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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 23 — Nov. 8, 2010
  • pp: 24003–24011
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Generation and delivery of 1-ps optical pulses with ultrahigh repetition-rates over 25-km single mode fiber by a spectral line-by-line pulse shaper

Hsiu-Po Chuang and Chen-Bin Huang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 23, pp. 24003-24011 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.024003


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Abstract

A spectral line-by-line pulse shaper is used to experimentally generate and deliver ~1 ps optical pulses of 31~124 GHz repetition-rates over 25.33 km single-mode fiber without dispersion-compensating fiber. The correlation of such delivery capability to temporal Talbot effect is experimentally demonstrated. Incorporating shaper periodic phase control, the repetition-rates of these ~1 ps optical pulses are further multiplied up to 496 GHz and delivered over 25.33 km single-mode fiber.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

2. Experimental setup

Figure 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the experimental setup. PA: power amplifier; frep: comb frequency spacing; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; SMF: single-mode fiber; b2b: back-to-back; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer. (b) 31 GHz comb optical power spectrum. The arrow indicates the CW laser wavelength. (c) Experimental (dot) and calculated (solid) intensity autocorrelation traces for the b2b case.
shows the schematic of our experimental setup. The PMCW laser frequency comb is generated by injecting a 1 kHz-linewidth CW laser (NKT Adjustik) into a low-Vπ LiNbO3 phase modulator (EO Space, with Vπ ~2.8 V at 1 GHz). The phase modulator is driven by a sinusoidal signal with frequency frep, which determines the resulting optical frequency comb line spacing. The sinusoidal signal of 31 GHz is derived from an ultra-low phase noise RF signal generator (Agilent E8257D-UNX), amplified to + 33 dBm through a power amplifier to drive the phase modulator. The resulting 31 GHz PMCW frequency comb is sent to a reflective line-by-line optical pulse shaper. The details of our line-by-line shaper are as follows: A fiber-pigtailed collimator with 3.5 mm spot diameter is used to send the comb onto an 1100 grooves/mm gold-coated grating. Discrete comb lines are diffracted by the grating and focused by a lens with 400 mm focal length. A fiberized polarization controller is used to adjust for horizontal polarization on the grating. A computer controllable 2 × 640 pixel liquid crystal modulator (LCM, CRI SLM-640-D-NM) array is placed just before the focal plane of the lens to independently control both amplitude and phase of individual spectral lines. A retro-reflecting mirror placed on the Fourier plane of the lens leads to a double-pass geometry, with all the spectral lines recombined into a single fiber and separated from the input via an optical circulator. Combined with a polarizer placed between the collimator and the grating, gray level intensity control can be achieved with maximum extinction ratio up to ~27 dB limited by the LCM. The fiber-to-fiber insertion loss of the pulse shaper is 6.5 dB. A short pulse erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA, Pritel LNHPFA-27) is placed after the pulse shaper. Optical spectra are measured through the ten-percent port of a 90/10 optical coupler using an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA, Advantest Q8384). The ninety-percent port of the coupler is either connected directly (back-to-back: b2b) or after a spool of SMF to a home-made non-collinear intensity autocorrelator.

Figure 1(b) shows the measured 31 GHz spacing PMCW frequency comb power spectrum, where the CW laser wavelength is indicated by the arrow. Figure 1(c) shows the experimental (dotted) and calculated (solid, assuming a flat phase condition) intensity autocorrelation (IA) traces in the b2b configuration after the line-by-line shaper applies a spectral phase correction setting Φ0(ω˜k)onto the comb lines through an automated process maximizing the second-harmonic generation (SHG) yield [2

2. F.-M. Kuo, J.-W. Shi, H.-C. Chiang, H.-P. Chuang, H.-K. Chiou, C.-L. Pan, N.-W. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-B. Huang, “Spectral power enhancement in a 100-GHz photonic millimeter-wave generator enabled by spectral line-by-line pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(5), 719–727 (2010). [CrossRef]

,21

21. Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Here k is an integer (from −18 to 18 for our 37-line PMCW comb), ω˜kk(2πfrep) is the frequency offset of the k-th comb line as referenced to the CW laser frequency ω0. This procedure ensures the spectral phases of the PMCW comb, EDFA, and the optical coupler are all compensated. The resulting IA traces agree perfectly and give a 31 GHz pulse train with de-convoluted full-width half maximum (FWHM) duration of 0.93 ps. In all experiments, the average power of the 90-percent fiber coupler output port is fixed at 20 dBm. This power level prevents the formation of fundamental soliton in SMF link.

3. Result and discussion

3.1 Delivery of 31 GHz optical pulses over arbitrary fiber links

Figure 2
Fig. 2 (a) Experimental (dotted) and calculated (solid) IA traces of the 31 GHz, 0.93 ps optical pulses after 20.46 km of SMF without dispersion pre-compensation. (b) Φrem of the 20.46 km SMF in units of 2π.
shows the pulse distortion and temporal self-imaging effects with spectral phase being provided solely by the fiber link. Figure 2(a) shows the IA traces (dot: experiment; solid, calculation) of the 31 GHz, 0.93 ps optical pulses after 20.46 km of SMF. The length of SMF is measured via an optical time-domain reflectometer. In the calculation, β2 = −20.3272 ps2/km and β3 = 0.1033 ps3/km are extracted and used for all calculations that follows. These values are in excellent agreement to the SMF specifications provided by the vendor (Sumitomo Electric). Interestingly, the IA traces exhibit pulses of doubled repetition-rate, however broadened and distorted. For ideal 2-times RRM, the even and odd comb lines effectively pick-up a nominal constant phase difference of π/2 as a result of accumulated quadratic (symmetric) phase [6

6. C.-B. Huang and Y. C. Lai, “Loss-less pulse intensity repetition-rate multiplication using optical all-pass filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 167–169 (2000). [CrossRef]

,7

7. J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, “Temporal self-imaging effects: theory and application for multiplying pulse repetition rates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 728–744 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. While the 2-times RRM may be achieved using short optical fiber, in a long fiber link, the exact Talbot RRM phase condition cannot be satisfied unless extreme effort is devoted in balancing the second- and third-order phase terms [36

36. D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, and J. Azaña, “Temporal Talbot phenomena in higher-order dispersive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(1), 113–125 (2007). [CrossRef]

,37

37. J. Fatome, S. Pitois, and G. Millot, “Influence of third-order dispersion on the temporal Talbot effect,” Opt. Commun. 234(1-6), 29–34 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

To facilitate quantitative investigations, the spectral phase sampled by the comb lines in Eq. (1) is formulated as the sum of modulo of 2π and a remainder phase Φrem(ω˜k),
Φf,NL(ω˜k)=Nk2π+Φrem(ω˜k),
(2)
where Nk is the corresponding integer modulus for the k-th comb line, and Φrem(ω˜k) is between [0, 2π]. The remainder phase Φrem(ω˜k) of Eq. (2) in units of 2π for the 20.46 km SMF is shown in Fig. 2(b) as a function of comb line number. Indeed, a constant phase difference between the even and odd comb lines cannot be obtained due to the existence of the cubic spectral phase. These examples reveal that RRM via Talbot effect is extremely sensitive to the fiber parameters, precise length control and are difficult to implement in a long-haul transmission system. As we will show in section 3.2, a line-by-line shaper alleviates these encumbrances and is capable of delivering repetition-rate multiplied pulses over arbitrary fiber length.

Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 31 GHz, 0.93 ps optical pulses after 25.33 km of SMF: (a) Experimental (dotted) and calculated (solid) IA traces without dispersion pre-compensation. (b) Dispersion pre-compensation values in units of 2π applied by the LCM onto the comb lines. (c) Dispersion pre-compensated IA traces (dot: experiment; solid, calculation). (d) Remaining uncompensated spectral phase in units of 2π.
shows the IA traces (dot: experiment; solid, calculation) of the 31 GHz, 0.93 ps distorted optical pulses after 25.33 km of SMF. In order to restore the initial pulse intensity waveform and periodicity, we now demonstrate only the remainder phase needs to be compensated. A dispersion pre-compensation phase setting of
Φpc,25km(ω˜k)=Φrem,25km(ω˜k)
(3)
is applied by the LCM deterministically. In this case, the total phase applied by the LCM is ΦLCM(ω˜k)=Φ0(ω˜k)+Φpc,25km(ω˜k). This procedure only requires the LCM being programmed to apply phases within a 2π range. Figure 3(b) shows the dispersion pre-compensation phase values applied by the LCM onto the comb lines in units of 2π. The dispersion pre-compensated IA traces are given in Fig. 3(c). Comparison between the experimental (dot) and calculated (solid) traces reveal that the optical pulses are restored perfectly. Dispersion pre-compensation for 20.46 km SMF is also performed using the same approach. The result is in excellent agreement to that shown in Fig. 3(c), and is thus not reproduced here.

As SHG is sensitive to the optical pulse duration, in addition to comparing the IA traces, the maximum SHG yield due to fiber loss is now quantitatively compared. The loss of the 25.33 km SMF spool is ~5.8 dB, thus the SHG yield should drop by a factor of 14.6 as compared to the back-to-back case. This well taken, as the ratio of the peak SHG value of 56 mV (back-to-back, Fig. 1(c)) to 3.8 mV (after 25.33 km SMF, Fig. 3(c)) gives 14.7.

3.2 Delivery of ultrahigh-rate pulses over 25 km single-mode fiber

In this part, ultrahigh-rate optical pulse trains are generated and delivered over 25.33 km of SMF through two approaches: (1) Shaper spectral filtering followed by phase pre-compensation. (2) Additional periodic phases for (2, 4)-times RRM are impressed onto the spectrally filtered comb lines.

Figures 4(a-c)
Fig. 4 (a-c) Optical power spectra of (62, 93, and 124)-GHz comb using shaper amplitude control, respectively. Experimental and calculated dispersion pre-compensated pulse train IA traces delivered over 25 km SMF for (d) 62, (e) 93, and (f) 124 GHz spacing combs. In (d-f), the de-convolved pulse duration and peak SHG readings are labeled.
show the experimental spectrally filtered optical power spectra of the {62, 93, and 124}-GHz spacing combs. A nominal 27 dB extinction ratio is achieved in suppressing the comb lines. Although lacking an adequate electrical spectrum analyzer and photodetector for such a large frequency range (31 to 124 GHz) for quantitative analysis, the resulting RF signal purity limited by the shaper extinction ratio is studied numerically. For the three amplitude filtered pulse trains, there should still be residual 31 GHz electrical signals due to the unsuppressed comb lines. The 31 GHz electrical signal values of (−20.99, −20.81, and −20.65)-dBc as referenced to the {62, 93, and 124}-GHz beat tones are obtained for the results shown in Fig. 4(a-c), respectively. Methods to greatly improve the signal purity have been addressed within Ref [2

2. F.-M. Kuo, J.-W. Shi, H.-C. Chiang, H.-P. Chuang, H.-K. Chiou, C.-L. Pan, N.-W. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-B. Huang, “Spectral power enhancement in a 100-GHz photonic millimeter-wave generator enabled by spectral line-by-line pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(5), 719–727 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The recovered pulse durations are slight broadened during spectral filtering due to slight reduced comb bandwidth. The FWHM pulse durations are labeled within Figs. 4(d-f), where experimental and calculated dispersion pre-compensated IA traces are compared. In all cases, dispersion pre-compensation value as described by Eq. (3) is applied on the spacing-converted combs by the LCM.

The power relation of the peak SHG yield due to different repetition-rate multiplication factor is examined. The peak SHG is expressed as P(t)P(t) [17

17. A. M. Weiner, Ultrafast Optics (Wiley, 2009).

], where P(t) denotes the waveform instantaneous power and <> denotes the time integration. For a fixed average power, the peak pulse power of the M-times repetition-rate multiplied train drops by a factor of M, but within the original pulse period, there are now M pulses. The resulting SHG peak value for repetition-rate multiplied pulse train is thus proportional to M/M 2, which drops linearly with M. For example, in the 31 to 62 GHz comb spacing conversion demonstration, the SHG peak is expected to drop by a factor of two. Referenced to the SHG peak of 3.8 mV in Fig. 3(c), all peak SHG values labeled in Figs. 4(d-f) are in good accord to this power relation, corroborating that the shortest optical pulses are delivered over 25.33 km optical fiber link.

Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 Experimental (symbol) and calculated (solid) IA traces of ultrahigh-rate optical pulse train generated and delivered over 25.33 km SMF using temporal Talbot phase control for 2- and 4-times RRM onto (a) 31 GHz, (b) 62 GHz, (c) 93 GHz, and (d) 124 GHz combs.
shows the (62, 124)-GHz optical pulse train originating from the 31 GHz spacing comb after 2-times (black) and 4-times (blue) RRM delivered over 25.33 km SMF. Experimental (solid) IA traces are compared along with calculated (symbols) IA traces. The 1/M peak SHG value dependence is corroborated by examining the SHG values in Fig. 5(a), where peak SHG values of (1.75, 0.83)-mV for the (2, 4)-times RRM are in good accord as compared to the 3.8 mV shown in Fig. 3(c).

We note here the combination of PMCW comb and line-by-line shaper enables flexible repetition-rate tuning capability. This can be accomplished simply by changing the phase modulation frequency and the ensuing shaper design. Essentially one can obtain mostly any repetition-rate desired, as long as the individual pulses in the rate multiplied train remain well separated.

4. Conclusion and future work

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan under contract NSC 97-2112-M-007-025-MY3. C.-B. Huang wishes to acknowledge Prof. S.-D. Yang for the support on intensity autocorrelator, Prof. K.-M. Feng for the support on optical fiber modules, and Allen P. Chang of Agilent Taiwan for the support on the 60 GHz signal generator.

References and links

1.

J. Wells, “Faster than fiber: the future of multi-Gb/s wireless,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 10(3), 104–112 (2009). [CrossRef]

2.

F.-M. Kuo, J.-W. Shi, H.-C. Chiang, H.-P. Chuang, H.-K. Chiou, C.-L. Pan, N.-W. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-B. Huang, “Spectral power enhancement in a 100-GHz photonic millimeter-wave generator enabled by spectral line-by-line pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(5), 719–727 (2010). [CrossRef]

3.

A. Hirata, M. Harada, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz wireless link using photonic techniques for generation, modulation, and emission of millimeter-wave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(10), 2145–2153 (2003). [CrossRef]

4.

T. Sizer II, “Increase in laser repetition rate by spectral selection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(1), 97–103 (1989). [CrossRef]

5.

M. S. Kirchner, D. A. Braje, T. M. Fortier, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 872–874 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

C.-B. Huang and Y. C. Lai, “Loss-less pulse intensity repetition-rate multiplication using optical all-pass filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 167–169 (2000). [CrossRef]

7.

J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, “Temporal self-imaging effects: theory and application for multiplying pulse repetition rates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 728–744 (2001). [CrossRef]

8.

J. Azaña and S. Gupta, “Complete family of periodic Talbot filters for pulse repetition rate multiplication,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4270–4279 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

D. Pudo and L. R. Chen, “Tunable passive all-optical pulse repetition rate multiplier using fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(4), 1729–1733 (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

J. Magné, J. Bolger, M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, L. R. Chen, B. J. Eggleton, and J. Azaña, “4x100 GHz pulse train generation from a single wavelength 10 GHz mode-locked laser using superimposed fiber gratings and nonlinear conversion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2091–2099 (2006). [CrossRef]

11.

M. A. Preciado and M. A. Muriel, “Ultrafast all-optical Nth-order differentiator and simultaneous repetition-rate multiplier of periodic pulse train,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12102–12107 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

D. E. Leaird, S. Shen, A. M. Weiner, A. Sugita, S. Kamei, M. Ishii, and K. Okamoto, “Generation of high repetition rate WDM pulse trains from an arrayed-waveguide grating,” IEEE Photon. Lett. 13(3), 221–223 (2001). [CrossRef]

13.

P. Samadi, L. R. Chen, I. A. Kostko, P. Dumais, C. L. Callender, S. Jacob, and B. Shia, “Generating 4x20 and 4x40 GHz pulse trains from a single 10-GHz mode-locked laser using a tunable planar lightwave circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 281–282 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

S. Arahira, S. Kutsuzawa, Y. Matsui, D. Kunimatsu, and Y. Ogawa, “Repetition-frequency multiplication of mode-locked pulses using fiber dispersion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(3), 405–410 (1998). [CrossRef]

15.

G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, M. Scaffardi, A. Bogoni, L. Poti, and M. Guglielmucci, “250-times repetition frequency multiplication for 2.5 THz clock signal generation,” Electron. Lett. 41(23), 1294 (2005). [CrossRef]

16.

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(5), 1929–1960 (2000). [CrossRef]

17.

A. M. Weiner, Ultrafast Optics (Wiley, 2009).

18.

C.-C. Chang, H. P. Sardesai, and A. M. Weiner, “Dispersion-free fiber transmission for femtosecond pulses by use of a dispersion-compensating fiber and a programmable pulse shaper,” Opt. Lett. 23(4), 283–285 (1998). [CrossRef]

19.

Z. Jiang, S.-D. Yang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Fully dispersion-compensated 500 fs pulse transmission over 50 km single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1449–1451 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

Z. Jiang, D. S. Seo, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1557–1559 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 463–467 (2007). [CrossRef]

22.

J. Ye, and S. T. Cundiff, eds., Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb: Principle, Operation, and Applications (Springer, 2005).

23.

C.-B. Huang, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “High-rate femtosecond pulse generation via line-by-line processing of a phase-modulated CW laser frequency comb,” Electron. Lett. 42(19), 1114–1115 (2006). [CrossRef]

24.

C.-B. Huang, S.-G. Park, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Nonlinearly broadened phase-modulated continuous-wave laser frequency combs characterized using DPSK decoding,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2520–2527 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Line-by-line pulse shaping control for optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express 13(25), 10431–10439 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. Cao, A. Karalar, W. Jiang, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yoo, “32 Phase X 32 amplitude optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 865–867 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

V. R. Supradeepa, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping in two dimensions: towards higher complexity optical waveforms,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11878–11887 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

Z. Jiang, C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping for optical arbitrary pulse train generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(9), 2124–2128 (2007). [CrossRef]

29.

J. Caraquitena, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Tunable pulse repetition-rate multiplication using phase-only line-by-line pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 716–718 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

J. Caraquitena, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Simultaneous repetition-rate multiplication and envelope control based on periodic phase-only and phase-mostly line-by-line pulse shaping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(12), 3034–3039 (2007). [CrossRef]

31.

C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Time-multiplexed photonically enabled radio-frequency arbitrary waveform generation with 100 ps transitions,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3242–3244 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

C.-B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Synthesis of millimeter-wave power spectra using time-multiplexed optical pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(18), 1287–1289 (2009). [CrossRef]

33.

C.-B. Huang and A. M. Weiner, “Analysis of time-multiplexed optical line-by-line pulse shaping: application for radio-frequency and microwave photonics,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9366–9377 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, K. Okamoto, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. Ben Yoo, “360 Gb/s optical transmitter with arbitrary modulation format and dispersion precompensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 489–491 (2009). [CrossRef]

35.

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “400-Gb/s Modulation-Format-Independent Single-Channel Transmission With Chromatic Dispersion Precompensation Based on OAWG,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 905–907 (2010). [CrossRef]

36.

D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, and J. Azaña, “Temporal Talbot phenomena in higher-order dispersive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(1), 113–125 (2007). [CrossRef]

37.

J. Fatome, S. Pitois, and G. Millot, “Influence of third-order dispersion on the temporal Talbot effect,” Opt. Commun. 234(1-6), 29–34 (2004). [CrossRef]

38.

L. Chantada, C. R. Fernández-Pousa, and C. Gómez-Reino, “Spectral analysis of the temporal self-imaging phenomenon in fiber dispersive lines,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(5), 2015–2025 (2006). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(070.6760) Fourier optics and signal processing : Talbot and self-imaging effects
(320.0320) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast optics
(320.5540) Ultrafast optics : Pulse shaping

ToC Category:
Ultrafast Optics

History
Original Manuscript: September 17, 2010
Revised Manuscript: October 19, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: October 20, 2010
Published: November 2, 2010

Citation
Hsiu-Po Chuang and Chen-Bin Huang, "Generation and delivery of 1-ps optical pulses with ultrahigh repetition-rates over 25-km single mode fiber by a spectral line-by-line pulse shaper," Opt. Express 18, 24003-24011 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-23-24003


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References

  1. J. Wells, “Faster than fiber: the future of multi-Gb/s wireless,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 10(3), 104–112 (2009). [CrossRef]
  2. F.-M. Kuo, J.-W. Shi, H.-C. Chiang, H.-P. Chuang, H.-K. Chiou, C.-L. Pan, N.-W. Chen, H.-J. Tsai, and C.-B. Huang, “Spectral power enhancement in a 100-GHz photonic millimeter-wave generator enabled by spectral line-by-line pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(5), 719–727 (2010). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Hirata, M. Harada, and T. Nagatsuma, “120-GHz wireless link using photonic techniques for generation, modulation, and emission of millimeter-wave signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(10), 2145–2153 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Sizer, “Increase in laser repetition rate by spectral selection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(1), 97–103 (1989). [CrossRef]
  5. M. S. Kirchner, D. A. Braje, T. M. Fortier, A. M. Weiner, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of 20 GHz, sub-40 fs pulses at 960 nm via repetition-rate multiplication,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 872–874 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C.-B. Huang and Y. C. Lai, “Loss-less pulse intensity repetition-rate multiplication using optical all-pass filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 167–169 (2000). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, “Temporal self-imaging effects: theory and application for multiplying pulse repetition rates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 728–744 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Azaña and S. Gupta, “Complete family of periodic Talbot filters for pulse repetition rate multiplication,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4270–4279 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Pudo and L. R. Chen, “Tunable passive all-optical pulse repetition rate multiplier using fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(4), 1729–1733 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. J. Magné, J. Bolger, M. Rochette, S. LaRochelle, L. R. Chen, B. J. Eggleton, and J. Azaña, “4x100 GHz pulse train generation from a single wavelength 10 GHz mode-locked laser using superimposed fiber gratings and nonlinear conversion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2091–2099 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. M. A. Preciado and M. A. Muriel, “Ultrafast all-optical Nth-order differentiator and simultaneous repetition-rate multiplier of periodic pulse train,” Opt. Express 15(19), 12102–12107 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. E. Leaird, S. Shen, A. M. Weiner, A. Sugita, S. Kamei, M. Ishii, and K. Okamoto, “Generation of high repetition rate WDM pulse trains from an arrayed-waveguide grating,” IEEE Photon. Lett. 13(3), 221–223 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. P. Samadi, L. R. Chen, I. A. Kostko, P. Dumais, C. L. Callender, S. Jacob, and B. Shia, “Generating 4x20 and 4x40 GHz pulse trains from a single 10-GHz mode-locked laser using a tunable planar lightwave circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 281–282 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. S. Arahira, S. Kutsuzawa, Y. Matsui, D. Kunimatsu, and Y. Ogawa, “Repetition-frequency multiplication of mode-locked pulses using fiber dispersion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(3), 405–410 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, M. Scaffardi, A. Bogoni, L. Poti, and M. Guglielmucci, “250-times repetition frequency multiplication for 2.5 THz clock signal generation,” Electron. Lett. 41(23), 1294 (2005). [CrossRef]
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