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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 22 — Oct. 25, 2010
  • pp: 23275–23284
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Third-order nonlinear optical properties of GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS chalcogenide glasses

Haitao Guo, Chaoqi Hou, Fei Gao, Aoxiang Lin, Pengfei Wang, Zhiguang Zhou, Min Lu, Wei Wei, and Bo Peng  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 22, pp. 23275-23284 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.023275


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Abstract

The third-order nonlinear optical properties of GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS chalcogenide glasses were investigated utilizing the Z-scan and femtosecond time-resolved optical Kerr effect (OKE) methods at the wavelength of 800nm, respectively. The compositional dependences were analyzed and the influencing factors including the linear refractive index, the concentration of lone electron pairs, the optical bandgap and the amount of weak covalent/ homopolar bonds were discussed. A glass, i.e. 76GeS2·19Sb2S3·5CdS, with large nonlinear refrative index (n2 = 5.63 × 10−14 cm2/W), low nonlinear absorption coefficient (β = 0.88 cm/GW) and minimum figure of merit ( F O M = 2 β λ / n 2 = 2.51 ) was finally prepared. The electronic contribution in weak heterpolar covalent and homopolar bonds are responsible for large n2 in chalcogenide glass, and the Sheik-Bahae rule combining the Moss rule are proved to be an effective guidance for estimating the third-order nonlinearities and further optimizing the compositions in chalcogenide glasses.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

The rapid development of optical communication requires the novel materials with large and ultrafast nonlinear optical responses in the femtosecond or picosecond domain for fabricating the compact and low-threshold all-optical switching and processing devices. Among the developing materials, chalcogenide glasses are of particular interest due to their ultrafast (~100fs) and large nonlinearities which are generally several hundred times as large as that of silica, especially for the As and Se-contained ones [1

1. M. Asobe, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of Chalcogenide Glass Fibers and Their Application to All-Optical Switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(2), 142–148 (1997). [CrossRef]

4

4. X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(1-3), 230–233 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Some all-optical switching applications have been demonstrated using the single-mode As2S3-based glass fiber [5

5. M. Asobe, H. Itoh, T. Miyazawa, and T. Kanamori, “Efficient and ultrafast all-optical switching using high Δn, small core chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 29(22), 1966–1968 (1993). [CrossRef]

,6

6. M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, “Low power all-Optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1396–1397 (1996). [CrossRef]

], proving the great potential of chalcogenide glasses in all-optical network (AON).

2. Experimental procedure

The investigated samples were prepared by the melt-quenching technique from the high purity Ge, Sb and S (5N-purity) and spectral-grade CdS (4N-purity). Sample compositions (typically 8g) were sealed under vacuum (7 × 10−4 Pa) in quartz ampoules (10mm inner diameter) and heated gradually up to 970°C. After heated for12 hours, the melt was quenched in cold water and then annealed near the glass transition temperature for 2 hours. Samples were obtained after the glass rods were cut and polished to mirror smoothness. These samples have fine performances such as stria-free, the parallelism with 3 minutes of arc.

All optical and spectroscopic measurements were carried out at room temperature. The UV-Vis-NIR transmission spectra of the samples were recorded using the Shimadzu UV-3101PC spectrophotometer between 400 to 1100nm wavelength. Refractive indices were measured by using a Spectro-Ellipsometer (W-VASE32TM, J.A.Woollam, USA) between 400 to 1300nm wavelength. The third-order nonlinearities were measured using the Z-scan and femtosecond time-resolved optical Kerr effect (OKE) methods, respectively. The schematic pictures are shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The schematic pictures of Z-scan and OKE measurements. M1,M2,M3, etc.: mirror; P1,P2: polarizer; L1,L2,L3: lens; D1,D2: Energy Probe.
.

In the Z-scan measurement, a laser pulse with 120fs pulse duration at 800nm was regenerated from a Ti: sapphire laser (UF-T2S, Spectra-Physics, USA). For avoiding the influence of laser radiation parameters’ instability, the input beam of the laser was divided into two parts. One beam was detected by Energy Probe D1 (Rjp735, Laser Probe Inc. USA) as reference light; the other acting as detecting one was focused on the prepared sample by a lens with 30 cm focal length and the transmitted light was detected by Energy Probe D2 (Rjp736, Laser Probe Inc. USA). The ratio of D2/D1 was given by a Dual Channel Energy Meter (Rjp7620, Laser Probe Inc. USA). An aperture was put in front of D2 during the close aperture Z-scan experiment’s performance and removed when the close aperture Z-scan experiment was carried out. The movement of sample with respect to the focal plane was performed by a stepper motor controlled by computer. On the other hand, in the OKE measurement, the input beam of the laser was split into two parts; one beam was used as the pump beam, the other as the probe beam. The pump pulses induce transient birefringence in the nonlinear sample and cause the polarization change of the probe light. The intensity of the probe pulses is kept small compared to the pump pulses (ratio; 1:10). The sample was positioned between a polarizer and an analyzer in a cross Nicole polarizer configuration. The polarization of the probe beam was rotated 45° with respect to the linear polarization of the pump beam. The OKE signals were detected by photomultiplier tube. The data were displayed and recorded by a computer that was also used to control the time delay between the pump and probe pulses by a stepping motor. Liquid carbon bisulfide (CS2) in a quartz cell with a thickness of 1.0mm was used as reference in the Z-scan and OKE measurements.

3. Results

3.1 Transmission spectrum and Refractive index

The glass samples are all 0.94mm in thickness, presenting colors changing from yellow to red. Figure 2
Fig. 2 Optical transmission spectrum and curve on the refractive index of 63GeS2·27Sb2S3·10CdS glass in UV–Vis–NIR region.
shows the UV-Vis-NIR optical transmission spectrum of the 63GeS2·27Sb2S3·10CdS glass as an example. The largest transmittance for this sample is 65% and no absorption is found at the laser wavelength as 800nm as well. The transmission spectra of all samples are very similar to each other except for some shifts of the absorption edge, λ vis, which is defined as the wavelength for which the linear absorption coefficient is 10cm−1 and corresponds to respective optical bandgap, E g. The values of E g are listed in Table 1

Table 1. Fundamental parameters and third-order nonlinearities of the examined glasses in the GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS system.

table-icon
View This Table
.

In the GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS glasses, a monotonic decrease in E g with increasing Sb2S3 content is observed and expected in view of the loose electronic shell of Sb3+ ion and 5S2 outer-most electron. Whereas E g shows an inverse dependence on the CdS content, this mainly ascribes to the decrease of original metallic homo-bonds, i.e. Ge-Ge, Ge-Sb and Sb-Sb in glasses [15

15. X. F. Wang, X. J. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, H. T. Guo, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, and Q. H. Gong, “Thermal and optical properties of GeS2-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 110(1), 38–41 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

The refractive index of the 63GeS2·27Sb2S3·10CdS glass collected as a function of wavelength from 300~1300nm is also shown in Fig. 2. It follows as typical dispersion curves of chalcogenide glasses. The data of the refractive indices of investigated glasses at laser wavelengths 800 nm are summarized in Table 1, which are used for calculating third-order nonlinear susceptibility, and etc.. The refractive indices of these glasses are relatively high, which may induces large optical nonlinearities, therefore be rather beneficial for promising applications in all-optical devices. Furthermore, with the addition of Sb2S3, the refractive index increases monotonously, which is due to the larger polarizability of Sb3+ ions in comparison with Ge4+ ones’.

3.2 Z-Scan measurement result

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Z-scan signals and fitting curves of the 63GeS2·27Sb2S3·10CdS glass in the conditions of (a) close aperture measurement and (b) open aperture measurement.
shows the Z-scan signals of the 63GeS2·27Sb2S3·10CdS glass in the conditions of close and open apertures measurements, respectively. For elimination the calculation error due to nonlinear absorption, the close aperture measurement result in Fig. 3(a) has been normalized through the original result be divided by the open aperture measurement result.

The signals in Fig. 3 are fitted by the well-established formulas described below [16

16. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990). [CrossRef]

]
T(x,ΔΦ0)=1+4xΔΦ0/(x2+9)(x2+1)
(1)
T(x,ΔΨ0)=1ΔΨ0/2(x2+1)
(2)
where x is the relative distance from the focus point, and x=z/z0=2z/kω02. z, z 0, k and ω 0 are the distance from the focus point, the Rayleigh range of the light, the wavenumber of the light and the beam waist at the focal plane, respectively.

Based on the fitting curves, the transmittance changes, ΔTpv and ΔTv, are obtained from the relations ΔTpv=0.406(1S)0.25|ΔΦ0| andΔTv=ΔΨ0, in which S is the closed aperture parameter. The nonlinear refractive index n 2, the nonlinear absorption coefficient β and the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ (3) are then determined using the following formulas [16

16. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990). [CrossRef]

]
n2=λΔTpv/0.812π(1S)0.25I0Leff
(3)
β=2ΔTv/I0Leff
(4)
χ(3)=χR(3)+iχI(3)=cn02n2/16π2+icλn02β/32π3
(5)
where c, λ, I 0 and Leff are the vacuum velocity of light, the wavelength of laser, the laser power density and the effective thickness of the sample, respectively.

The Z-scan measurement results of the examined glasses in the GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS system at 800 nm are presented in Table 1. Three serial glasses are included, i.e. Series I: (100-x)GeS2·xSb2S3 with x = 10,20,30,40; Series II: (100-x)(0.7GeS2·0.3Sb2S3)·xCdS with x = 0,10,20,30; Series III: Series 60GeS2·(40-x)Sb2S3·xCdS with x = 0,5,10,15. The compositional effects of Sb2S3 and CdS on the third-order nonlinearity are aimed to be investigated. The measurement result of the reference CS2 is also presented in Table 1, and the obtained value for n 2, i.e. 3.36 × 10−14 cm2/W is in good agreement with most of the published measurements [16

16. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990). [CrossRef]

].

From the results in Series I, it can be seen that with the increasing of Sb2S3, the n 2 increases obviously but the β increases drastically. The figure of merit FOM described as FOM=2βλ/n2, which is considered to be a criterion to analyze the suitability of a glass for all optical switches, therefore decreases first and then increases. A best one, i.e. a minimum value of FOM = 2.76 is obtained when x = 20. From the results in Series II and III, it can be seen that with the increasing of CdS, the n 2 decreases but the β decreases simultaneously. It should be noticed that when x changes from 0 to 5 in Series II and when x changes from 0 to 10 in Series III, a drastic decrease of β is induced, resulting in a relatively satisfactory FOM in each series, respectively.

Based on the above results, another new glass composition, i.e. 76GeS2·19Sb2S3·5CdS is designed, which is come from 5mol% CdS addition into the composition of x = 20 in Series I: (100-x)GeS2·xSb2S3. Its fundamental optical parameters and third-order nonlinearities are also shown in Table 1. Its n 2 is calculated to be 5.63 × 10−14 cm2/W, which is about 200 times as large as that of silica. The β is estimated to be 0.88 cm/GW and the FOM is then determined to be 2.51.

For a glass material be expected to be used in all optical switches, FOM<1 is needed. Although the values of FOM for GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS chalcogenide glasses at 800 nm are higher than 1, early studies have indicated that the value of FOM depends on the wavelength of light mainly because of the variation of nonlinear absorption. For example, in Quemard’s study [17

17. C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001). [CrossRef]

], the value of FOM for As40Se60 glass is higher than 1 at 1064nm but less than 1 at 1430nm. Therefore, FOMs<1 are expected for GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS chalcogenide glasses at 1330nm and 1550nm telecommunication wavelengths.

3.3 OKE measurement result

Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 Time-resolved Optical Kerr signals of (a) reference CS2 (b) glasses in Series II: (100-x)(0.7GeS2·0.3Sb2S3)·xCdS
shows the optical Kerr signal of the reference CS2 at the wavelength of 800nm. The CS2 has an asymmetrical decay tail with over 1ps response originating from the molecular reorientation relaxation processes, i.e., the nuclear response. Under the same experimental conditions, the glassy samples were substituted for CS2 and some of the typical experimental results are shown in Fig. 4(b). The temporal profiles of the optical Kerr signals in these samples are symmetrical (Gaussian shape) with the full width at half maximum of 180fs, indicating an ultrafast third-order nonlinear response time ~100fs.

Using the standard procedure of reference measurement, the value of third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility, χ (3), of the sample can be calculated by the following equation [18

18. M. K. Casstevens, M. Samoc, J. Pfleger, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third-order nonlinear optical processes in Langmuir-Blodgett and evaporated films of phthalocyanines,” J. Chem. Phys. 92(3), 2019–2024 (1990). [CrossRef]

]:
χS(3)=χR(3)(IS/IR)1/2(n0S/n0R)2(LR/LS)
(6)
where the subscripts S and R refer to the glass sample and the reference CS2, respectively, I is the intensity of the obtained optical Kerr signal, and n 0 is the linear refractive index, L is the thickness of the sample. The n 0R of CS2 is 1.62 and its χ (3) is 1.3 × 10−13 esu. The calculated χ (3) of the sample at 800nm are listed in the Table 1.

4. Discussion

For the glass materials, the ultrafast third-order nonlinear optical responses originate from the distortion of electron cloud or the motion of nuclei. The former has a response time less than 10fs and the latter has a relaxation time lying between 100fs and 10ps. In our experiment, the pulse duration is 120fs; therefore the nuclear optical nonlinear contributions cannot be resolved. However, the nuclear optical nonlinear contribution is much smaller than the electronic part [19

19. J. E. Aber, M. C. Newstein, and B. A. Garetz, “Femtosecond Optical Kerr Effect Measurements in Silicate Glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(1), 120–127 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, it can be deduced that the third-order nonlinear responses of the GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS chalcogenide glasses are produced dominantly by the electronic contribution.

For the composition dependence of third-order nonlinearity in chalcogenide glasses, several factors were put forward to explain it, and some fundamental properties such as linear refractive index, n 0, or optical bandgap, E g are considered to be related. In the following text, they will be detailedly discussed and verified.

Firstly, Semiempirical Miller rule [20

20. R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(1), 17–19 (1964). [CrossRef]

] suggests a simple way to estimate the third-order nonlinear susceptibility, χ (3), of a material from the linear refractive index, n 0,
χ(3)[(n021)/4π]4×1010
(7)
From which, a large χ (3) is expected in glass with large n 0.

In Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The evolutions of experimental χ (3) obtained from Z-scan and OKE measurements as a function of n 0 and the theoretical fitting curves (the solid line is for Z-scan values and the broken line is for OKE ones) basing on the χ(3)1A[(n021)/4π]4×1010 equation.
, the evolutions of experimental χ (3) obtained from Z-scan and OKE measurements as a function of n 0 are presented and the theoretical fitting curve basing on the Eq. (7) are also exhibited. It should be noticed that because there is a large difference between the original theoretical value from Eq. (7) and experimental one, a correction factor 1/A (A≈4) is deduced for the right side of the Eq. (7).

Thirdly, for the n 2 and β optical nonlinearities in direct-gap semiconductors with E g, Sheik-Bahae et al. [21

21. M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 96–99 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] have derived a universal rule, that is,
n2=K'Ep1/2G/n02Eg4
(8)
β=KEp1/2F/n02Eg3
(9)
where K´ = 0.06cm2GW−1eV7/2, K = 3100cmGW−1eV5/2, E p≈21eV. G and F are spectral functions. Another rule, i.e. Moss rule, relates the linear refractive index n 0 with E g, which is n03/Eg1/4.

Figure 7
Fig. 7 The evolutions of n 2 and β as a function of the glass’s band gap Eg in the examined GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS glasses. The solid lines are the fitting curves basing on the Sheik-Bahae’s rule.
shows the evolutions of n 2 and β as a function of Eg in the examined GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS glasses. The squares are the experimental data and the solid lines are the fitting curves basing on the Sheik-Bahae’s rule, respectively. The spectral functions G and F, are obtained to be 0.2125 and 0.005 according to the fitting curves.

It can be seen that for n 2, the theoretical results basically have a same variation trend with the experimental ones, but still exhibit some marked deviations. For β, the theoretical results show satisfactory agreement with the experimental ones. This indicates that the Sheik-Bahae’s rule can be used for rough estimate in the glass’s optical nonlinearities.

Although the addition of CdS has negative effect to n 2, its regulating role to E g should not be ignored. It is helpful to decrease the nonlinear absorption degree and therefore satisfactory FOM can be obtained after compositions’ optimization.

5. Conclusion

The third-order nonlinear susceptibilities, χ (3), obtained from Z-scan and OKE measurements almost coincided within the range of experimental errors. A glass with large nonlinear refractive index, n 2, low absorption, β, and minimum figure of merit FOM(=2βλ/n2) can be obtained in GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS system by optimizing the amounts of Sb2S3 and CdS, resulting from their respective effect to n 2 and β. The third-order nonlinear responses of the glasses are produced dominantly by the electronic contribution in the weak covalent and homopolar bonds. The modified semiempirical Miller rule just roughly estimate the nonlinearities but the Sheik-Bahae rule combining the Moss rule are proved to have relatively good coincidence with the experimental results. It is an effective guidance for estimating the third-order nonlinearities and further optimizing the compositions in chalcogenide glasses. Although figure of merit FOM of GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS glasses tested at 800nm does not satisfy a standard criterion (FOM<1), it could be expected to decrease at 1330nm and 1550nm telecommunication wavelengths and therefore makes them potential candidates for applications in future all-optical switching devices.

Acknowledgment

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, No. 60807034, 10874239 and 60907039), the Opening Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, and the “Hundreds of Talents Programs” from the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

References and links

1.

M. Asobe, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of Chalcogenide Glass Fibers and Their Application to All-Optical Switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(2), 142–148 (1997). [CrossRef]

2.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001). [CrossRef]

3.

K. Ogusu, J. Yamasaki, S. Maeda, M. Kitao, and M. Minakata, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag-As-Se chalcogenide glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 265–267 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 399(1-3), 230–233 (2004). [CrossRef]

5.

M. Asobe, H. Itoh, T. Miyazawa, and T. Kanamori, “Efficient and ultrafast all-optical switching using high Δn, small core chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 29(22), 1966–1968 (1993). [CrossRef]

6.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, I. Yokohama, and T. Kaino, “Low power all-Optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop mirror using chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1396–1397 (1996). [CrossRef]

7.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. Richardson, A. Humeau, S. Cherukulappurath, and G. Boudebs, “Nonlinear optical properties of glasses in the system Ge/Ga-Sb-S/Se,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1495–1497 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, F. W. Wise, and B. G. Aitken, “Highly nonlinear Ge–As–Se and Ge–As–S–Se glasses for all-optical switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(6), 822–824 (2002). [CrossRef]

9.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, C. M. Florea, P. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, and F. Kung, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glass fibers,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 8, 2148–2155 (2006).

10.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, H. Chen, S. Gaylord, J. Massera, G. Boudebs, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, and K. Richardson, “Compositional dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of new germanium-based chalcogenide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(10), 2756–2761 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

Q. M. Liu, C. Gao, H. Zhou, B. Q. Lu, X. He, S. X. Qian, and X. J. Zhao, “Ultrafast third-order optical non-linearity of 0.56GeS2-0.24Ga2S3-0.2KX(X = Cl, Br, I) chalcohalide glasses by femtosecond Optical Kerr Effect,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 26–29 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, S. X. Gu, X. L. Zheng, Y. B. Zhai, S. S. Chu, X. J. Zhao, S. F. Wang, and Q. H. Gong, “Third- and second-order optical nonlinearity of Ge-Ga-S-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” J. Solid State Chem. 180(1), 240–248 (2007). [CrossRef]

13.

H. T. Guo, H. Z. Tao, Y. Q. Gong, and X. J. Zhao, “Preparation and properties of chalcogenide glasses in the GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(12-13), 1159–1163 (2008). [CrossRef]

14.

L. Červinka and A. Hruby, “Structure of amorphous and glassy Sb2S3 and its connection with the structure of As2S3 arsenic chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48(2-3), 231–264 (1982). [CrossRef]

15.

X. F. Wang, X. J. Zhao, Z. W. Wang, H. T. Guo, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, and Q. H. Gong, “Thermal and optical properties of GeS2-based chalcogenide glasses,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 110(1), 38–41 (2004). [CrossRef]

16.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurement of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990). [CrossRef]

17.

C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001). [CrossRef]

18.

M. K. Casstevens, M. Samoc, J. Pfleger, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third-order nonlinear optical processes in Langmuir-Blodgett and evaporated films of phthalocyanines,” J. Chem. Phys. 92(3), 2019–2024 (1990). [CrossRef]

19.

J. E. Aber, M. C. Newstein, and B. A. Garetz, “Femtosecond Optical Kerr Effect Measurements in Silicate Glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17(1), 120–127 (2000). [CrossRef]

20.

R. C. Miller, “Optical second harmonic generation in piezoelectric crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(1), 17–19 (1964). [CrossRef]

21.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65(1), 96–99 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353–360 (1999). [CrossRef]

23.

X. F. Wang, S. X. Gu, J. G. Yu, X. J. Zhao, and H. Z. Tao, “Structural investigations of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glasses using Raman spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 130(7), 459–464 (2004). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2290) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber materials
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials
(300.6420) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, nonlinear

ToC Category:
Materials

History
Original Manuscript: August 2, 2010
Revised Manuscript: October 6, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: October 10, 2010
Published: October 20, 2010

Citation
Haitao Guo, Chaoqi Hou, Fei Gao, Aoxiang Lin, Pengfei Wang, Zhiguang Zhou, Min Lu, Wei Wei, and Bo Peng, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS chalcogenide glasses," Opt. Express 18, 23275-23284 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-22-23275


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References

  1. M. Asobe, “Nonlinear Optical Properties of Chalcogenide Glass Fibers and Their Application to All-Optical Switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(2), 142–148 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. C. Quémard, F. Smektala, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, and J. Lucas, “Chalcogenide glasses with high non linear optical properties for telecommunications,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 62(8), 1435–1440 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. K. Ogusu, J. Yamasaki, S. Maeda, M. Kitao, and M. Minakata, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Ag-As-Se chalcogenide glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 265–267 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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