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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 23 — Nov. 8, 2010
  • pp: 24085–24091
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A sub-100fs self-starting Cr:forsterite laser generating 1.4W output power

Shih-Hsuan Chia, Tzu-Ming Liu, Anatoly A. Ivanov, Andrey B. Fedotov, Aleksey M. Zheltikov, Ming-Rung Tsai, Ming-Che Chan, Che-Hang Yu, and Chi-Kuang Sun  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 23, pp. 24085-24091 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.024085


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Abstract

Without cavity dumping or external amplification, we report a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser with a 1.4W output power and 2W in continuous wave (CW) operated with a crystal temperature of 267K. In the femtosecond regime, the oscillator generates Kerr-lens-mode-locked 84fs pulses with a repetition rate of 85MHz, corresponding to a high 16.5nJ pulse energy directly from a single Cr:forsterite resonator. This intense femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser is ideal to pump varieties of high power fiber light sources and could be thus ideal for many biological and spectroscopy applications.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Emission wavelength is always a critical issue for laser applications. Complementary to Ti:sapphire (0.65μm – 1.1μm) and Cr:YAG lasers (1.4μm - 1.6μm), a Cr:forsterite laser is a desirable femtosecond light source since its operating wavelength is located in the spectral regime from 1.1μm to 1.4μm [1

1. T. J. Carrig and C. R. Pollock, “Tunable, cw operation of a multiwatt forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 16(21), 1662–1664 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This spectral regime has attracted much attention in many applications. In biomedical imaging, comparing with the commonly-used 800nm or 1047nm lasers, a Cr:forsterite-laser-based system can acquire sectioned images with a deep penetration depth [2

2. B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Self-phase-modulated Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser source for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21(22), 1839–1841 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,3

3. G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1408–1410 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and much reduced photo damage [4

4. C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7

7. S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In Vivo Virtual Biopsy of Human Skin by Using Noninvasive Higher Harmonic Generation Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 478–492 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. These characteristics open many unique applications on optical coherence tomography (OCT) [2

2. B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Self-phase-modulated Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser source for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21(22), 1839–1841 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,3

3. G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1408–1410 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], multi-photon microscopy [8

8. S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, P. C. Chen, C.-K. Sun, and B.-L. Lin, “Multimodal nonlinear spectral microscopy based on a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1909–1911 (2001). [CrossRef]

10

10. T.-H. Tsai, C.-Y. Lin, H. J. Tsai, S. Y. Chen, S. P. Tai, K. H. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, “Biomolecular imaging based on far-red fluorescent protein with a high two-photon excitation action cross section,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 930–932 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and in vivo optical harmonics virtual biopsy [11

11. S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060505 (2009). [CrossRef]

20

20. S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, G.-W. Chern, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Chen, B.-L. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In selective photothermolysis, the intense light in 1210nm lipid-absorptive band could also be useful for lipid-rich tissues such as fat, sebaceous glands, or atherosclerotic plaques [21

21. R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli 3rd, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(10), 913–919 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In nonlinear conversion, difference frequency generation of two Cr:forsterite lasers can generate coherent THz waves from 0.3 to 7.5 THz [22

22. K. Suto, T. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, K. Saito, J.-I. Nishizawa, and M. Ito, “GaP THz wave generator and THz spectrometer using Cr:forsterite lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(12), 123109 (2005). [CrossRef]

] instead of using a complex optical parametric oscillator (OPO) system. In telecommunication and fiber-based system, the optical pulses in this spectral regime will not broaden significantly as they propagate in an optical fiber. This is of particular importance in both telecommunication system [23

23. T. Dennis, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. L. Gilbert, “Wavelength References for 1300-nm Wavelength-Division Multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(5), 776–782 (2002). [CrossRef]

] and nonlinear light fiber-microscopy [20

20. S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, G.-W. Chern, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Chen, B.-L. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,24

24. M.-C. Chan, T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, and C.-K. Sun, “Compact fiber-delivered Cr:forsterite laser for nonlinear light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054006 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,25

25. M.-C. Chan, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Tseng, Y.-C. Wen, Y.-H. Chen, G.-D. J. Su, and C.-K. Sun, “Cr:Forsterite-laser-based fiber-optic nonlinear endoscope with higher efficiencies,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71(8), 559–563 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Combining with a photonic crystal fiber (PCF), intense Cr:forsterite femtosecond pulses can achieve a super-continuum (SC) white light source with a pulse energy of 1.15μJ [26

26. A. V. Mitrofanov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Microjoule supercontinuum generation by stretched megawatt femtosecond laser pulses in a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 280, 453–456 (2007).

,27

27. A. B. Fedotov, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, V. I. Beloglazov, N. B. Skibina, C.-K. Sun, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Soft-glass photonic-crystal fibers for frequency shifting and white-light spectral superbroadening of femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(7), 1471–1477 (2006). [CrossRef]

] and broadest ever soliton self-frequency shift to 2.2μm [28

28. M.-C. Chan, S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, M.-C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J.-Y. Liu, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “1.2~2.2-μm tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:forsterite-laser and a photonic-crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008). [CrossRef]

], which is a simple widely-tunable source for various ultrafast applications, including large-dynamic-range RF phase shifter [29

29. M.-C. Chan, P.-C. Peng, Y. Lai, S. Chi, and C.-K. Sun, “Continuously-Tunable Large-Dynamic-Range RF Phase Shifter via a Soliton Self-Frequency-Shifted Source and a Dispersive Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(5), 313–315 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

After the first lasing operation of Cr:forsterite in 1988 [30

30. V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Laser action in chromium-doped forsterite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(13), 1040–1042 (1988). [CrossRef]

], great strides were made in optimizing and improving its performance [31

31. T. J. Carrig and C. R. Pollock, “Performance of a Continuous-Wave Forsterite Laser with Krypton Ion, Ti:Sapphire and Nd:YAG Pump Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(11), 2835–2844 (1993). [CrossRef]

45

45. T.-M. Liu, H.-H. Chang, S.-W. Chu, and C.-K. Sun, “Locked multichannel generation and management by use of a Fabry-Perot etalon in a mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(5), 458–463 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. A record-high 2.8W in cryogenic operation [31

31. T. J. Carrig and C. R. Pollock, “Performance of a Continuous-Wave Forsterite Laser with Krypton Ion, Ti:Sapphire and Nd:YAG Pump Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(11), 2835–2844 (1993). [CrossRef]

] and 1.1W at 288K [32

32. N. Zhavoronkov, A. Avtukh, and V. Mikhailov, “Chromium-doped forsterite laser with 1.1 W of continuous-wave output power at room temperature,” Appl. Opt. 36(33), 8601–8605 (1997). [CrossRef]

] were reported in CW generation. Femtosecond operation was also demonstrated and optical pulses as short as 14~25fs were generated by carefully compensating the cavity dispersion [33

33. V. Yanovsky, Y. Pang, F. Wise, and B. I. Minkov, “Generation of 25-fs pulses from a self-mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser with optimized group-delay dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 18(18), 1541–1543 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,34

34. C. Chudoba, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “All-solid-state Cr:forsterite laser generating 14-fs pulses at 1.3 mum,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 292–294 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. For the potential applications without complicated light source maintenance, stable generation and high output power delivered directly from a single cavity is required. Comparing with the leading material in the field of femtosecond lasers, Ti:sapphire, the thermal conductivity, the excited-state absorption, and high temperature sensitivity of the Cr:forsterite crystal hampered the output power of the forsterite laser [35

35. A. A. Ivanov, B. I. Minkov, G. Jonusauskas, J. Oberlé, and C. Rullière, “Influence of Cr4+ ion conventration on cw operation of forsterite laser and its relation to thermal problems,” Opt. Commun. 116(1-3), 131–135 (1995). [CrossRef]

37

37. N. V. Kuleshov, A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, A. A. Lagatsky, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Excited-state absorption in the range of pumping and laser efficiency of Cr4+:forsterite,” Opt. Lett. 23(13), 1028–1030 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. Nevertheless, without using complex cavity dump [38

38. E. Slobodchikov, J. Ma, V. Kamalov, K. Tominaga, and K. Yoshihara, “Cavity-dumped femtosecond Kerr-lens mode locking in a chromium-doped forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(5), 354–356 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or regenerative amplifier scheme [39

39. G. Jonusauskas, J. G. Oberlé, and C. Rullière, “54-fs, 1-GW, 1-kHz pulse amplification in Cr:forsterite,” Opt. Lett. 23(24), 1918–1920 (1998). [CrossRef]

], a long cavity with high pulse energy (~17 nJ) and a repetition rate of 26.5MHz [40

40. V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, and A. Ivanov, “High-energy self-starting femtosecond Cr(4+):Mg(2)SiO(4) oscillator operating at a low repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 26(24), 1999–2001 (2001). [CrossRef]

] was previously achieved by employing a telescope. 80nJ, 5.5ps pulses with a 4.9MHz repetition rate were also demonstrated from a multipass-cavity chirped-pulse forsterite laser [41

41. H. Cankaya, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Sennaroglu, “80-nJ Multipass-Cavity Chirped-Pulse Cr4+:forsterite Laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper AWE3.

]. However, the thermal nature of the crystal limits the spectral power density, and thus the applications such as high SNR applications, selective photothermolysis, and high sampling-rate biomedical imaging [17

17. S.-H. Chia, C.-H. Yu, C.-H. Lin, N.-C. Cheng, T.-M. Liu, M.-C. Chan, I.-H. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Miniaturized video-rate epi-third-harmonic-generation fiber-microscope,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17382–17391 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this paper, by relieving the thermal loading of the Cr:forsterite laser crystals, we avoid both the instability performance and gain-saturation behavior at high pump power. As much as 2W CW and 1.4W average output power of sub-100fs pulses were thus demonstrated at 267K. Our study indicates the capability of a Cr:forsterite laser cavity to directly produce stable and high average power femtosecond pulse trains, which will open many biophotonics [2

2. B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Self-phase-modulated Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser source for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21(22), 1839–1841 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21

21. R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli 3rd, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(10), 913–919 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,24

24. M.-C. Chan, T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, and C.-K. Sun, “Compact fiber-delivered Cr:forsterite laser for nonlinear light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054006 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,25

25. M.-C. Chan, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Tseng, Y.-C. Wen, Y.-H. Chen, G.-D. J. Su, and C.-K. Sun, “Cr:Forsterite-laser-based fiber-optic nonlinear endoscope with higher efficiencies,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71(8), 559–563 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], spectroscopy, and telecommunication [23

23. T. Dennis, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. L. Gilbert, “Wavelength References for 1300-nm Wavelength-Division Multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(5), 776–782 (2002). [CrossRef]

] applications.

2. Laser cavity design and CW performance

3. Self-starting modelocking operation

To achieve modelocking operation, the positive dispersion in the cavity was compensated by a pair of SF14 prisms with a 31cm tip-to-tip separation and the total cavity length was 1.77m. After finding the stability edge for stable Kerr-lens-modelocking with the 12% OC at a crystal temperature of 267K, stable modelocking operation can be achieved with a 1.4W average output power and an 85MHz repetition rate, under 14.3W pumping power. The performance was characterized via a spectrometer and a home-made autocorrelator. In Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 The spectra and the corresponding autocorrelation traces (inset) of the Cr:forsterite laser with (a) 1.4W and (b) 1.3W output power.
, the modelocked spectrum showed a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 35nm at a center wavelength of 1251nm. The measured FWHM pulse width was 84 fs by assuming a Gaussian pulse shape. By slightly reducing the pump power to 14.2W, even more stable operation was achieved with an average output power of 1.3W. As shown in Fig. 2(b), the output FWHM spectrum width and a measured FWHM pulse width were 57 nm and 55 fs, respectively. An autocorrelator and a nanosecond-scale response time photodetector were used to check the pulse operation in the fs/ps and nanosecond time scales. No signs of double-pulsing or Q-switch mode-locking were observed. With a time-bandwidth product of 0.59, the output pulse is with a potential to be compressed to 40fs by using external prisms. Without the need of a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) and other starters, this regime was found to be routinely stable without interruption. When the pump was restarted, the femtosecond generation was self-started or it could be easily obtained by prism-shaking. The average power of the laser was recorded after the pump was started and all the alignments were stabilized, and just before the pump was turned off. The fluctuation of the recorded average power was within 5% in a period of two months.

4. Fiber-format Cr:forsterite-based light sources

The zero dispersion wavelength of bulk silica is near 1.3μm. As a result, for nonlinear light conversion in fiber using femtosecond Ti:sapphire lasers and Yb:fiber lasers as pump sources, which work in the 0.8μm and 1.0μm wavelength regimes respectively, one has to introduce strong waveguide dispersion for negative fiber dispersion. On the other hand, using a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser near 1.25μm as the pump source can make the nonlinear light conversion in fiber much easier due to lower requirement on waveguide dispersion. With less need on waveguide dispersion, the corresponding fiber mode-area can be larger and fibers can thus support pulse propagation with higher pulse energy [26

26. A. V. Mitrofanov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Microjoule supercontinuum generation by stretched megawatt femtosecond laser pulses in a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 280, 453–456 (2007).

28

28. M.-C. Chan, S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, M.-C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J.-Y. Liu, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “1.2~2.2-μm tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:forsterite-laser and a photonic-crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. With a 1.3W femtosecond output centered at 1.25μm, the demonstrated laser oscillator could be ideal to support varieties of high power fiber-format light sources.

One example is that additional spectral broadening in fiber pumped by the demonstrated intense Cr:forsterite laser could provide a high spectral density light source covering the 1.0μm to 1.6μm wavelength regime. This could be easily achieved with a standard telecommunication single-mode fiber (SMF-130V, POFC) with a core diameter of 9μm, without the need of a PCF. The fiber nonlinearity γ = 2πn2(λS)−1 (here, n2 is the nonlinear refractive index of the fiber material, λ is the radiation wavelength, and S is the effective mode area) is about 1.6km−1 W−1 at λ= 1.25µm. The dispersion length LD= (ΔT)2/|β2| (here, ΔT is the pulse width and β2 is the second-order dispersion coefficient) is about 1.2m. The fiber bending loss of 100 turns around a mandrel of 60 mm diameter at 1550nm is as small as 0.1dB [46

46. Prime Optical Fiber Corp, “Product information of single-mode optical fiber,” http://www.pofc.com/files/file/financial/SMF130V_4.pdf.

]. With a fiber length of 0.07m to 3.6m and an incident power of 1.1W, Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The spectra of the laser output (red), the fiber output with a fiber length of 3.6m (blue), and the fiber source with a fiber length of 7cm (blue). (b) The corresponding autocorrelation trace of the blue spectrum in (a).
shows the measured SC spectra, covering 1.0μm to 1.6μm with a high average output power of 700mW. By shortening the fiber length to 7cm, the temporal distortion in fiber can also be reasonably reduced even without external or pre- compensation. The 7cm-fiber-broadened SC white light source was with an autocorrelation width of 228fs and a 3dB bandwidth of 160nm right after the fiber, as shown in Fig. 3. The fluctuation of the ambient temperature in the laboratory was smaller than 1°C and the minimum bending radius was larger than 30mm. The generated SC spectra thus remained stable during the whole measurement period. The negligible fiber bending loss and the stable laser operation could benefit the use for high SNR spectroscopic and biomedical applications.

Another example of the fiber-format Cr:forsterite-based light sources is the generation of frequency-shifted solitons and the non-radioactive visible light. Our study indicated that the demonstrated intense Cr:forsterite laser could also efficiently suppress the SC generation in selected fibers and provide high power widely-tunable fiber sources by soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) [28

28. M.-C. Chan, S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, M.-C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J.-Y. Liu, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “1.2~2.2-μm tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:forsterite-laser and a photonic-crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and the soliton-mediated Cherenkov radiation (CR) [47

47. G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient Cherenkov radiation in photonic crystal fibers for broadband visible wavelength generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2361–2363 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Using a highly nonlinear PCF (SC-5.0-1040, Crystal Fibre A/S) with a zero-dispersion wavelength of 1040nm and a core diameter of 5μm, octave-spanning widely-tunable fiber sources with high pulse energy could be thus achieved. The fiber nonlinearity γ of the fiber is about 9.1km−1 W−1 at λ= 1.25µm and the dispersion length LD is about 12cm. Figure 4
Fig. 4 The power dependent spectra of the widely-tunable fiber-delivered Cr:forsterite source, including the simultaneously obtained SSFS in (a) and CR below the wavelength of 1100nm in (b). The values inserted in the figure represent the total average output power after the photonic crystal fiber. The inset figure in (a) shows the magnified spectra of the 340mW total fiber output ranging from 2200nm to 2350nm. The inset figure in (b) shows the output powers of CR whose wavelength were below 1100nm (red), and the fiber output above the wavelength of 1100nm (black).
shows the power dependent spectra of the widely tunable sources, including the simultaneously obtained SSFS in Fig. 4(a) and CR below the wavelength of 1100nm in Fig. 4(b). The threshold of SSFS was ~20mW and visible CR could be observed above ~80mW of the total fiber output power. The fiber output spectra could span a range from 550nm to 2273nm with a fiber output power of 340mW, which reached both the upper and lower wavelength-tuning-limit of 2000nm and 550nm due to absorption in this specific fiber. When the fiber output power was 340mW, the average power of the 2000nm soliton was approximately 130mW, corresponding to 1.53nJ pulse energy. As high as 135mW of the broadband CR was also simultaneously obtained.

5. Summary

Acknowledgement

References and links

1.

T. J. Carrig and C. R. Pollock, “Tunable, cw operation of a multiwatt forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 16(21), 1662–1664 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Self-phase-modulated Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser source for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21(22), 1839–1841 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1408–1410 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

C.-S. Hsieh, S.-U. Chen, Y.-W. Lee, Y.-S. Yang, and C.-K. Sun, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy of in vitro cultured mammal oocytes and embryos,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11574–11588 (2008). [PubMed]

6.

I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P. C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, “Wavelength dependent damage in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: A micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite laser sources,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1251–1266 (2002). [CrossRef]

7.

S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In Vivo Virtual Biopsy of Human Skin by Using Noninvasive Higher Harmonic Generation Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 478–492 (2010). [CrossRef]

8.

S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, P. C. Chen, C.-K. Sun, and B.-L. Lin, “Multimodal nonlinear spectral microscopy based on a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1909–1911 (2001). [CrossRef]

9.

T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P. C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, “Multiphoton confocal microscopy using a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser,” Scanning 23(4), 249–254 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

T.-H. Tsai, C.-Y. Lin, H. J. Tsai, S. Y. Chen, S. P. Tai, K. H. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, “Biomolecular imaging based on far-red fluorescent protein with a high two-photon excitation action cross section,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 930–932 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060505 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

J.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, L.-F. Wang, C. K. Sun, and B. L. Chiang, “Noninvasive in vitro and in vivo assessment of epidermal hyperkeratosis and dermal fibrosis in atopic dermatitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014008 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

C.-K. Sun, C.-C. Chen, S.-W. Chu, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Chen, and B.-L. Lin, “Multiharmonic-generation biopsy of skin,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2488–2490 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, P.-C. Wu, H.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo optical biopsy of hamster oral cavity with epi-third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6178–6187 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19(24), 4520–4523 (2007). [CrossRef]

16.

C.-H. Yu, S.-P. Tai, C.-T. Kung, W.-J. Lee, Y.-F. Chan, H.-L. Liu, J.-Y. Lyu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular third-harmonic-generation microscopy through resonance enhancement with absorbing dye,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 387–389 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

S.-H. Chia, C.-H. Yu, C.-H. Lin, N.-C. Cheng, T.-M. Liu, M.-C. Chan, I.-H. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Miniaturized video-rate epi-third-harmonic-generation fiber-microscope,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17382–17391 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

W.-J. Lee, C. F. Lee, S. Y. Chen, Y.-S. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Virtual biopsy of rat tympanic membrane using higher harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046012 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

S.-P. Tai, T.-H. Tsai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, Y.-H. Liao, H.-Y. Huang, K. Y.-J. Zhang, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Optical biopsy of fixed human skin with backward-collected optical harmonics signals,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8231–8242 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, G.-W. Chern, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Chen, B.-L. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli 3rd, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(10), 913–919 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

K. Suto, T. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, K. Saito, J.-I. Nishizawa, and M. Ito, “GaP THz wave generator and THz spectrometer using Cr:forsterite lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(12), 123109 (2005). [CrossRef]

23.

T. Dennis, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. L. Gilbert, “Wavelength References for 1300-nm Wavelength-Division Multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(5), 776–782 (2002). [CrossRef]

24.

M.-C. Chan, T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, and C.-K. Sun, “Compact fiber-delivered Cr:forsterite laser for nonlinear light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054006 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

M.-C. Chan, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Tseng, Y.-C. Wen, Y.-H. Chen, G.-D. J. Su, and C.-K. Sun, “Cr:Forsterite-laser-based fiber-optic nonlinear endoscope with higher efficiencies,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71(8), 559–563 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

A. V. Mitrofanov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Microjoule supercontinuum generation by stretched megawatt femtosecond laser pulses in a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 280, 453–456 (2007).

27.

A. B. Fedotov, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, V. I. Beloglazov, N. B. Skibina, C.-K. Sun, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Soft-glass photonic-crystal fibers for frequency shifting and white-light spectral superbroadening of femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(7), 1471–1477 (2006). [CrossRef]

28.

M.-C. Chan, S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, M.-C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J.-Y. Liu, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “1.2~2.2-μm tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:forsterite-laser and a photonic-crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008). [CrossRef]

29.

M.-C. Chan, P.-C. Peng, Y. Lai, S. Chi, and C.-K. Sun, “Continuously-Tunable Large-Dynamic-Range RF Phase Shifter via a Soliton Self-Frequency-Shifted Source and a Dispersive Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(5), 313–315 (2009). [CrossRef]

30.

V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Laser action in chromium-doped forsterite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(13), 1040–1042 (1988). [CrossRef]

31.

T. J. Carrig and C. R. Pollock, “Performance of a Continuous-Wave Forsterite Laser with Krypton Ion, Ti:Sapphire and Nd:YAG Pump Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(11), 2835–2844 (1993). [CrossRef]

32.

N. Zhavoronkov, A. Avtukh, and V. Mikhailov, “Chromium-doped forsterite laser with 1.1 W of continuous-wave output power at room temperature,” Appl. Opt. 36(33), 8601–8605 (1997). [CrossRef]

33.

V. Yanovsky, Y. Pang, F. Wise, and B. I. Minkov, “Generation of 25-fs pulses from a self-mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser with optimized group-delay dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 18(18), 1541–1543 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

C. Chudoba, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “All-solid-state Cr:forsterite laser generating 14-fs pulses at 1.3 mum,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 292–294 (2001). [CrossRef]

35.

A. A. Ivanov, B. I. Minkov, G. Jonusauskas, J. Oberlé, and C. Rullière, “Influence of Cr4+ ion conventration on cw operation of forsterite laser and its relation to thermal problems,” Opt. Commun. 116(1-3), 131–135 (1995). [CrossRef]

36.

A. Sennaroglu, “Analysis and optimization of lifetime thermal loading in continuous-wave Cr4+-doped solid-state lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18(11), 1578–1586 (2001). [CrossRef]

37.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, A. A. Lagatsky, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Excited-state absorption in the range of pumping and laser efficiency of Cr4+:forsterite,” Opt. Lett. 23(13), 1028–1030 (1998). [CrossRef]

38.

E. Slobodchikov, J. Ma, V. Kamalov, K. Tominaga, and K. Yoshihara, “Cavity-dumped femtosecond Kerr-lens mode locking in a chromium-doped forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(5), 354–356 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

39.

G. Jonusauskas, J. G. Oberlé, and C. Rullière, “54-fs, 1-GW, 1-kHz pulse amplification in Cr:forsterite,” Opt. Lett. 23(24), 1918–1920 (1998). [CrossRef]

40.

V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, and A. Ivanov, “High-energy self-starting femtosecond Cr(4+):Mg(2)SiO(4) oscillator operating at a low repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 26(24), 1999–2001 (2001). [CrossRef]

41.

H. Cankaya, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Sennaroglu, “80-nJ Multipass-Cavity Chirped-Pulse Cr4+:forsterite Laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper AWE3.

42.

Y. Pang, V. Yanovsky, F. Wise, and B. I. Minkov, “Self-mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 18(14), 1168–1170 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

43.

T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, and C.-K. Sun, “Intracavity frequency-doubled femtosecond cr(4+):forsterite laser,” Appl. Opt. 40(12), 1957–1960 (2001). [CrossRef]

44.

T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, H.-H. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Simultaneous multiwavelength generation from a mode-locked all-solid-state Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 26(11), 834–836 (2001). [CrossRef]

45.

T.-M. Liu, H.-H. Chang, S.-W. Chu, and C.-K. Sun, “Locked multichannel generation and management by use of a Fabry-Perot etalon in a mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(5), 458–463 (2002). [CrossRef]

46.

Prime Optical Fiber Corp, “Product information of single-mode optical fiber,” http://www.pofc.com/files/file/financial/SMF130V_4.pdf.

47.

G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient Cherenkov radiation in photonic crystal fibers for broadband visible wavelength generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2361–2363 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state
(320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: August 5, 2010
Revised Manuscript: September 26, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: October 5, 2010
Published: November 3, 2010

Virtual Issues
Vol. 6, Iss. 1 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Shih-Hsuan Chia, Tzu-Ming Liu, Anatoly A. Ivanov, Andrey B. Fedotov, Aleksey M. Zheltikov, Ming-Rung Tsai, Ming-Che Chan, Che-Hang Yu, and Chi-Kuang Sun, "A sub-100fs self-starting Cr:forsterite laser generating 1.4W output power," Opt. Express 18, 24085-24091 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-23-24085


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References

  1. T. J. Carrig and C. R. Pollock, “Tunable, cw operation of a multiwatt forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 16(21), 1662–1664 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, I. P. Bilinsky, B. Golubovic, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Self-phase-modulated Kerr-lens mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser source for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21(22), 1839–1841 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Rapid acquisition of in vivo biological images by use of optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1408–1410 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology,” J. Struct. Biol. 147(1), 19–30 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C.-S. Hsieh, S.-U. Chen, Y.-W. Lee, Y.-S. Yang, and C.-K. Sun, “Higher harmonic generation microscopy of in vitro cultured mammal oocytes and embryos,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11574–11588 (2008). [PubMed]
  6. I.-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P. C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, “Wavelength dependent damage in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: A micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite laser sources,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 34(12), 1251–1266 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. S.-Y. Chen, S.-U. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, W.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Liao, and C.-K. Sun, “In Vivo Virtual Biopsy of Human Skin by Using Noninvasive Higher Harmonic Generation Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 478–492 (2010). [CrossRef]
  8. S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, P. C. Chen, C.-K. Sun, and B.-L. Lin, “Multimodal nonlinear spectral microscopy based on a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1909–1911 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. T.-M. Liu, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, B.-L. Lin, P. C. Cheng, and I. Johnson, “Multiphoton confocal microscopy using a femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser,” Scanning 23(4), 249–254 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T.-H. Tsai, C.-Y. Lin, H. J. Tsai, S. Y. Chen, S. P. Tai, K. H. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, “Biomolecular imaging based on far-red fluorescent protein with a high two-photon excitation action cross section,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 930–932 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Wu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo harmonic generation biopsy of human skin,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 060505 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. J.-H. Lee, S.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, L.-F. Wang, C. K. Sun, and B. L. Chiang, “Noninvasive in vitro and in vivo assessment of epidermal hyperkeratosis and dermal fibrosis in atopic dermatitis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014008 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C.-K. Sun, C.-C. Chen, S.-W. Chu, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Chen, and B.-L. Lin, “Multiharmonic-generation biopsy of skin,” Opt. Lett. 28(24), 2488–2490 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, P.-C. Wu, H.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Yu, and C.-K. Sun, “In vivo optical biopsy of hamster oral cavity with epi-third-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6178–6187 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S.-P. Tai, Y. Wu, D.-B. Shieh, L.-J. Chen, K.-J. Lin, C.-H. Yu, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Chang, X.-Y. Shi, Y.-C. Wen, K.-H. Lin, T.-M. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular imaging of cancer cells using plasmon-resonant-enhanced third-harmonic-generation in silver nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19(24), 4520–4523 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. C.-H. Yu, S.-P. Tai, C.-T. Kung, W.-J. Lee, Y.-F. Chan, H.-L. Liu, J.-Y. Lyu, and C.-K. Sun, “Molecular third-harmonic-generation microscopy through resonance enhancement with absorbing dye,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 387–389 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S.-H. Chia, C.-H. Yu, C.-H. Lin, N.-C. Cheng, T.-M. Liu, M.-C. Chan, I.-H. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Miniaturized video-rate epi-third-harmonic-generation fiber-microscope,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17382–17391 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W.-J. Lee, C. F. Lee, S. Y. Chen, Y.-S. Chen, and C.-K. Sun, “Virtual biopsy of rat tympanic membrane using higher harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046012 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S.-P. Tai, T.-H. Tsai, W.-J. Lee, D.-B. Shieh, Y.-H. Liao, H.-Y. Huang, K. Y.-J. Zhang, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “Optical biopsy of fixed human skin with backward-collected optical harmonics signals,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8231–8242 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, G.-W. Chern, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Chen, B.-L. Lin, and C.-K. Sun, “Studies of χ(2)/χ(3) tensors in submicron-scaled bio-tissues by polarization harmonics optical microscopy,” Biophys. J. 86(6), 3914–3922 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. R. Anderson, W. Farinelli, H. Laubach, D. Manstein, A. N. Yaroslavsky, J. Gubeli, K. Jordan, G. R. Neil, M. Shinn, W. Chandler, G. P. Williams, S. V. Benson, D. R. Douglas, and H. F. Dylla, “Selective photothermolysis of lipid-rich tissues: a free electron laser study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 38(10), 913–919 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. Suto, T. Sasaki, T. Tanabe, K. Saito, J.-I. Nishizawa, and M. Ito, “GaP THz wave generator and THz spectrometer using Cr:forsterite lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76(12), 123109 (2005). [CrossRef]
  23. T. Dennis, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, L. Hollberg, and S. L. Gilbert, “Wavelength References for 1300-nm Wavelength-Division Multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(5), 776–782 (2002). [CrossRef]
  24. M.-C. Chan, T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, and C.-K. Sun, “Compact fiber-delivered Cr:forsterite laser for nonlinear light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054006 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M.-C. Chan, S.-W. Chu, C.-H. Tseng, Y.-C. Wen, Y.-H. Chen, G.-D. J. Su, and C.-K. Sun, “Cr:Forsterite-laser-based fiber-optic nonlinear endoscope with higher efficiencies,” Microsc. Res. Tech. 71(8), 559–563 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. V. Mitrofanov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. A. Podshivalov, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Microjoule supercontinuum generation by stretched megawatt femtosecond laser pulses in a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber,” Opt. Commun. 280, 453–456 (2007).
  27. A. B. Fedotov, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, V. I. Beloglazov, N. B. Skibina, C.-K. Sun, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Soft-glass photonic-crystal fibers for frequency shifting and white-light spectral superbroadening of femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(7), 1471–1477 (2006). [CrossRef]
  28. M.-C. Chan, S.-H. Chia, T.-M. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, M.-C. Ho, A. A. Ivanov, A. M. Zheltikov, J.-Y. Liu, H.-L. Liu, and C.-K. Sun, “1.2~2.2-μm tunable Raman soliton source based on a Cr:forsterite-laser and a photonic-crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(11), 900–902 (2008). [CrossRef]
  29. M.-C. Chan, P.-C. Peng, Y. Lai, S. Chi, and C.-K. Sun, “Continuously-Tunable Large-Dynamic-Range RF Phase Shifter via a Soliton Self-Frequency-Shifted Source and a Dispersive Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(5), 313–315 (2009). [CrossRef]
  30. V. Petričević, S. K. Gayen, R. R. Alfano, K. Yamagishi, H. Anzai, and Y. Yamaguchi, “Laser action in chromium-doped forsterite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(13), 1040–1042 (1988). [CrossRef]
  31. T. J. Carrig and C. R. Pollock, “Performance of a Continuous-Wave Forsterite Laser with Krypton Ion, Ti:Sapphire and Nd:YAG Pump Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(11), 2835–2844 (1993). [CrossRef]
  32. N. Zhavoronkov, A. Avtukh, and V. Mikhailov, “Chromium-doped forsterite laser with 1.1 W of continuous-wave output power at room temperature,” Appl. Opt. 36(33), 8601–8605 (1997). [CrossRef]
  33. V. Yanovsky, Y. Pang, F. Wise, and B. I. Minkov, “Generation of 25-fs pulses from a self-mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser with optimized group-delay dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 18(18), 1541–1543 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. C. Chudoba, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “All-solid-state Cr:forsterite laser generating 14-fs pulses at 1.3 mum,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 292–294 (2001). [CrossRef]
  35. A. A. Ivanov, B. I. Minkov, G. Jonusauskas, J. Oberlé, and C. Rullière, “Influence of Cr4+ ion conventration on cw operation of forsterite laser and its relation to thermal problems,” Opt. Commun. 116(1-3), 131–135 (1995). [CrossRef]
  36. A. Sennaroglu, “Analysis and optimization of lifetime thermal loading in continuous-wave Cr4+-doped solid-state lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18(11), 1578–1586 (2001). [CrossRef]
  37. N. V. Kuleshov, A. V. Podlipensky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, A. A. Lagatsky, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Excited-state absorption in the range of pumping and laser efficiency of Cr4+:forsterite,” Opt. Lett. 23(13), 1028–1030 (1998). [CrossRef]
  38. E. Slobodchikov, J. Ma, V. Kamalov, K. Tominaga, and K. Yoshihara, “Cavity-dumped femtosecond Kerr-lens mode locking in a chromium-doped forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(5), 354–356 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. G. Jonusauskas, J. G. Oberlé, and C. Rullière, “54-fs, 1-GW, 1-kHz pulse amplification in Cr:forsterite,” Opt. Lett. 23(24), 1918–1920 (1998). [CrossRef]
  40. V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, and A. Ivanov, “High-energy self-starting femtosecond Cr(4+):Mg(2)SiO(4) oscillator operating at a low repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 26(24), 1999–2001 (2001). [CrossRef]
  41. H. Cankaya, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. Sennaroglu, “80-nJ Multipass-Cavity Chirped-Pulse Cr4+:forsterite Laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper AWE3.
  42. Y. Pang, V. Yanovsky, F. Wise, and B. I. Minkov, “Self-mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 18(14), 1168–1170 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, and C.-K. Sun, “Intracavity frequency-doubled femtosecond cr(4+):forsterite laser,” Appl. Opt. 40(12), 1957–1960 (2001). [CrossRef]
  44. T.-M. Liu, S.-P. Tai, H.-H. Chang, and C.-K. Sun, “Simultaneous multiwavelength generation from a mode-locked all-solid-state Cr:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 26(11), 834–836 (2001). [CrossRef]
  45. T.-M. Liu, H.-H. Chang, S.-W. Chu, and C.-K. Sun, “Locked multichannel generation and management by use of a Fabry-Perot etalon in a mode-locked Cr:forsterite laser cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(5), 458–463 (2002). [CrossRef]
  46. Prime Optical Fiber Corp, “Product information of single-mode optical fiber,” http://www.pofc.com/files/file/financial/SMF130V_4.pdf .
  47. G. Chang, L.-J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Highly efficient Cherenkov radiation in photonic crystal fibers for broadband visible wavelength generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2361–2363 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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