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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 21 — Oct. 11, 2010
  • pp: 22255–22270
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Experimental and numerical analysis on the optical resonance transmission properties of nano-hole arrays

Mohamadreza Najiminaini, Fartash Vasefi, Bozena Kaminska, and Jeffrey J. L. Carson  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 21, pp. 22255-22270 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.022255


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Abstract

In this paper, we present experimental and numerical analysis on Extraordinary Optical Transmission (EOT) or optical resonance transmission through various nano-hole arrays constructed from an optically thick metal film within the visible and near infra-red spectrum. Nano-hole arrays with different geometrical parameters (hole size, hole shape, and hole periodicity) having their EOT properties in the visible and near-infrared regime were simulated based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD). Large nano-hole arrays with geometric properties similar to the simulated arrays were fabricated using Electron Beam Lithography (EBL). The optical resonance transmission properties (resonance position, transmission efficiency, and spectral bandwidth of resonance peak) of the fabricated nano-hole arrays were characterized. Finally, the experimental and numerical results were analyzed to determine the dependencies and discrepancies between optical resonance transmission properties for various nano-hole arrays.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

The interaction of light with perforated sub-wavelength holes in metallic films generates extraordinary effects that can be employed to miniaturize photonic devices to sub-wavelength scales. The optical characteristics of these sub-wavelength holes in a metallic film are created by the coupling of light with Surface Plasmon (SP) modes [1

1. T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through hole arrays in Cr films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(10), 1743–1748 (1999). [CrossRef]

,2

2. R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, D. Sinton, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Resonant optical transmission through hole-arrays in metal films: physics and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. , 1–25 (2009).

]. Surface Plasmon (SP) is the oscillation of free electrons at the interface of a metal and a dielectric and has been recognized to transmit light through sub-wavelength holes causing Extraordinary Optical Transmission (EOT) within the specific spectral range. Hence, a flat metal film, with a thickness that blocks light transmission (optically thick), can be perforated with an array of sub-wavelength holes to transmit light efficiently. EOT has been exploited in many applications such as Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS), Surface Enhanced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (SEFS), focusing of light below the sub-wavelength regime, non-linear optics, and biosensors [2

2. R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, D. Sinton, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Resonant optical transmission through hole-arrays in metal films: physics and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. , 1–25 (2009).

6

6. F. M. Huang, Y. Chen, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Focusing of light by a Nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091119 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

Recently, studies have investigated the dependence of EOT on a variety of parameters to improve optical transmission properties of nano-hole arrays [7

7. R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Strong polarization in the optical transmission through elliptical nanohole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(3), 037401 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17

17. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Regarding geometrical parameters, the excitation of SP modes depends highly on the spacing between adjacent holes (periodicity) and dielectric constants of the metal and dielectric. Ebbessen [1

1. T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through hole arrays in Cr films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(10), 1743–1748 (1999). [CrossRef]

,10

10. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]

] was first to derive an equation describing the dependence of the wavelength (λmax) of the SP resonance modes (EOTs) on the arrangement of nano-holes for a square lattice when the incident light is normal to the plane of the nano-hole array:
λmax=a0m2+n2εmεdεm+εd,
(1)
where a0 is the periodicity of holes, εd and εm are the dielectric constants of the incident medium (at the top or bottom surface of the nano-hole) and the metal film, and m and n are integers expressing the scattering mode indices. A transmission minimum is often observed before each EOT peak due to Wood’s anomaly [2

2. R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, D. Sinton, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Resonant optical transmission through hole-arrays in metal films: physics and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. , 1–25 (2009).

]. It has been discovered that the nano-hole shape can robustly control both the polarization properties and the intensity of the EOT [7

7. R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Strong polarization in the optical transmission through elliptical nanohole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(3), 037401 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. With regard to material properties, Ag, Au, and Cu have larger optical resonant transmission peaks than nano-hole arrays in a perfect metal conductor with the same geometrical parameters [8

8. S. G. Rodrigo, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Influence of material properties on extraordinary optical transmission through hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett B 77, 075401 (2008).

,9

9. F. Przybilla, A. Degiron, J. Y. Laluet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission in perforated noble and transition metal films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(5), 458–463 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. However for Ni and Cr, the transmittance is much smaller due to the absorption properties of these metals [8

8. S. G. Rodrigo, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Influence of material properties on extraordinary optical transmission through hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett B 77, 075401 (2008).

]. In addition, it is recognized that some metals particularly Au and Ag are more likely to display EOT properties compared to others such as Ni and Co [9

9. F. Przybilla, A. Degiron, J. Y. Laluet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission in perforated noble and transition metal films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(5), 458–463 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Also, variations in the nano-hole radii, groove period, groove depth, locations of the grooves and slap thickness can significantly influence the transmission spectrum [11

11. K. Shuford, M. A. Ratner, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Finite-difference time-domain studies of light transmission through nanohole structures,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 11–18 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The optical transmission efficiency of the nano-hole array reaches an asymptotic upper value with a specific finite number of holes in the array [12

12. J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Resonant transmission of light through subwavelength holes in thick metal films,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1221–1227 (2006). [CrossRef]

,13

13. F. Przybilla, A. Degiron, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, F. de Léon-Pérez, J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Efficiency and finite size effects in enhanced transmission through subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9571–9579 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The optical resonant transmission of a nano-hole array is enhanced by exploiting the same dielectric constant on the back and front surface of a nano-hole array as a result of the same Surface Plasmon energy on both sides [14

14. A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 1–7 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Fabrication of a Bragg reflector on the boundary of a nano-hole array has been shown to enhance the optical resonance transmission of the array by preventing losses at the edges of the array such as those seen in classic optical diffraction filters [16

16. R. Gordon and P. Marthandam, “Plasmonic Bragg reflectors for enhanced extraordinary optical transmission through nano-hole arrays in a gold film,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12995–13002 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Our approach was to compare numerical and experimental analyses from a series of nano-hole arrays with various geometrical designs (hole size, hole shape and periodicity) having optical resonance properties in the visible and near infra-red spectral regions. Numerical analysis was performed with FDTD simulation. Large nano-hole arrays were fabricated with electron beam lithography and characterized with optical transmission spectroscopy.

2. Methods

2.1 FDTD simulation of nano-hole arrays

The three-dimensional (3D) FDTD method was employed to simulate the interaction between light and a nano-hole array in a thick metal film with the goal of predicting the optical transmission properties. FDTD is a numerical method to solve the two and three dimensional Maxwell’s equations in linear and non-linear dispersive media. We used the FDTD package from Lumerical Inc. (Vancouver, Canada). Computations were performed with a computing grid (West grid (www.westgrid.ca)). With Lumerical, the user can specify arbitrary geometric structures and various input excitation sources. The software represents the electric [E(x,y,z,t)], magnetic [H(x,y,z,t)] and current density fields [J(x,y,z,t)] on a spatial grid and employs time spacing algorithms to perform the FDTD [20

20. K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966). [CrossRef]

,21

21. A. Taflove, and S. C. Hagness, Computational electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain method, 2nd Ed” (Artech House Publishers, Boston, 2000).

]. The dielectric constants for each material were defined by the relative dielectric constant [εr(x,y,z,ω)]. Since absorption and permittivity for a metallic material depend highly on frequency, the dispersion properties of the metal were considered. We used the dielectric constant for metallic and dielectric materials provided by Palik [22

22. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Academic Press, New York, (1985).

].

As shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Set up and boundary conditions for FDTD simulation of nano-hole array, (b) Electron beam lithography (EBL) for fabrication of nano-hole arrays, (c) SEM of an array of photo-resist nano-pillars, (d) Set up for optical characterization of nano-hole arrays, and (e) SEM of a nano-hole array with the circular nano-holes.
, in the simulation model, a single periodicity of nano-holes was surrounded by a simulation area and the x-, y-, and z-axis boundary conditions were set to Periodic, Periodic, and PML, respectively. The Periodic boundary conditions of the x- and y-axes were chosen due to the symmetric properties of the physical structure and the electromagnetic field. Therefore, due to these properties, the periodic structure of a single period nano-hole was replicated into infinity. A non-uniform mesh was used with a highest accuracy of 5 nm. A plain wave source was used to illuminate the nano-hole array at normal incidence to the nano-hole array plane. Using this methodology, we simulated nano-hole arrays with various hole shapes (circular and square), hole sizes (150 nm, 200 nm, and 250 nm) and periodicities (375 nm, 400 nm, 425 nm, 450 nm, and 475 nm) in square lattice arrangements.

2.2 Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) fabrication methodology

We used electron beam lithography (EBL) fabrication methodology for fabricating nano-hole arrays in a 100-nm optically thick gold film. The fabrication process used is shown in Fig. 1(b). Chromium (5 nm) was deposited on a Pyrex substrate in order to make the substrate surface conductive for the EBL process. Afterward, 500 nm photo-resist (Negative Tone photo-resist ma-N 2403) was spin-coated and soft-baked on the chromium layer. The nano-hole array pattern was written using an EBL machine (LEO, 1530 e-beam lithography), the sample was developed leaving behind photo-resist pillars. Chromium (10 nm) was then deposited as an adhesion layer followed by 100 nm deposition of gold on to the sample. A SEM image of the photo-resist pillars covered with gold is shown in Fig. 1(c). Finally, in a lift-off process, the sample was exposed to Acetone and Nano-stripper to remove the pillars. A SEM image of a fabricated nano-hole array is shown in Fig. 1(e). We fabricated nano-hole arrays with various hole shapes (circular and square), hole sizes (150 nm, 200 nm, and 250 nm) and hole periodicities (375 nm, 400 nm, 425 nm, 450 nm, and 475 nm) in a square lattice arrangement. These geometrical parameters were selected to enable optical resonance transmission of each array in the visible and near-infrared regime. The number of holes in each nano-hole array was 150 × 150.

2.3 Optical characterization setup

We used a standard inverted microscope (Nikon, TE300) attached to a photometer (PTI, D104), monochromator (PTI, 101), and photo-multiplier (PTI, 710) for the optical characterization of each nano-hole array as shown in Fig. 1(d). Unpolarized white light from a 100 W halogen lamp was focused on the sample using the bright-field and condenser lens (NA = 0.3) of the microscope. The scattered light was collected with a 20 × objective (NA = 0.45; Nikon, 93150) and guided with a beam splitter to the photometer. Using the aperture adjustment on the photometer, light from a desired region of a given sample was selected, then guided to the monochromator for spectral characterization, and detection by the photo-multiplier tube. The optical transmission spectra were obtained by first subtracting the background signals obtained from a hole-free region of the gold film from the spectra transmitted through a given nano-hole array, and then divided by the measured white light spectrum. The ratio cancels the wavelength variant signal caused by the light source, monochromator and the wavelength responsivity of the detector.

2.4 Analysis of the optical transmission spectra

3. Results

3.1 Experimental observations in Nano-hole array fabrication

Prior to writing nano-hole patterns with EBL, initial tests were performed to optimize the EBL area dose used for fabrication of nano-hole arrays with specific feature parameters (hole size, hole shape, and periodicity of hole). The area dose required to fabricate each design was dependent on hole shape, hole size, periodicity, and the type and age of the photo-resist. The area dose varied from 70 µC/cm2 to 125 µC/cm2.

All nano-hole array devices were imaged with SEM. The SEM measurements verified that the hole size and periodicity were within 5-10% of the intended size and periodicity. The average corner radius for nano-holes with square hole shape was measured and was about 50 nm. As a result, square nano-holes less than 100 nm on a side were effectively circular in shape. Also, for the 500 nm photo-resist pillars, the ratio of the top to the bottom diameter was 1.18.

3.2 Simulation results

4.3 Experimental results

The dependence of the (1,0) optical resonance position, (1,0) optical resonance transmission efficiency, and (1,0) optical resonance bandwidth on periodicity, hole size and hole shape were generally similar to the corresponding metrics derived from simulations (see Fig. 3 and 5). Both simulation and experimental results agreed with respect to the red-shift of the (1,0) optical resonance position as the periodicity of the holes increased [see Fig. 3(a) and Fig. 5 (a)]. Also, the (1,0) optical resonance position derived from the simulation results was in good agreement with the experimental results. However, the experimental results showed less dependence of the (1,0) optical resonance position on hole size compared to the simulation results for the arrays with the same periodicity. The red-shift was generally observed for the (1,0) resonance position as hole size increased in the simulation results, while there was no systematic dependence of resonance position on hole size for the experimental results (both blue-shifts and red-shifts were observed). With respect to the (1,0) optical resonance transmission efficiency, both the simulation and experimental results were generally in agreement for the smallest hole size [see Fig. 3(b) and Fig. 5(b)]. However, as the hole size increased a transition from a decrease in transmission efficiency with periodicity to an increase in transmission efficiency with periodicity was observed in the experimental results. For example, the transmission efficiency of the array with 250 nm square hole size increased as a function of periodicity. This was largely true for the circular hole shaped arrays with 250 nm holes, except for devices with periodicities of 425 nm and higher where the transmission efficiency was observed to be relatively constant. Although the optical resonance bandwidth was not highly dependent on periodicity in the simulations, the bandwidth decreased with periodicity in the experimental results and bandwidths were significantly smaller (compare Tables 1 and 2) and [see Fig. 3(c) and Fig. 5(c)]. Furthermore, the dependence of bandwidth on hole size was greater for the experimental results compared to the simulations. For example, for simulations, arrays with circular holes of 200 nm and 250 nm, the bandwidths were measured to be 149 and 178 nm, respectively, while the corresponding experimental observations resulted in bandwidths of 86 and 143 nm, respectively.

Both simulation and experimental results agreed with respect to the red-shift of the (1,1) optical resonance position as the periodicity of the holes increased [see Fig. 3(d) and Fig. 5(d)]. However, for a given periodicity, the (1,1) optical resonance position was slightly (blue-shifted or red-shifted) as the hole size increases in the experimental results which no change was observed in the simulation results. With respect to the (1,1) optical resonance transmission efficiency, similar behavior between simulation and experimental results was observed [see Fig. 3(e) and Fig. 5(e)]; however, the increase in transmission efficiency with increasing hole size was not as apparent for the arrays with the largest hole size (e.g. 200 to 250 nm) and some instances decreases in efficiency were observed as the hole size increased (e.g. 200 to 250 nm at periodicity of 400 nm). As shown in Fig. 5(f), the (1,1) resonance bandwidth increased with periodicity, except for smaller periodicities (375 nm and 400 nm). For a given periodicity, the (1,1) resonance bandwidths were similar for various hole sizes and shapes.

5. Discussion

Using the EBL fabrication methodology, the pattern on the photoresist for a nano-hole array 1 mm by 1 mm can be written in a couple of hours with reasonable cost. However, compared to other methods such as Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling technology, EBL fabrication methodology requires a thicker adhesion layer (such as 8 nm to 20 nm Chromium or Titanium) to allow for an aggressive lift-off process without damaging an array. Since the adhesion layer is deposited between the gold and Pyrex substrate, the optical performance of the nano-hole array is affected. For example, we observed that the bandwidth of the (1,0) and (1,1) resonance peak was broadened and the transmission efficiency was lower. However, deposition of metal materials such as aluminum or silver on the Pyrex substrate does not require an adhesion layer, but these materials are sensitive to oxidization that leads to loss of the SP properties. Also, unlike other methods for nano-hole-array fabrication, patterns such as grooves, corrugations, and dimples cannot be fabricated about the holes easily with EBL. Other fabrication methodologies such as Nano-Imprint Lithography (NIL) and FIB are proven methods for fabrication of nano-hole arrays [24

24. Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2874–2877 (2003). [CrossRef]

27

27. J. Chen, J. Shi, D. Decanini, E. Cambril, Y. Chen, and A. Haghiri-Gosnet, “Gold nanohole arrays for biochemical sensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 632–635 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. FIB fabrication methodology can be used to fabricate arbitrary nano-hole array designs with fine resolution, but at the cost of speed. Alternatively, very large nano-hole arrays can be fabricated with NIL methodology very quickly, but with poorer resolution and higher cost. Therefore, EBL provides a rapid and competitive fabrication solution for nano-hole arrays of intermediate size where fidelity of nanostructures is important.

Regardless of the poor blocking characteristics of the nano-hole arrays studied here, an interesting aspect of nano-hole arrays is their scalable size. The nano-hole array dimension can be varied from several microns to several centimeters in size. This provides interesting opportunities to utilize the same base technology for applications that work at microscopic scales to applications that work at macroscopic scales. For example, the optical resonance of nano-hole arrays for various geometrical parameters can be exploited in applications such as SEFS and bio-sensing applications, where the optical resonance transmission properties of the nano-hole arrays can enhance the detectability of fluorescence emission and bio-molecules [2

2. R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, D. Sinton, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Resonant optical transmission through hole-arrays in metal films: physics and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. , 1–25 (2009).

5

5. A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, K. S. Lim, and S. H. Oh, “Laser-illuminated nanohole arrays for multiplex plasmonic microarray sensing,” Opt. Express 16(1), 219–224 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In the future, additional studies will need to be directed at improving the optical resonance transmission efficiency of nano-hole arrays and reducing bandwidth if nano-hole arrays are to be used as spectral band-pass filters for biomedical applications. Probably the most success will come from examining new substrates and dielectric matching of the top and bottom layers. As a result, in future work, we are planning to do a comprehensive experimental and numerical analyses on optical transmission of nano-hole arrays when they are surrounded by transparent materials such as Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), transparent SU-8, and silicon dioxide.

6. Conclusion

References and links

1.

T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through hole arrays in Cr films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(10), 1743–1748 (1999). [CrossRef]

2.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, D. Sinton, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Resonant optical transmission through hole-arrays in metal films: physics and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. , 1–25 (2009).

3.

A. G. Brolo, S. C. Kwok, M. G. Moffitt, R. Gordon, J. Riordon, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Enhanced fluorescence from arrays of nanoholes in a gold film,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(42), 14936–14941 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

J. R. Lakowicz, M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, J. Zhang, Y. Fu, R. Badugu, C. R. Sabanayagam, K. Nowaczyk, H. Szmacinski, K. Aslan, and C. D. Geddes, “Plasmon-controlled fluorescence: A new detection technology,” Proc SPIE 6099, 9–1-9–14 (2009).

5.

A. Lesuffleur, H. Im, N. C. Lindquist, K. S. Lim, and S. H. Oh, “Laser-illuminated nanohole arrays for multiplex plasmonic microarray sensing,” Opt. Express 16(1), 219–224 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

F. M. Huang, Y. Chen, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, and N. I. Zheludev, “Focusing of light by a Nanohole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091119 (2007). [CrossRef]

7.

R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, A. McKinnon, A. Rajora, B. Leathem, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Strong polarization in the optical transmission through elliptical nanohole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(3), 037401 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

S. G. Rodrigo, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Influence of material properties on extraordinary optical transmission through hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett B 77, 075401 (2008).

9.

F. Przybilla, A. Degiron, J. Y. Laluet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission in perforated noble and transition metal films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(5), 458–463 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]

11.

K. Shuford, M. A. Ratner, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Finite-difference time-domain studies of light transmission through nanohole structures,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 11–18 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Resonant transmission of light through subwavelength holes in thick metal films,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1221–1227 (2006). [CrossRef]

13.

F. Przybilla, A. Degiron, C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, F. de Léon-Pérez, J. Bravo-Abad, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Efficiency and finite size effects in enhanced transmission through subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9571–9579 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 1–7 (2001). [CrossRef]

15.

F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Light transmission through a single cylindrical hole in a metallic film,” Opt. Express 10(25), 1475–1484 (2002). [PubMed]

16.

R. Gordon and P. Marthandam, “Plasmonic Bragg reflectors for enhanced extraordinary optical transmission through nano-hole arrays in a gold film,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12995–13002 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

N. F. van Hulst, “Plasmonics: Sorting colours,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 139–140 (2008). [CrossRef]

19.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 14(3), 302–307 (1966). [CrossRef]

21.

A. Taflove, and S. C. Hagness, Computational electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain method, 2nd Ed” (Artech House Publishers, Boston, 2000).

22.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Academic Press, New York, (1985).

23.

K. L. van der Molen, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Influence of hole size on the extraordinary transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4316–4318 (2004). [CrossRef]

24.

Z. Yu, H. Gao, W. Wu, H. Ge, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection structures on Si using trilayer resist nanoimprint lithography and liftoff,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21(6), 2874–2877 (2003). [CrossRef]

25.

V. Malyarchuk, F. Hua, N. Mack, V. Velasquez, J. White, R. Nuzzo, and J. Rogers, “High performance plasmonic crystal sensor formed by soft nanoimprint lithography,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5669–5675 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

A. A. Tseng, “Recent developments in nanofabrication using focused ion beams,” Small 1(10), 924–939 (2005). [CrossRef]

27.

J. Chen, J. Shi, D. Decanini, E. Cambril, Y. Chen, and A. Haghiri-Gosnet, “Gold nanohole arrays for biochemical sensing fabricated by soft UV nanoimprint lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 632–635 (2009). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(220.4241) Optical design and fabrication : Nanostructure fabrication
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: August 4, 2010
Revised Manuscript: August 28, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: August 29, 2010
Published: October 6, 2010

Citation
Mohamadreza Najiminaini, Fartash Vasefi, Bozena Kaminska, and Jeffrey J. L. Carson, "Experimental and numerical analysis on the optical resonance transmission properties of nano-hole arrays," Opt. Express 18, 22255-22270 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-21-22255


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References

  1. T. Thio, H. F. Ghaemi, H. J. Lezec, P. A. Wolff, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced transmission through hole arrays in Cr films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(10), 1743–1748 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. R. Gordon, A. G. Brolo, D. Sinton, and K. L. Kavanagh, “Resonant optical transmission through hole-arrays in metal films: physics and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. , 1–25 (2009).
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