## Quantum-dot-induced transparency in a nanoscale plasmonic resonator |

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 23, pp. 23633-23645 (2010)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.023633

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### Abstract

We investigate the near-field optical coupling between a single semiconductor nanocrystal (quantum dot) and a nanometer-scale plasmonic metal resonator using rigorous electrodynamic simulations. Our calculations show that the quantum dot produces a dip in both the extinction and scattering spectra of the surface-plasmon resonator, with a particularly strong change for the scattering spectrum. A phenomenological coupled-oscillator model is used to fit the calculation results and provide physical insight, revealing the roles of Fano interference and hybridization. The results indicate that it is possible to achieve nearly complete transparency as well as enter the strong-coupling regime for a single quantum dot in the near field of a metal nanostructure.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

## 1. Introduction

6. R. D. Artuso and G. W. Bryant, “Optical response of strongly coupled quantum dot - metal nanoparticle systems: Double peaked Fano structure and bistability,” Nano Lett. **8**, 2106–2111 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2. X. Wu, Y. Sun, and M. Pelton, “Recombination rates for single colloidal quantum dots near a smooth metal film,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. **11**, 5867–5870 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3. J. Bellessa, C. Bonnand, J. C. Plenet, and J. Mugnier, “Strong coupling between surface plasmons and excitons in an organic semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **93**, 036404 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4. Y. Sugawara, T. A. Kelf, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Strong coupling between localized plasmons and organic excitons in metal nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **97**, 266808 (2006). [CrossRef]

5. W. Zhang, A. O. Govorov, and G. W. Bryant, “Semiconductor-metal nanoparticle molecules: Hybrid excitons and the nonlinear Fano effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **97**, 146804 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6. R. D. Artuso and G. W. Bryant, “Optical response of strongly coupled quantum dot - metal nanoparticle systems: Double peaked Fano structure and bistability,” Nano Lett. **8**, 2106–2111 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7. J. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, “Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors,” Nat. Phys. **2**, 81–90 (2006). [CrossRef]

8. J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. Loffler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, “Strong coupling in a single quantum dot - semiconductor microcavity system,” Nature **432**, 197–2002004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10. E. Peter, P. Senellart, D. Martrou, A. Lemaltre, J. Hours, J.-M. Gérard, and J. Bloch, “Exciton-photon strong-coupling regime for a single quantum dot embedded in a microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **95**, 067401 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11. D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature **450**, 857–861 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12. M. Fleishhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Narangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. **77**, 633–673 (2005). [CrossRef]

13. E. Waks and J. Vučković, “Dipole induced transparency in drop-filter cavity-waveguide systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **96**, 153601 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*i.e.*, lower quality factors); this disadvantage, though, is at least partially compensated by the smaller mode volumes that surface plasmons enable. Indeed, since plasmonic resonators are not constrained by the diffraction limit, the dimensions of the entire QD / metal-nanoparticle hybrid system can be on the nanometer scale. This, in turn, opens up the possibility of using bottom-up synthesis and assembly to produce these systems as well as the possibility of integration with other plasmonic systems such as waveguides.

14. V. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. **9**, 707–715 (2010). [CrossRef]

*g*. We show that the strong-coupling or hybridization criterion, 2

*g*>

*γ*, where

_{SP}*γ*is the SP resonance linewidth [7

_{SP}7. J. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, “Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors,” Nat. Phys. **2**, 81–90 (2006). [CrossRef]

## 2. Simulation method

15. M. Liu, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and M. Pelton, “Excitation of dark plasmons in metal nanoparticles by a localized emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **102**, 107401 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*ω*. We treat the QD as a dielectric particle, with a dielectric function that reproduces the ground-state absorption by the quantum dot; QD emission, in particular, is not considered in our model. We ignore all higher-order transitions, modeling the dielectric function of the QD as a single Lorentzian: where

_{QD}*ɛ*

_{∞−CdSe}is the bulk CdSe dielectric constant at high frequency,

*f*is the oscillator strength, and

*γ*is the transition linewidth. This corresponds to cryogenic conditions, where the linewidth is narrow and the ground-state transition is well isolated spectrally from higher-order tranisitions, which can therefore be ignored.

_{QD}*μ*eV have been reported for CdSe QDs at liquid-helium temperatures [16, 17

17. S. A. Empedocles, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **77**, 3873–3876 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18. A. Trugler and U. Hohenester, “Strong coupling between a metallic nanoparticle and a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. B **77**, 115403 (2008). [CrossRef]

*f*≈ 0.1, determined by matching the spectrally integrated absorption per QD to experimentally measured values on QD ensembles with known concentrations [19

19. C. de M. Donega and R. Koole, “Size dependence of the spontaneous emission rate and absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C **113**, 6511–6520 (2009). [CrossRef]

20. P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Imaging a single quantum dot when it is dark,” Nano Lett. **9**, 926–929 (2009). [CrossRef]

21. S. A. Empedocles and M. G. Bawendi, “Influence of spectral diffusion on the line shapes of single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B **103**, 1826–1830 (1999). [CrossRef]

^{2}[22

22. S. H. Park, M. P. Casy, and J. P. Falk, “Nonlinear optical properties of CdSe quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys. **73**, 8041–8045 (1993). [CrossRef]

^{4}. Our calculations should thus be valid for incident intensities less than about 6 kW/cm

^{2}.

23. M. Liu, P. Guyot-Sionnest, T. W. Lee, and S. K. Gray, “Optical properties of rodlike and bipyramidal gold nanoparticles from three-dimensional computations,” Phys. Rev. B , **76**, 235428 (2007). [CrossRef]

*ɛ*

_{∞−Ag}is the material dielectric constant at high frequency,

*ω*is the Drude frequency, and

_{D}*σ*,

_{L,k}*ω*, and

_{L,k}*γ*are the strength, center frequency, and linewidth, respectively, of the

_{L,k}*k*th resonance in the metal response. We use

*N*= 2 Lorentzian terms and adjust the parameters in order to provide a good fit to experimental values for the complex dielectric function in the energy range from 1.6 eV to 3.7 eV [24

24. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B **6**, 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

26. J. M. Montgomery, T.-W. Lee, and S. K. Gray, “Theory and modeling of light interactions with metallic nanostructures,”. Phys. Condens. Matter **20**, 323201 (2008). [CrossRef]

## 3. A single quantum dot coupled to a pair of silver ellipsoids

*γ*= 10 meV and 2 meV. In the absence of QD absorption (

_{QD}*f*= 0), the structure shows a single broad SP resonance. With QD absorption (

*f*= 0.1), by contrast, a transparency dip appears in both extinction and scattering spectra. The asymmetry of the spectra arises simply because the assumed QD transition frequency is slightly detuned from the plasmon resonance frequency. The depth of the dip depends on the QD transition linewidth, with a deeper dip for narrower

*γ*. It can also be seen that the scattering spectrum shows a deeper dip than the extinction spectrum. For the QD with a 2-meV linewidth, the transparency is nearly complete, with 94% of the metal-nanoparticle scattering canceled by the QD.

_{QD}## 4. Fitting with a coupled-oscillator model

13. E. Waks and J. Vučković, “Dipole induced transparency in drop-filter cavity-waveguide systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **96**, 153601 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27. C. L. G. Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. **70**, 37–41 (2002). [CrossRef]

28. N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. **8**, 758–762 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*g*. The equations of motion for the two oscillators are thus where

*x*and

_{SP}*x*represent the coordinates of surface-plasmon and QD oscillation, respectively, and

_{QD}*F*and

_{SP}*F*represent the normalized forces driving motion of these coordinates due to the external electromagnetic field. Since the QD extinction by itself is negligible compared to that of the metal nanostructure,

_{QD}*F*(

_{QD}*t*) <<

*F*(

_{SP}*t*), and we set

*F*(

_{QD}*t*) ≈ 0. We note that this classical coupled-oscillator model is intended only as a phenomenological description of the real physical situation, which is described more rigorously by the FDTD calculations. It can be shown to be equivalent to a quantum-mechanical description of a resonator (representing the plasmonic nanostructure) coupled to a two-level system (representing the QD), provided the QD is weakly excited, so that the majority of its population remains in the ground state [13

13. E. Waks and J. Vučković, “Dipole induced transparency in drop-filter cavity-waveguide systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **96**, 153601 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*ω*, the driving force is

*F*(

_{SP}*t*) = Re (

*F*. At steady state, both

_{SP}e^{−iωt})*x*(

_{SP}*t*) and

*x*(

_{QD}*t*) will follow this driving frequency, and

*γ*also includes both absorption and scattering. We therefore use Eq. (7) to fit the calculated extinction spectra; as shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(c), excellent fits are obtained. The QD frequency and linewidth (

_{SP}*ω*= 2.11 eV and

_{QD}*γ*= 10 or 2 meV) are input parameters into the FDTD calculations, and are thus fixed constants in the fitting. The surface plasmon frequency and linewidth (

_{QD}*ω*= 2.118 eV and

_{SP}*γ*= 55.7 meV) are obtained from a separate FDTD calculation without QD absorption (

_{SP}*f*= 0). The only remaining variable fitting parameters are the coupling strength,

*g*, and an overall scaling factor. The fits can thus be used as a means of determining

*g*; we obtain

*g*= 26.4 meV when

*γ*= 10 meV and

_{QD}*g*= 28 meV when

*γ*= 2 meV. This coupling strength is smaller that that achievable in plasmon-induced transparency, where coupling greater than 150 meV has been measured between different plasmon modes [28

_{QD}28. N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. **8**, 758–762 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*g*is less than 1 meV [8

8. J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. Loffler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, “Strong coupling in a single quantum dot - semiconductor microcavity system,” Nature **432**, 197–2002004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10. E. Peter, P. Senellart, D. Martrou, A. Lemaltre, J. Hours, J.-M. Gérard, and J. Bloch, “Exciton-photon strong-coupling regime for a single quantum dot embedded in a microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **95**, 067401 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*C*= 4

_{ext}*π kIm*(

*α*), where

*k*=

*ωn*/

*c*is the wavevector of light and

*α*is the polarizability of the nanostructure. Substituting this expression into Eq. (7), we find

*α*∝

*F*. We can thus express the scattering cross-section as Equation (8) can be used to fit the scattering spectrum, and the results are shown in Figs. 2(b) and 2(d). These fits give

_{SP}x_{SP}*g*= 26.7 meV for

*γ*= 10 meV and

_{QD}*g*= 29 meV for for

*γ*= 2 meV, in very good agreement with the values obtained by fitting the extinction spectra.

_{QD}*F*= 0. The resulting spectra turn out to be nearly identical to the approximate ones shown in Fig. 2. There can be differences in more detailed aspects; for example, the approximate equations result in the SP and QD oscillators being, in general, out of phase, while the exact solution shows that the two oscillators are always exactly in phase.

_{QD}*x*and

_{QD}*x*; this would represent a simplified version of the coupled-dipole models discussed by Nitzan, Brus, and Gersten [30

_{SP}30. A. Nitzan and L. E. Brus, “Theoretical model for enhanced photochemistry on rough surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. **75**, 2205–2214 (1981). [CrossRef]

31. J. Gersten and A. Nitzan, “Spectroscopic properties of molecules interacting with small dielectric particles,” J. Chem. Phys. **75**, 1139–1152 (1981). [CrossRef]

*g*, employed in Eqs. (3) and (4). We have carried out calculations using this alternative coupling, and have obtained nearly identical results for the extinction and scattering spectra. The behavior demonstrated in this manuscript is thus likely generic to coupled-oscillator systems.

*i.e.,*for

*ω*=

_{QD}*ω*=

_{SP}*ω*

_{0}. Within the plasmon resonance peak,

*ω*–

*ω*

_{0}<<

*ω*

_{0}, giving where

*g*<< (

*γ*–

_{SP}*γ*)/2, the spectrum can be understood as the result of interference between two resonances with the same frequency but with very different linewidths, often referred to as Fano interference [14

_{QD}14. V. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. **9**, 707–715 (2010). [CrossRef]

*g*>> (

*γ*–

_{SP}*γ*)/2, hybridization results in the formation of two normal modes with different frequencies Ω

_{QD}*and with the same linewidth (*

_{±}*γ*+

_{SP}*γ*)/2. For emitters coupled to optical microcavities, this is known as the “strong-coupling” regime [7

_{QD}7. J. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, “Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors,” Nat. Phys. **2**, 81–90 (2006). [CrossRef]

*g*<

*γ*/2) when

_{SP}*γ*= 10 meV, and is at the onset of the strong-coupling regime (

_{QD}*g*>

*γ*/2) when

_{SP}*γ*= 2 meV. In both cases, the system is near the threshold between the two regimes, meaning that Fano-like interference and mode splitting are both playing an important role in determining the calculated line shape.

_{QD}*γ*. This is illustrated in Figure 3, where we show the transparency dip depth and peak separation as a function of

_{QD}*γ*and

_{QD}*g*(for a fixed

*γ*). It can be seen that, for a narrower QD linewidth, a lower coupling strength is required to open up a transparency dip in the extinction spectrum; similarly, for a given coupling strength, a narrower QD linewidth leads to more complete transparency. A similar but more dramatic tendency exists in the scattering spectrum. Narrowing the QD linewidth while keeping the total oscillator strength fixed means stronger maximum absorption at the QD resonance frequency, which in turn increases the coupling to the plasmonic structure and enhances the QD-induced transparency. Experimentally, this can be achieved simply by lowering the temperature of the system. A narrower surface-plasmon linewidth,

_{SP}*γ*, will also benefit the QD-induced transparency. We note that any changes in

_{SP}*γ*and

_{SP}*γ*will affect the coupling strength,

_{QD}*g*, meaning that the parameters are interconnected and cannot be optimized independently.

*ω*. Figure 4 shows the calculated distribution of

_{SP}*E*, the electric-field component along the long axes of the metal spheroids, and its phase. Without QD absorption (

_{z}*f*= 0), a broad plasmon resonance is observed in the spectrum, and the field pattern corresponds to a dipole mode, with a clear

*π*phase difference between the interior of the spheroids and the gap between them. For the structure with QD absorption (

*f*= 0.1), a transparency dip appears around

*ω*, and the local field is greatly reduced. The decrease in the field is caused by destructive interference between the QD transition and the plasmon resonance, which is reflected in the large phase difference between the field within the QD and in the neighboring gap region.

_{SP}## 5. Single quantum dot coupled to a realistic metal nanostructure

*ɛ*= 2.25) in air. Although the metal-nanoparticle structure would be challenging to fabricate lithographically, it could likely be produced using state-of-the-art electron-beam lithography and template-stripping methods [32

32. P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science **325**, 594–597 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33. L. E. Ocola, “Nanoscale geometry assisted proximity correction for electron beam direct write lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B **27**, 2569–2571 (2009). [CrossRef]

34. Y. Cui, M. T. Bjork, J. A. Liddle, C. Sönnichsen, B. Boussert, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Integration of colloidal nanocrystals into lithographically patterned devices,” Nano Lett. **4**, 1093–1098 (2004). [CrossRef]

*ω*= 2.112 eV, and linewidth,

_{SP}*γ*= 144 meV, for the metal nanostructure. This linewidth is larger than that of the previous metal nanostructure, because of the larger dimensions and the correspondingly larger radiative damping. In order to match the plasmon resonance, the QD diameter is set to 4 nm. As above, we use QD oscillator strength

_{SP}*f*= 0.1 and linewidth

*γ*= 2 meV; for these calculations, we use a grid size of 1 nm.

_{QD}*g*= 9 meV, by fitting to the coupled-oscillator model). If particles with sharper tips could be fabricated, a larger QD-induced transparency would be obtained. For example, Fig. 5 also shows the calculated spectra when the particles are rounded with a 2-nm radius of curvature. Since the sharper tips red-shift the plasmon resonance frequency, we have increased the QD diameter correspondingly, to 6 nm. In this case, fitting gives

*g*= 19 meV. We note that the grid size used in the FDTD calculations limits the precision with which the QD diameter can be specified; this, in turn, limits the accuracy of the calculated coupling. We note also that no attempt has been made to optimize the metal-nanostructure geometry in order to maximize the induced transparency. The most significant limitation on the coupling strength, though, comes from the strong radiative damping of the plasmon resonance. Smaller metal nanostructures would have reduced radiative losses, but are probably not realistic to fabricate lithographically. Coupling to dark plasmon modes [15

15. M. Liu, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and M. Pelton, “Excitation of dark plasmons in metal nanoparticles by a localized emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **102**, 107401 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*ω*, and linewidth,

_{QD}*γ*, to be determined, provided the plasmon spectrum is characterized independently in the absence of the QD. The hybrid structure thus provides a new method to measure the absorption spectra of individual QDs, which is otherwise a considerable challenge [20

_{QD}20. P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Imaging a single quantum dot when it is dark,” Nano Lett. **9**, 926–929 (2009). [CrossRef]

11. D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature **450**, 857–861 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 6. Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. |

2. | X. Wu, Y. Sun, and M. Pelton, “Recombination rates for single colloidal quantum dots near a smooth metal film,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. |

3. | J. Bellessa, C. Bonnand, J. C. Plenet, and J. Mugnier, “Strong coupling between surface plasmons and excitons in an organic semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

4. | Y. Sugawara, T. A. Kelf, J. J. Baumberg, M. E. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Strong coupling between localized plasmons and organic excitons in metal nanovoids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

5. | W. Zhang, A. O. Govorov, and G. W. Bryant, “Semiconductor-metal nanoparticle molecules: Hybrid excitons and the nonlinear Fano effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

6. | R. D. Artuso and G. W. Bryant, “Optical response of strongly coupled quantum dot - metal nanoparticle systems: Double peaked Fano structure and bistability,” Nano Lett. |

7. | J. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, “Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors,” Nat. Phys. |

8. | J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. Loffler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, “Strong coupling in a single quantum dot - semiconductor microcavity system,” Nature |

9. | T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal microcavity,” Nature |

10. | E. Peter, P. Senellart, D. Martrou, A. Lemaltre, J. Hours, J.-M. Gérard, and J. Bloch, “Exciton-photon strong-coupling regime for a single quantum dot embedded in a microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

11. | D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature |

12. | M. Fleishhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Narangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. |

13. | E. Waks and J. Vučković, “Dipole induced transparency in drop-filter cavity-waveguide systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

14. | V. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. |

15. | M. Liu, T. W. Lee, S. K. Gray, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and M. Pelton, “Excitation of dark plasmons in metal nanoparticles by a localized emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

16. | P. Palinginis, S. Tavenner, M. Lonergan, and H. Wang, “Spectral hole burning and zero phonon linewidth in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B |

17. | S. A. Empedocles, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, “Photoluminescence spectroscopy of single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

18. | A. Trugler and U. Hohenester, “Strong coupling between a metallic nanoparticle and a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. B |

19. | C. de M. Donega and R. Koole, “Size dependence of the spontaneous emission rate and absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. C |

20. | P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Imaging a single quantum dot when it is dark,” Nano Lett. |

21. | S. A. Empedocles and M. G. Bawendi, “Influence of spectral diffusion on the line shapes of single CdSe nanocrystallite quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B |

22. | S. H. Park, M. P. Casy, and J. P. Falk, “Nonlinear optical properties of CdSe quantum dots,” J. Appl. Phys. |

23. | M. Liu, P. Guyot-Sionnest, T. W. Lee, and S. K. Gray, “Optical properties of rodlike and bipyramidal gold nanoparticles from three-dimensional computations,” Phys. Rev. B , |

24. | P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B |

25. | A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, |

26. | J. M. Montgomery, T.-W. Lee, and S. K. Gray, “Theory and modeling of light interactions with metallic nanostructures,”. Phys. Condens. Matter |

27. | C. L. G. Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. |

28. | N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kastel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. |

29. | C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, |

30. | A. Nitzan and L. E. Brus, “Theoretical model for enhanced photochemistry on rough surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. |

31. | J. Gersten and A. Nitzan, “Spectroscopic properties of molecules interacting with small dielectric particles,” J. Chem. Phys. |

32. | P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science |

33. | L. E. Ocola, “Nanoscale geometry assisted proximity correction for electron beam direct write lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B |

34. | Y. Cui, M. T. Bjork, J. A. Liddle, C. Sönnichsen, B. Boussert, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Integration of colloidal nanocrystals into lithographically patterned devices,” Nano Lett. |

**OCIS Codes**

(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials

(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

(350.4238) Other areas of optics : Nanophotonics and photonic crystals

(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

**ToC Category:**

Optoelectronics

**History**

Original Manuscript: August 10, 2010

Revised Manuscript: October 18, 2010

Manuscript Accepted: October 18, 2010

Published: October 26, 2010

**Virtual Issues**

Vol. 6, Iss. 1 *Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics*

**Citation**

Xiaohua Wu, Stephen K. Gray, and Matthew Pelton, "Quantum-dot-induced transparency in a nanoscale plasmonic resonator," Opt. Express **18**, 23633-23645 (2010)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-23-23633

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### References

- M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, "Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 135-169 (2008).
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