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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 22 — Oct. 25, 2010
  • pp: 23428–23434
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Entirely passive reach extended GPON using Raman amplification

Benyuan Zhu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 22, pp. 23428-23434 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.023428


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Abstract

In previous investigation of extended GPON system, we employed 1240nm and 1427nm dual pumps within optical line terminal (OLT) equipments at central office (CO) to provide distributed Raman gains of upstream 1310nm and downstream 1490nm signals. These pump wavelengths were selected to ensure compatibility with the standard GPON wavelengths and reduce the unwanted pump-to-signal interactions. In this paper, we propose a new system scheme for an entirely-passive extended reach GPON to further enhance the system performance by eliminating the pump-to-signal interactions. In this scheme, a 1240 nm laser is employed to provide counter-pumping distributed Raman amplification of the upstream 1310nm signal, and a discrete Raman amplifier is integrated with the 1490nm transmitter to booster the downstream signal power and to improve the link loss budget. An operation over 60-km of zero-water-peak Allwave® fiber with a 1:128 way splitter is experimentally demonstrated at 2.5 Gbit/s. The system performance of such purely passive GPON extender is investigated in the paper. The system transmission limitation of upstream signal due to Raman ASE noises is discussed, and the non-linear impairment on downstream signal due to high launch power into feeder fiber is also examined.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

The advantages of deploying cost effective passive optical networks (PONs) have been largely recognized worldwide. The PONs are now being deployed in many countries and will play an increasingly important role in future broadband access networks [1

1. P. Chanclou, Z. Belfqih, B. Charbonnier, T. Duong, F. Frank, N. Genay, M. Huchard, P. Guignard, L. Guillo, B. Landousies, A. Pizzinat, H. Ramanitra, F. Saliou, S. Durel, A. Othmani, P. Urvoas, M. Ouzzif, and J. Le Masson, “Optical access evolutions and their impact on the metropolitan and home networks,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2008, paper We.3.F.1. (2008).

,2

2. H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1 Gbit/s for everyone,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2009, paper 10.5.5. (2009)

]. The gigabit PON (GPON) standard [3

3. IITU-T Series Recommendation G.984, “Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPON),” (2008)

] permits a logical reach of 60 km and 128 addressable optical network units (ONU). However, the 28 dB loss budget for Class B + systems [G.984.2 Amd1] limits typical GPON deployments to 1:32 split and < 20 km reach. There have been several reports on techniques to extend the reach of PON systems using semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and thulium or praseodymium doped fiber amplifiers [4

4. K. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, D. Nesset, and R. Davey, “Amplified gigabit PON systems,” J. Opt. Netw. 6(5), 422 (2007). [CrossRef]

6

6. P. P. Iannone, H. H. Lee, K. C. Reichmann, X. Zhou, M. Du, B. Palsdottir, K. Feder, P. Westbrook, K. Brar, J. Mann, and L. Spiekman, “Hybrid CWDM amplifier shared by multiple TDM PONs,” in Proceeding of OFC2007, paper PDP-13 (2007).

]. GPON reach extenders have also recently been standardized by the ITU-T (G.984.6). The reach extension techniques considered in G.984.6 require the use of electrically powered units in the field containing optical amplifiers or optical-electrical-optical (OEO) repeaters, but these techniques negate some of the advantages of PON systems and may not always be practical or cost effective for operators, particularly in certain environments where there is no electrical powering.

Techniques that enable PON reach extension while maintaining a totally passive outside plant could be very attractive for network operators. Raman amplification in the transmission fiber is one such technique that could improve the PON loss budget by coupling suitable pump lasers to the fiber at the central office. Recently, we have reported a purely-passive GPON compatible reach extender using distributed Raman amplification [7

7. B. Zhu and D. Nesset, “GPON reach extension to 60km with entirely passive fiber using Raman amplifiers,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2009, paper 8.5.5. (2009).

]. Operation over 60-km of AllWave® fiber with split ratio of 1:64 has been demonstrated. A fiber laser pump at 1240 nm was chosen to provide gain for the GPON upstream 1310nm signal in order to ensure compatibility with standard GPON wavelengths with the narrow upstream wavelength band (1300-1320nm) option as defined in ITU G.984.5. This wavelength tolerance allows the use of low cost, un-cooled DFB diode transmitters. A pump at wavelength around 1400-nm would provide the maximum Raman gain efficiency for co-pumping of downstream signal band (1480-1500nm); however the upstream 1310 nm signal would be significantly depleted if 1400-nm pump were used. Hence, the 1427-nm pump was used in that experiment as a trade-off between a minimal upstream 1310nm signal depletion and an adequate downstream 1490nm signal gain. While these pump wavelength designs partially reduced most unwanted pump-to-signal interactions, detectable depletion of the upstream 1310nm signal was observed in that experiment. In addition, the de-polarized semiconductor lasers with relative intensity noise (RIN) as low as –150dB/Hz are required for the co-pumping scheme in order to reduce the pump noises coupled into the downstream signal.

2. Experiment

The 1240 nm pump light, that provides counter-propagating Raman gain for the 1310 nm upstream signal, is generated in Raman fiber laser [9

9. S. Grubb, T. Strasser, W.Y. Cheung, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “High-Power 1.48 mm cascaded Raman laser in Germano-silicate fibers,” in Proceeding of OAA’1993, paper PD3, (1993).

]. Low cost multimode semiconductor diodes at 915 nm are used to pump an Yb-doped cladding-pumped fiber laser (CPFL). The output of CPFL at 1117 nm is input to a cascaded Raman resonator (CRR), which consists of 400m spool of high Raman gain efficiency fiber and a cascaded grating set to shift the output wavelength up to 1240 nm. An output power of 1.3 W is readily obtained using this approach. The residual Raman shifted wavelengths at 1117nm and 1172nm are more than 20 dB below the 1240nm and do not contribute significantly to the Raman gain. The discrete Raman amplifier at 1490nm wavelength band to booster the downstream signal power consists of a Raman gain medium and 1400nm semiconductor diode pumps. The Raman gain medium is a 1.6-km length of high Raman gain efficiency fiber, and it is configured as backward-pumping. A net Raman gain of 12 dB can be ready obtained in the experiment.

The transmitted and received optical spectra of upstream and downstream signal are shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The transmitted [in a and b] and received [in c and d] optical spectra for upstream 1310nm signal and downstream 1490nm signal.
. It can be seen that a minimal OSNR degradation for the 1490 nm signal [see Fig. 3(d)] is due to the relatively high input power into the discrete Raman amplifier from the transmitter, and the received OSNR for downstream signal is more than 38dB/0.1nm. Conversely, the OSNR of 1310 nm signal is degraded [Fig. 3(c)] due to the low input signal power in the counter-propagating distributed Raman amplifier. In this experiment, CWDM couplers with a bandwidth more than 16nm are used, which permits the use of low cost, un-cooled DBF diodes as the transmitters as defined in ITU G/984.5, meanwhile improve the system performance by filtering out the ASE noises.

3. System results and discussion

5. Summary

Acknowledgements

We thank David DiGiovanni at OFS Labs for his encouragement and support and we also thank Dr. Derek Nesset at BT for his interesting discussion on the work.

References and links

1.

P. Chanclou, Z. Belfqih, B. Charbonnier, T. Duong, F. Frank, N. Genay, M. Huchard, P. Guignard, L. Guillo, B. Landousies, A. Pizzinat, H. Ramanitra, F. Saliou, S. Durel, A. Othmani, P. Urvoas, M. Ouzzif, and J. Le Masson, “Optical access evolutions and their impact on the metropolitan and home networks,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2008, paper We.3.F.1. (2008).

2.

H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1 Gbit/s for everyone,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2009, paper 10.5.5. (2009)

3.

IITU-T Series Recommendation G.984, “Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPON),” (2008)

4.

K. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, D. Nesset, and R. Davey, “Amplified gigabit PON systems,” J. Opt. Netw. 6(5), 422 (2007). [CrossRef]

5.

D. Nesset, S. Appathurai and R. Davey, “Extended research GPON using high gain semiconductor optical amplifier,” in Proceeding of OFC2008, paper JWA107 (2008).

6.

P. P. Iannone, H. H. Lee, K. C. Reichmann, X. Zhou, M. Du, B. Palsdottir, K. Feder, P. Westbrook, K. Brar, J. Mann, and L. Spiekman, “Hybrid CWDM amplifier shared by multiple TDM PONs,” in Proceeding of OFC2007, paper PDP-13 (2007).

7.

B. Zhu and D. Nesset, “GPON reach extension to 60km with entirely passive fiber using Raman amplifiers,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2009, paper 8.5.5. (2009).

8.

IITU-T Series Recommendation G.984.2, “Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (G-PON): Physical media dependent (PMD) layer specification,” Amendment 2 (2008).

9.

S. Grubb, T. Strasser, W.Y. Cheung, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “High-Power 1.48 mm cascaded Raman laser in Germano-silicate fibers,” in Proceeding of OAA’1993, paper PD3, (1993).

10.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(1), 159–161 (1998). [CrossRef]

11.

M. H. Eiselt, “Distributed Raman Amplification on fiber with large connector losses,” in Proceeding of OFC2008, paper OWI31 (2006).

12.

J. Bromage, P. J. Winzer, and R.-J. Essiambre, “multiple path interference and its impact on system design”, book chapter 15, p491, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications” edited by M.N. Islam, (2003)

13.

F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “fiber nonlinearities and their impact on transmission systems”, book chapter 10, p196, “Optical fiber telecommunications” IIIA, edited by I. P. Kaminow and T. L. Koch (1997)

14.

D. Nesset and P. Wright, “Raman extender GPON using 1240nm semiconductor quantum-dot lasers”, in Proceeding of OFC2010, paper OThW6 (2010).

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: August 9, 2010
Revised Manuscript: September 29, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: September 29, 2010
Published: October 22, 2010

Citation
Benyuan Zhu, "Entirely passive reach extended GPON using Raman amplification," Opt. Express 18, 23428-23434 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-22-23428


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References

  1. P. Chanclou, Z. Belfqih, B. Charbonnier, T. Duong, F. Frank, N. Genay, M. Huchard, P. Guignard, L. Guillo, B. Landousies, A. Pizzinat, H. Ramanitra, F. Saliou, S. Durel, A. Othmani, P. Urvoas, M. Ouzzif, and J. Le Masson, “Optical access evolutions and their impact on the metropolitan and home networks,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2008, paper We.3.F.1. (2008).
  2. H. Rohde, S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, and K. Kloppe, “Next generation optical access: 1 Gbit/s for everyone,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2009, paper 10.5.5. (2009)
  3. IITU-T Series Recommendation G.984, “Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (GPON),” (2008)
  4. K. Suzuki, Y. Fukada, D. Nesset, and R. Davey, “Amplified gigabit PON systems,” J. Opt. Netw. 6(5), 422 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. D. Nesset, S. Appathurai and R. Davey, “Extended research GPON using high gain semiconductor optical amplifier,” in Proceeding of OFC2008, paper JWA107 (2008).
  6. P. P. Iannone, H. H. Lee, K. C. Reichmann, X. Zhou, M. Du, B. Palsdottir, K. Feder, P. Westbrook, K. Brar, J. Mann, and L. Spiekman, “Hybrid CWDM amplifier shared by multiple TDM PONs,” in Proceeding of OFC2007, paper PDP-13 (2007).
  7. B. Zhu and D. Nesset, “GPON reach extension to 60km with entirely passive fiber using Raman amplifiers,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2009, paper 8.5.5. (2009).
  8. IITU-T Series Recommendation G.984.2, “Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (G-PON): Physical media dependent (PMD) layer specification,” Amendment 2 (2008).
  9. S. Grubb, T. Strasser, W.Y. Cheung, W. A. Reed, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, P. J. Lemaire, A. M. Vengsarkar, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “High-Power 1.48 mm cascaded Raman laser in Germano-silicate fibers,” in Proceeding of OAA’1993, paper PD3, (1993).
  10. P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(1), 159–161 (1998). [CrossRef]
  11. M. H. Eiselt, “Distributed Raman Amplification on fiber with large connector losses,” in Proceeding of OFC2008, paper OWI31 (2006).
  12. J. Bromage, P. J. Winzer, and R.-J. Essiambre, “multiple path interference and its impact on system design”, book chapter 15, p491, “Raman amplifiers for telecommunications” edited by M.N. Islam, (2003)
  13. F. Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “fiber nonlinearities and their impact on transmission systems”, book chapter 10, p196, “Optical fiber telecommunications” IIIA, edited by I. P. Kaminow and T. L. Koch (1997)
  14. D. Nesset and P. Wright, “Raman extender GPON using 1240nm semiconductor quantum-dot lasers”, in Proceeding of OFC2010, paper OThW6 (2010).

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