good candidate in the Pearson system is the Pearson type VII distribution [18

18. K. Pearson, “Contributions to the mathematical theory of evolution. II. skew variation in homogeneous material,” Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 186(0), 343–414 (1895). [CrossRef]

], i.e. the well-known t-distribution, of which the normalized probability density function (pdf) is,
pν(x)=Γ(ν+12)π(ν2)Γ(ν2)(1+x2ν2)ν+12,
(17)
and Γ(x) is the Gamma function. The variance and kurtosis excess of pν(x) are 1 and 6/(ν4) , respectively. While ν approaches infinity, kurtosis excess is zero and it becomes a normal distribution. By setting ν=4+6/γ2,ICI , the corresponding CDFs of the t-distribution are plotted by the dashed lines in Fig. 6(b), and the t-distributions have good agreement with the numerical results. To further examine the similarity between the t-distribution and ICI distribution, Eq. (10) is used to calculate BER curves, and the theoretical BER becomes Eq. (6) after replacing Q(x) by T(x,νW) [18

18. K. Pearson, “Contributions to the mathematical theory of evolution. II. skew variation in homogeneous material,” Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 186(0), 343–414 (1895). [CrossRef]

]:
T(x,νW)=12xΓ(νW+12)π(νW2)Γ(ν2)F21(12,νW+12;32;x2νW2),
(18)
where F21(a1,a2;b;z) is the hypergeometric function, and νW is a modified parameter to describe the variation of kurtosis excess thanks to the combination of ICI and white noise. Assuming A and B are two independent real random variable with the means of zero, the variances of σa2 and σb2 and the kurtosis excesses of γ2,a and 0, respectively, the kurtosis excess of their summation is,
(a+b)4(a+b)223=a4+b4+6a2b2a22+b22+2a2b23=γ2,aσa4(σa2+σb2)2.
If A and B represents ICI and white noise, respectively, the modified parameter, νW , can be written as,

νW=4+6γ2,ICI(q)(1+1ρσ˜ICI2(q))2.
(19)

For comparison, the BER curves calculated from Eqs. (13) and (18) are shown in Fig. 3, and the t-distibution can fit the simulation results well. Figures 8
Fig. 8 SNR penalty as a function of transmission distance for 16-QAM OFDM signals with 1-MHz laser linewidth
-11
Fig. 11 SNR penalty as a function of transmission distance for 64-QAM OFDM signals with 4-MHz laser linewidth
exhibit the SNR penalty at the BER of 10−3. Only ICI is considered in Figs. 8-11(b), and only PRT is considered in Figs. 8-11(c), while both of them are included in Figs. 8-11(a). Figures 8-11(c) depict that the penalty induced by PRT can be estimated well by Eq. (6) by setting σ˜ICI2=0 , although it slightly overestimates. However, compared with the numerical results, Gaussian approximation of ICI will underestimate BER, and therefore, overestimate the maximum transmission distance as shown in Fig. 8-11(a). While the distribution of ICI is approximated by t-distribution, it shows estimation error of < 1 dB with or without considering PRT. However, if the laser linewidth is wider and/or the higher order QAM is adopted, the maximum transmission distance and the accumulated CD are lower, and the corresponding power and kurtosis of ICI are also lower resulting in smaller estimation error by Gaussian approximation, such as the case shown in Figs. 11(a) and (b). In conclusion, t-distribution offers a simple and reasonable way to estimate the BER and the maximum transmission distance limited by dispersion-induced PN, especially when the subcarrier number is low and the accumulated CD is high.

Fig. 9 SNR penalty as a function of transmission distance for 64-QAM OFDM signals with 1-MHz laser linewidth
Fig. 10 SNR penalty as a function of transmission distance for 16-QAM OFDM signals with 4-MHz laser linewidth

5. Conclusions

This work studies the effect of PN induced by CD on OFDM RoF systems at 60-GHz band. The powers of PRT and ICI are calculated analytically, and ICI is shown to be non-Gaussian distributed by computing its Kurtosis excess. We also show the estimation error of Gaussian approximation increases, when the subcarrier number decreases and the transmission distance increases. To estimate the penalty induced by ICI, t-distribution is adopted to approach the exact distribution of ICI owing to its adjustable kurtosis. Compared with the numerical results, the approximation of t-distribution can provide a simple way to calculate the BER with estimation error of < 1 dB under different laser linewidths, subcarrier numbers, modulation formats, and transmission distances.

References and links

1.

M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, and J. George, “Radio over fiber for picocellular network architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3301–3320 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

A. M. J. Koonen and L. M. Garcia, “Radio-over-MMF techniques – part II: microwave to millimeter-wave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(15), 2396–2408 (2008). [CrossRef]

3.

Y. X. Guo, B. Luo, C. S. Park, L. C. Ong, M.-T. Zhou, and S. Kato, “60 GHz radio-over-fiber for Gbps transmission,” in Proc. Global Symp. Millimeter Waves (GSMM), 41–43 (2008).

4.

H.-C. Chien, A. Chowdhury, Z. Jia, Y.-T. Hsueh, and G.-K. Chang, “60 GHz millimeter-wave gigabit wireless services over long-reach passive optical network using remote signal regeneration and upconversion,” Opt. Express 17, 3016–3024 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe- 17-5-3016.

5.

C. T. Lin, E. Z. Wong, W. J. Jiang, P. T. Shih, J. Chen, and S. Chi, “28‐Gb/s 16‐QAM OFDM radio‐over‐fiber system within 7‐GHz license‐free band at 60 GHz employing all-optical up-conversion,” in Proc. CLEO 2009, Maryland, Baltimore, CPDA8 (2009).

6.

Z. Jia, J. Yu, Y.-T. Hsueh, A. Chowdhury, H.-C. Chien, J. A. Buck, and G.-K. Chang, “Multiband signal generation and dispersion-tolerant transmission based on photonic frequency tripling technology for 60-GHz radio-over-fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1470–1472 (2008). [CrossRef]

7.

C.-T. Lin, J. Chen, P.-T. Shih, W.-J. Jiang, and S. Chi, “Ultra-high data-rate 60 GHz radio-over-fiber systems employing optical frequency multiplication and OFDM formats,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(16), 2296–2306 (2010). [CrossRef]

8.

J. Armstrong, “OFDM for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 189–204 (2009). [CrossRef]

9.

Z. Zan, M. Premaratne, and A. J. Lowery, “Laser RIN and linewidth requirements for direct detection optical OFDM,” in Proc. CLEO’08, San Jose, CWN2 (2008).

10.

W.-R. Peng, J. Chen, and S. Chi, “On the phase noise impact in direct-detection optical OFDM transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(9), 649–651 (2010). [CrossRef]

11.

C.-T. Lin, P.-T. Shih, J. Chen, W.-Q. Xue, P.-C. Peng, and S. Chi, “Optical millimeter-wave signal generation using frequency quadrupling technique and no optical filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 1027–1029 (2008). [CrossRef]

12.

P.-T. Shih, J. Chen, C.-T. Lin, W.-J. Jiang, H.-S. Huang, P.-C. Peng, and S. Chi, “Optical millimeter-wave signal generation via frequency 12-tupling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(1), 71–78 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

K. Higuma, S. Oikawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Nagata, and M. Izutsu, “X-cut lithium niobate optical single-sideband modulator,” Electron. Lett. 37(8), 515–516 (2001). [CrossRef]

14.

M. S. El-Tanany, Y. Wu, and L. Hazy, “Analytical modeling and simulation of phase noise interference in OFDM-based digital television terrestrial broadcasting systems,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 47(1), 20–31 (2001). [CrossRef]

15.

X. Yi, W. Shieh, and Y. Ma, “Phase noise effects on high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(10), 1309–1316 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

D. Petrovic, W. Rave, and G. Fettweis, “Properties of the intercarrier interference due to phase noise in OFDM,” in Proc. ICC’05, 2605–2610 (2005)

17.

E. Costa and S. Pupolin, “M-QAM-OFDM system performance in the presence of a nonlinear amplifier and phase noise,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 50(3), 462–472 (2002). [CrossRef]

18.

K. Pearson, “Contributions to the mathematical theory of evolution. II. skew variation in homogeneous material,” Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 186(0), 343–414 (1895). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: August 11, 2010
Revised Manuscript: September 7, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: September 7, 2010
Published: September 15, 2010

Citation
Chia Chien Wei and Jason (Jyehong) Chen, "Study on dispersion-induced phase noise in an optical OFDM radio-over-fiber system at 60-GHz band," Opt. Express 18, 20774-20785 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-20-20774


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References

  1. M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, and J. George, “Radio over fiber for picocellular network architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3301–3320 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. A. M. J. Koonen and L. M. Garcia, “Radio-over-MMF techniques – part II: microwave to millimeter-wave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(15), 2396–2408 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. X. Guo, B. Luo, C. S. Park, L. C. Ong, M.-T. Zhou, and S. Kato, “60 GHz radio-over-fiber for Gbps transmission,” in Proc. Global Symp. Millimeter Waves (GSMM), 41–43 (2008).
  4. H.-C. Chien, A. Chowdhury, Z. Jia, Y.-T. Hsueh, and G.-K. Chang, “60 GHz millimeter-wave gigabit wireless services over long-reach passive optical network using remote signal regeneration and upconversion,” Opt. Express 17, 3016–3024 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe- 17-5-3016.
  5. C. T. Lin, E. Z. Wong, W. J. Jiang, P. T. Shih, J. Chen, and S. Chi, “28‐Gb/s 16‐QAM OFDM radio‐over‐fiber system within 7‐GHz license‐free band at 60 GHz employing all-optical up-conversion,” in Proc. CLEO 2009, Maryland, Baltimore, CPDA8 (2009).
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