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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 24 — Nov. 22, 2010
  • pp: 24853–24858
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Design, synthesis and characterization of an orange-yellow long persistent phosphor: Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+,Tm3+

Yanqin Li, Yuhua Wang, Yu Gong, Xuhui Xu, and Meijiao Zhou  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 24, pp. 24853-24858 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.024853


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Abstract

A novel orange-yellow emitting Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+, Tm3+ phosphor with bright and long persistent luminescence (LPL) has been newly developed. The incorporation of Tm3+ into the Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ as an auxiliary activator dominates its long persistent luminescence and thermoluminescence characteristics to a large extent. The emissions in Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+, Tm3+ for both fluorescence and LPL are due to the 5d → 4f transitions of Eu2+. The orange-yellow long persistent luminescence with the chromaticity coordination of (0.53, 0.46) can persist for nearly 220 min at recognizable intensity level (≥ 0.32 mcd/m2). This investigation provides a new and efficient long persistent phosphor which enriches the color of the existing LPL.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Long persistent phosphors have attracted considerable attention for various displays and signing applications as friendly environmental and energy economized materials [1

1. T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “A new long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(8), 2670–2673 (1996). [CrossRef]

5

5. X. Sun, J. Zhang, X. Zhang, Y. Luo, and X. Wang, “Long lasting yellow phosphorescence and photostimulated luminescence in Sr3SiO5: Eu2+ and Sr3SiO5: Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(19), 195414 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Now the long persistent phosphors and theirs relevant applications are challenged by the generation of multicolor long persistent luminescence (LPL). In principle, we can get any color-emitting LPL by mixing the three primary color-emitting long persistent phosphors. Until now, long persistent phosphors for two of the tricolor, blue (CaAl2O4:Eu2+, Nd3+) and green (SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+), have been commercially available. But long persistent phosphors for the red color, the third of tricolor, are still in search. On the other hand, this above method is hard to work in practice because we can hardly guarantee the very consistent LPL decay process for different components to ensure the uniformity of LPL color during the fade of the LPL. In addition, most of the tricolor long persistent phosphors currently available cannot be efficiently excited by the same excitation source [6

6. Y. Liu, J. Kuang, B. Lei, and C. Shi, “Color-control of long-lasting phosphorescence (LLP) through rare earth ion-doped cadmium metasilicate phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(37), 4025–4031 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. So the exploration of any color-emitting long persistent phosphor is promising and thus has attracted intensive research interests in the past decades.

Nowadays, a great amount of novel long persistent phosphors based on different hosts have been reported in the literature, here we will give some typical examples, e.g. Ca2Al2SiO7:Ce3+[417 nm, >1 h] [7

7. N. Kodama, T. Takahashi, M. Yamaga, Y. Tanii, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Long-lasting phosphorescence in Ce3+-doped Ca2Al2SiO7 and CaYAl3O7 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1715–1717 (1999). [CrossRef]

], CaMgSi2O6:Eu2+,Dy3+[447 nm, >4 h ] [8

8. L. Jiang, C. Chang, and D. Mao, “Luminescent properties of CaMgSi2O6 and Ca2MgSi2O7 phosphors activated by Eu2+, Dy3+ and Nd3+,” J. Alloy. Comp. 360(1-2), 193–197 (2003). [CrossRef]

], Sr(Ca)2MgSi2O7:Eu2+, Dy3+[470 (516) nm, 20 h] [9

9. Q. Fei, C. Chang, and D. Mao, “Luminescent properties of Sr2MgSi2O7 and Ca2MgSi2O7 long lasting phosphors activated by Eu2+, Dy3+,” J. Alloy. Comp. 390(1-2), 133–137 (2005). [CrossRef]

], Sr4Al14O15: Eu2+, Dy3+[486 nm, 15 h] [10

10. Y. Lin, Z. Tang, and Z. Zhang, “Preparation of long-afterglow Sr4Al14O25-based luminescent material and its optical properties,” Mater. Lett. 51(1), 14–18 (2001). [CrossRef]

], Lu2O3:Tb3+, Ca2+ [green,15 h] [11

11. J. Trojan-Piegza, E. Zych, J. Hölsa, and J. Niittykoski, “Spectroscopic Properties of Persistent Luminescence Phosphors: Lu2O3:Tb3+, M2+ (M= Ca, Sr, Ba),” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(47), 20493–20498 (2009). [CrossRef]

], Y2O2S:Ti,Mg [565 nm, 5 h] [2

2. C.-C. Kang, R.-S. Liu, J.-C. Chang, and B.-J. Lee, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of a new yellowish-orange afterglow phosphor Y2O2S: Ti, Mg,” Chem. Mater. 15(21), 3966–3968 (2003). [CrossRef]

], Sr3SiO5:Eu2+, Dy3+[570 nm, 6 h] [5

5. X. Sun, J. Zhang, X. Zhang, Y. Luo, and X. Wang, “Long lasting yellow phosphorescence and photostimulated luminescence in Sr3SiO5: Eu2+ and Sr3SiO5: Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(19), 195414 (2008). [CrossRef]

], Y2O2S:Sm3+[606 nm, 1.5 h] [12

12. B. Lei, Y. Liu, G. Tang, Z. Ye, and C. Shi, “A New Orange-red Long-lasting Phosphor Material Y2O2S:Sm3+,” Chem. J. Chin. Univ. 24, 208 (2003).

], CaSiO3:Sm3+[pink, 5 h] [13

13. B. Lei, Y. Liu, J. Liu, Z. Ye, and C. Shi, “Pink light emitting long-lasting phosphorescence in Sm3+-doped CdSiO3,” J. Solid State Chem. 177(4-5), 1333–1337 (2004). [CrossRef]

], Sr2Si5N8: Eu2+,Tm3+ [612 nm, 10 min] [14

14. X. Teng, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, H. He, and W. Zhuang, “Luminescence properties of Tm3+ co-doped Sr2Si5N8: Eu2+ red phosphor,” J. Lumin. 130(5), 851–854 (2010). [CrossRef]

], Y2O2S:Eu3+, Mg2+,Ti3+, [orange to red, 1 h] [15

15. X. Wang, Z. Zhang, Z. Tang, and Y. Lin, “Characterization and properties of a red and orange Y2O2S-based long afterglow phosphor,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 80(1), 1–5 (2003). [CrossRef]

] and Sr2SnO4:Sm3+[reddish-orange, 1 h] [16

16. L. Fu, Y. Song, Z. Zhe, and Y. Liu, “Luminescence Properties of Sr2SnO4: Sm3+ Afterglow Phosphor,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(3), 037201 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. It can be noted that the performances of blue and green emitting long persistent phosphors have meet the requirement for practical applications, however, long wavelength emitting (> 600 nm) long persistent phosphor, whose persistent time last longer than 2 h, is still in great scarcity. Therefore, there is a strong desire for the development of long persistent phosphors with long wavelength emissions in recent years.

The Eu2+-doped Sr3Al2O5Cl2 produces a broadband emission peaked at 620 nm, which is a potential orange-yellow phosphor for white light emitting diodes [17

17. Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. H. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr3 (Al2O5)Cl2: Eu phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131114 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. This long wavelength emitting phosphor attracts our intense interest. Until now, it has been recognized that Eu2+ are good activators for long persistent phosphors because its 5d electron state is usually close to the conduction band of the host, which makes trapping of electron become possible [4

4. F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. Le Mercier, “Mechanism of phosphorescence appropriate for the long-lasting phosphors Eu2+-doped SrAl2O4 with codopants Dy3+ and B3+,” Chem. Mater. 17(15), 3904–3912 (2005). [CrossRef]

,18

18. D. Jia, W. Jia, D. Evans, W. Dennis, H. Liu, J. Zhu, and W. Yen, “Trapping processes in CaS: Eu2+, Tm3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(6), 3402 (2000). [CrossRef]

,19

19. F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, T. Le Mercier, P. Deniard, S. Jobic, and M. Whangbo, “Formulation of Phosphorescence Mechanisms in Inorganic Solids Based on a New Model of Defect Conglomeration,” Chem. Mater. 18(14), 3212–3220 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. In addition, by our observation, Eu2+ activated compounds containing alkaline-earth and aluminum ions as cations usually show LPL, for example, MAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+(M = Ca, Sr, Ba) [1

1. T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “A new long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(8), 2670–2673 (1996). [CrossRef]

,20

20. T. Aitasalo, J. Hölsä, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Thermoluminescence study of persistent luminescence materials: Eu2+- and R3+-doped calcium aluminates, CaAl2O4:Eu2+,R3+.,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(10), 4589–4598 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,21

21. R. Sakai, T. Katsumata, S. Komuro, and T. Morikawa, “Effect of composition on the phosphorescence from BaAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ crystals,” J. Lumin. 85(1-3), 149–154 (1999). [CrossRef]

], SrAl4O7:Eu2+, Dy3+ [22

22. C. Chang, D. Mao, J. Shen, and C. Feng, “Preparation of long persistent SrO·2Al2O3 ceramics and their luminescent properties,” J. Alloy. Comp. 348(1-2), 224–230 (2003). [CrossRef]

], Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+,Dy3+ [10

10. Y. Lin, Z. Tang, and Z. Zhang, “Preparation of long-afterglow Sr4Al14O25-based luminescent material and its optical properties,” Mater. Lett. 51(1), 14–18 (2001). [CrossRef]

], Sr3Al2O6:Eu2+, Dy3+ [23

23. P. Zhang, M. Xu, Z. Zheng, B. Sun, and Y. Zhang, “Rapid formation of red long afterglow phosphor Sr3Al2O6: Eu2+, Dy3+ by microwave irradiation,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 136(2-3), 159–164 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Another interesting feature is that Eu2+ activated compounds containing sulfur ions as anions also demonstrate LPL phenomenon, e.g. Y2O2S:Mg2+,Ti3+ [8

8. L. Jiang, C. Chang, and D. Mao, “Luminescent properties of CaMgSi2O6 and Ca2MgSi2O7 phosphors activated by Eu2+, Dy3+ and Nd3+,” J. Alloy. Comp. 360(1-2), 193–197 (2003). [CrossRef]

],CaS:Eu2+,Tm3+ [21

21. R. Sakai, T. Katsumata, S. Komuro, and T. Morikawa, “Effect of composition on the phosphorescence from BaAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ crystals,” J. Lumin. 85(1-3), 149–154 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. The present investigated compound Sr3Al2O5Cl2 contains strontium and aluminum ions as cations, and oxygen as well as chlorine ions as anions. Considering that chlorine and sulfur are of similar chemical properties owing to they are adjacent elements in the periodic table, hence, we can predict that Sr3Al2O5Cl2 may have the potential to serve as a new host material for Eu2+ containing long persistent phosphors. Further, the codoping of trivalent rare earth ions is generally capable of greatly improving the LPL of Eu2+ doped compounds. Usually with proper codopants, the persistent time can be increased by a factor of ten, for example, Dy3+ in SrAl2O4:Eu2+, Dy3+ [1

1. T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “A new long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(8), 2670–2673 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. Tm3+ as codopants in sulfides and nitrides based long persistent phosphors have been reported in literatures [14

14. X. Teng, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, H. He, and W. Zhuang, “Luminescence properties of Tm3+ co-doped Sr2Si5N8: Eu2+ red phosphor,” J. Lumin. 130(5), 851–854 (2010). [CrossRef]

,18

18. D. Jia, W. Jia, D. Evans, W. Dennis, H. Liu, J. Zhu, and W. Yen, “Trapping processes in CaS: Eu2+, Tm3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(6), 3402 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. An interesting point is that in these sulfides and nitrides Eu2+ emissions are in the long wavelength range. And it seems that for long wavelength emitting long persistent phosphors containing Eu2+, the best codopants is Tm3+ in order to produce excellent LPL properties. Based on the above clues, there could be a great possibility to generate efficient LPL from Eu2+, Tm3+-codoped Sr3Al2O5Cl2. This motivated us to prepare Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+, Tm3+. As expected, strong orange-yellow LPL is observed in it. Next, we mainly report on its synthesis and LPL properties.

2. Experimental

The investigated phosphors in this work were synthesized through the solid-state reaction with SrCO3 (A. R.), Al2O3 (A. R.), SrCl2·6H2O (A. R.), Eu2O3 (99.99%) and Tm2O3 (99.99%) as raw materials. Stoichiometric mixtures of raw materials were homogeneously mixed and ground, and subsequently the mixture were placed in alumina crucibles with covers and sintered at 1100 °C for 4 h under ambient atmosphere in an electric tube furnace, and the sintered products were ground again in an agate mortar. Then the powder products were sintered at 900 °C for 2 h in a reducing atmosphere (N2:H2= 95:5) to reduce the Eu from its trivalent state to its divalent state. After firing, the samples were cooled to room temperature in the furnace, and ground again into powder for subsequent use.

The phase identification of samples was carried out by a Rigaku D/Max-2400 X-ray diffractometer with Ni-filter Cu Kα radiation. The excitation and emissison spectra were measured by a FLS-920T fluorescence spectrophotometer with Xe 900 (450W xenon arc lamp) as the light source. The decay curves were recorded by a PR305 Phosphorophotometer. The thermoluminescence (TL) curves were measured with a FJ-427 TL meter (Beijing Nuclear Instrument Factory) with a heating rate of 1°C/s in the temperature range from 20 to 400 °C. Prior to the TL measurement, 0.0080 g samples were exposed to radiation for 10 min by 365 nm UV light from a low pressure Hg lamp with a power of 30 W. All measurements were carried out at room temperature except the TL curves.

3. Results and discussion

In our work, the effect of Eu2+ and Tm3+ doping concentration on LPL properties were investigated. The optimum phosphor is Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03 in which the persistent time of LPL achieves maximum. Figure 1
Fig. 1 XRD patterns of Sr2.985Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03 and JCPDS Card No.34-0379
shows the XRD patterns of Sr2.985Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015 and Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03. All the observed peaks can be indexed to the pure phase of Sr3Al2O5Cl2 and match well with JCPDS card 80-0564, indicating the high purity and crystalline of the samples in this work. The doping of Eu2+ and Tm3+ does not make any noticeable variation of the XRD patterns.

Both Sr2.985Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015 and Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03 produce bright and efficient orange-yellow emission under UV excitation. The excitation and emission spectra of Eu2+ doped Sr3Al2O5Cl2 have been reported by Tang et al [17

17. Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. H. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr3 (Al2O5)Cl2: Eu phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131114 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Our photoluminescence results about Sr2.985Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015 agree well with theirs and thus it will not be discussed here. Figure 2
Fig. 2 Excitation and Emission spectra of Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03.
displays the excitation and emission spectra of Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03. The excitation spectrum is a broadband consisting of unresolved bands from 200 to 450 nm, which is due to the 4f7-4f65d1 of Eu2+. The emission spectrum exhibits a broad emission band peaked at 620 nm, originating from the typical 4f65d1-4f7 transition of Eu2+. The typical Tm3+ emission are not observed, indicating that it may not serve as luminescence centers in Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03 and may play a role of trapping centers as that of in CaS:Eu2+, Tm3+ [18

18. D. Jia, W. Jia, D. Evans, W. Dennis, H. Liu, J. Zhu, and W. Yen, “Trapping processes in CaS: Eu2+, Tm3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(6), 3402 (2000). [CrossRef]

].

As indicated above, when exposed to a 365 nm UV lamp, both Sr2.985Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015 and Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03 emit intense orange-yellow light, however, after the excitation source is switched off, only Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03 yields orange-yellow LPL. An encouraging result of the present work is that the orange-yellow LPL in Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03 can be clearly observed with the naked eye in the dark, as seen in the inset A of Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The LPL decay curve of Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03; Inset A: Photos of prepared Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03 sample was taken at 1 min after the removal of the 365 nm UV light. Inset B: the LPL spectra of Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03 measured at different times (1 and 8 min) after removal of the excitation source (λexc = 365 nm).
which was taken at 1 min after the exposure to the 365 nm UV light. The LPL decay curve of the Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03 is show in Fig. 3. It can be seen that the initial LPL intensity of Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03 can reach about 5000 mcd/m2 and its LPL can last about 220 min at recognizable intensity level (≥ 0.32 mcd/m2). The inset B in Fig. 3 shows the LPL spectra of Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03 measured at different times (t = 1, 8 min) after removal of the excitation source. For comparison, its UV-excited emission spectrum is also show in the inset B of Fig. 3. It is obvious that the shape and bandwidth of the UV-excited emission spectrum and the LPL spectra is similar, suggesting the LPL is due to the 4f65d1→4f7 transitions of Eu2+ as well.

Figure 4
Fig. 4 CIE chromaticity diagram of the Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03 at 1min after the removal of the excitation source.
is the corresponding CIE chromaticity diagram of the Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03 at 1 min after the removal of the excitation source. Point with chromaticity coordination of (0.53, 0.46) in Fig. 4 locates in the region of yellowish-orange color, indicating that the LPL in Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03 is orange-yellow.

The significant role of traps has been recognized in the field of LPL. In order to characterize the traps, TL measurements are performed on Sr2.985Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015 and Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03 and their TL curves are illustrated in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Thermoluminescence curves of Sr2.985Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015 and Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03
. For Sr2.985Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, clearly, there is almost no TL phenomenon. For the codoped sample, one peak predominates at 61 °C and another two weak bands exist at 128 and 305 °C, respectively, suggesting that Tm3+ may serves as trapping centers. For long persistent phosphors, one critical factor is the suitable trap depth correlated to the TL peaks [1

1. T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “A new long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(8), 2670–2673 (1996). [CrossRef]

,24

24. D. Haranath, V. Shanker, H. Chander, and P. Sharma, “Studies on the decay characteristics of strontium aluminate phosphor on thermal treatment,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 78(1), 6–10 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. The optimized TL peak is situated slightly above room temperature (50-120 °C) for better LPL properties [3

3. Y. Liu, B. Lei, and C. Shi, “Luminescent properties of a white afterglow phosphor CdSiO3:Dy3+,” Chem. Mater. 17(8), 2108–2113 (2005). [CrossRef]

,5

5. X. Sun, J. Zhang, X. Zhang, Y. Luo, and X. Wang, “Long lasting yellow phosphorescence and photostimulated luminescence in Sr3SiO5: Eu2+ and Sr3SiO5: Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(19), 195414 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, the predominating peak at 61 °C in Sr2.955Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+ 0.015, Tm3+ 0.03 may be responsible for its orange-yellow LPL. However, the detailed mechanism of LPL in Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+, Tm3+ is needed to be further investigated.

4. Conclusion

Orange-yellow LPL was obtained from Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+, Tm3+ prepared via a solid state reaction. The intense orange-yellow LPL predominates at 620 nm, due to the 4f65d1→ 4f7 transition of Eu2+. The initial intensity of the orange-yellow LPL can reach nearly 5000 mcd/m2 and its LPL can last about 220 min at recognizable intensity level (≥ 0.32 mcd/m2). The incorporation of Tm3+ into the matrix is essential to achieve the trapping centers associated with the dominant TL peak at 61 °C, which is responsible for the intense orange-yellow LPL. The present Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+, Tm3+ phosphor enriches the color of LPL and is a new member in the family of long persistent phosphors.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars (No. 50925206) and Key Science and Technology Project of Gansu Province (Grant no. 2GS064-A52-036-03).

References and links

1.

T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “A new long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(8), 2670–2673 (1996). [CrossRef]

2.

C.-C. Kang, R.-S. Liu, J.-C. Chang, and B.-J. Lee, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of a new yellowish-orange afterglow phosphor Y2O2S: Ti, Mg,” Chem. Mater. 15(21), 3966–3968 (2003). [CrossRef]

3.

Y. Liu, B. Lei, and C. Shi, “Luminescent properties of a white afterglow phosphor CdSiO3:Dy3+,” Chem. Mater. 17(8), 2108–2113 (2005). [CrossRef]

4.

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. Le Mercier, “Mechanism of phosphorescence appropriate for the long-lasting phosphors Eu2+-doped SrAl2O4 with codopants Dy3+ and B3+,” Chem. Mater. 17(15), 3904–3912 (2005). [CrossRef]

5.

X. Sun, J. Zhang, X. Zhang, Y. Luo, and X. Wang, “Long lasting yellow phosphorescence and photostimulated luminescence in Sr3SiO5: Eu2+ and Sr3SiO5: Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(19), 195414 (2008). [CrossRef]

6.

Y. Liu, J. Kuang, B. Lei, and C. Shi, “Color-control of long-lasting phosphorescence (LLP) through rare earth ion-doped cadmium metasilicate phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(37), 4025–4031 (2005). [CrossRef]

7.

N. Kodama, T. Takahashi, M. Yamaga, Y. Tanii, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Long-lasting phosphorescence in Ce3+-doped Ca2Al2SiO7 and CaYAl3O7 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1715–1717 (1999). [CrossRef]

8.

L. Jiang, C. Chang, and D. Mao, “Luminescent properties of CaMgSi2O6 and Ca2MgSi2O7 phosphors activated by Eu2+, Dy3+ and Nd3+,” J. Alloy. Comp. 360(1-2), 193–197 (2003). [CrossRef]

9.

Q. Fei, C. Chang, and D. Mao, “Luminescent properties of Sr2MgSi2O7 and Ca2MgSi2O7 long lasting phosphors activated by Eu2+, Dy3+,” J. Alloy. Comp. 390(1-2), 133–137 (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

Y. Lin, Z. Tang, and Z. Zhang, “Preparation of long-afterglow Sr4Al14O25-based luminescent material and its optical properties,” Mater. Lett. 51(1), 14–18 (2001). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Trojan-Piegza, E. Zych, J. Hölsa, and J. Niittykoski, “Spectroscopic Properties of Persistent Luminescence Phosphors: Lu2O3:Tb3+, M2+ (M= Ca, Sr, Ba),” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(47), 20493–20498 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

B. Lei, Y. Liu, G. Tang, Z. Ye, and C. Shi, “A New Orange-red Long-lasting Phosphor Material Y2O2S:Sm3+,” Chem. J. Chin. Univ. 24, 208 (2003).

13.

B. Lei, Y. Liu, J. Liu, Z. Ye, and C. Shi, “Pink light emitting long-lasting phosphorescence in Sm3+-doped CdSiO3,” J. Solid State Chem. 177(4-5), 1333–1337 (2004). [CrossRef]

14.

X. Teng, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, H. He, and W. Zhuang, “Luminescence properties of Tm3+ co-doped Sr2Si5N8: Eu2+ red phosphor,” J. Lumin. 130(5), 851–854 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

X. Wang, Z. Zhang, Z. Tang, and Y. Lin, “Characterization and properties of a red and orange Y2O2S-based long afterglow phosphor,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 80(1), 1–5 (2003). [CrossRef]

16.

L. Fu, Y. Song, Z. Zhe, and Y. Liu, “Luminescence Properties of Sr2SnO4: Sm3+ Afterglow Phosphor,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(3), 037201 (2010). [CrossRef]

17.

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. H. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr3 (Al2O5)Cl2: Eu phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131114 (2008). [CrossRef]

18.

D. Jia, W. Jia, D. Evans, W. Dennis, H. Liu, J. Zhu, and W. Yen, “Trapping processes in CaS: Eu2+, Tm3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(6), 3402 (2000). [CrossRef]

19.

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, T. Le Mercier, P. Deniard, S. Jobic, and M. Whangbo, “Formulation of Phosphorescence Mechanisms in Inorganic Solids Based on a New Model of Defect Conglomeration,” Chem. Mater. 18(14), 3212–3220 (2006). [CrossRef]

20.

T. Aitasalo, J. Hölsä, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Thermoluminescence study of persistent luminescence materials: Eu2+- and R3+-doped calcium aluminates, CaAl2O4:Eu2+,R3+.,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(10), 4589–4598 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

R. Sakai, T. Katsumata, S. Komuro, and T. Morikawa, “Effect of composition on the phosphorescence from BaAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ crystals,” J. Lumin. 85(1-3), 149–154 (1999). [CrossRef]

22.

C. Chang, D. Mao, J. Shen, and C. Feng, “Preparation of long persistent SrO·2Al2O3 ceramics and their luminescent properties,” J. Alloy. Comp. 348(1-2), 224–230 (2003). [CrossRef]

23.

P. Zhang, M. Xu, Z. Zheng, B. Sun, and Y. Zhang, “Rapid formation of red long afterglow phosphor Sr3Al2O6: Eu2+, Dy3+ by microwave irradiation,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 136(2-3), 159–164 (2007). [CrossRef]

24.

D. Haranath, V. Shanker, H. Chander, and P. Sharma, “Studies on the decay characteristics of strontium aluminate phosphor on thermal treatment,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 78(1), 6–10 (2003). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.4670) Materials : Optical materials
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
(250.5230) Optoelectronics : Photoluminescence

ToC Category:
Materials

History
Original Manuscript: September 20, 2010
Revised Manuscript: October 25, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: November 6, 2010
Published: November 12, 2010

Citation
Yanqin Li, Yuhua Wang, Yu Gong, Xuhui Xu, and Meijiao Zhou, "Design, synthesis and characterization of an orange-yellow long persistent phosphor: Sr3Al2O5Cl2:Eu2+,Tm3+," Opt. Express 18, 24853-24858 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-24-24853


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References

  1. T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “A new long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143(8), 2670–2673 (1996). [CrossRef]
  2. C.-C. Kang, R.-S. Liu, J.-C. Chang, and B.-J. Lee, “Synthesis and luminescent properties of a new yellowish-orange afterglow phosphor Y2O2S: Ti, Mg,” Chem. Mater. 15(21), 3966–3968 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Liu, B. Lei, and C. Shi, “Luminescent properties of a white afterglow phosphor CdSiO3:Dy3+,” Chem. Mater. 17(8), 2108–2113 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. Le Mercier, “Mechanism of phosphorescence appropriate for the long-lasting phosphors Eu2+-doped SrAl2O4 with codopants Dy3+ and B3+,” Chem. Mater. 17(15), 3904–3912 (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. X. Sun, J. Zhang, X. Zhang, Y. Luo, and X. Wang, “Long lasting yellow phosphorescence and photostimulated luminescence in Sr3SiO5: Eu2+ and Sr3SiO5: Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(19), 195414 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Liu, J. Kuang, B. Lei, and C. Shi, “Color-control of long-lasting phosphorescence (LLP) through rare earth ion-doped cadmium metasilicate phosphors,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(37), 4025–4031 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. N. Kodama, T. Takahashi, M. Yamaga, Y. Tanii, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Long-lasting phosphorescence in Ce3+-doped Ca2Al2SiO7 and CaYAl3O7 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1715–1717 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. L. Jiang, C. Chang, and D. Mao, “Luminescent properties of CaMgSi2O6 and Ca2MgSi2O7 phosphors activated by Eu2+, Dy3+ and Nd3+,” J. Alloy. Comp. 360(1-2), 193–197 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Fei, C. Chang, and D. Mao, “Luminescent properties of Sr2MgSi2O7 and Ca2MgSi2O7 long lasting phosphors activated by Eu2+, Dy3+,” J. Alloy. Comp. 390(1-2), 133–137 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Lin, Z. Tang, and Z. Zhang, “Preparation of long-afterglow Sr4Al14O25-based luminescent material and its optical properties,” Mater. Lett. 51(1), 14–18 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Trojan-Piegza, E. Zych, J. Hölsa, and J. Niittykoski, “Spectroscopic Properties of Persistent Luminescence Phosphors: Lu2O3:Tb3+, M2+ (M= Ca, Sr, Ba),” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(47), 20493–20498 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. B. Lei, Y. Liu, G. Tang, Z. Ye, and C. Shi, “A New Orange-red Long-lasting Phosphor Material Y2O2S:Sm3+,” Chem. J. Chin. Univ. 24, 208 (2003).
  13. B. Lei, Y. Liu, J. Liu, Z. Ye, and C. Shi, “Pink light emitting long-lasting phosphorescence in Sm3+-doped CdSiO3,” J. Solid State Chem. 177(4-5), 1333–1337 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. X. Teng, Y. Liu, Y. Hu, H. He, and W. Zhuang, “Luminescence properties of Tm3+ co-doped Sr2Si5N8: Eu2+ red phosphor,” J. Lumin. 130(5), 851–854 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. X. Wang, Z. Zhang, Z. Tang, and Y. Lin, “Characterization and properties of a red and orange Y2O2S-based long afterglow phosphor,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 80(1), 1–5 (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. L. Fu, Y. Song, Z. Zhe, and Y. Liu, “Luminescence Properties of Sr2SnO4: Sm3+ Afterglow Phosphor,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(3), 037201 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. H. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr3 (Al2O5)Cl2: Eu phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131114 (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. D. Jia, W. Jia, D. Evans, W. Dennis, H. Liu, J. Zhu, and W. Yen, “Trapping processes in CaS: Eu2+, Tm3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(6), 3402 (2000). [CrossRef]
  19. F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, T. Le Mercier, P. Deniard, S. Jobic, and M. Whangbo, “Formulation of Phosphorescence Mechanisms in Inorganic Solids Based on a New Model of Defect Conglomeration,” Chem. Mater. 18(14), 3212–3220 (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. T. Aitasalo, J. Hölsä, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Thermoluminescence study of persistent luminescence materials: Eu2+- and R3+-doped calcium aluminates, CaAl2O4:Eu2+,R3+.,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(10), 4589–4598 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. Sakai, T. Katsumata, S. Komuro, and T. Morikawa, “Effect of composition on the phosphorescence from BaAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ crystals,” J. Lumin. 85(1-3), 149–154 (1999). [CrossRef]
  22. C. Chang, D. Mao, J. Shen, and C. Feng, “Preparation of long persistent SrO·2Al2O3 ceramics and their luminescent properties,” J. Alloy. Comp. 348(1-2), 224–230 (2003). [CrossRef]
  23. P. Zhang, M. Xu, Z. Zheng, B. Sun, and Y. Zhang, “Rapid formation of red long afterglow phosphor Sr3Al2O6: Eu2+, Dy3+ by microwave irradiation,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 136(2-3), 159–164 (2007). [CrossRef]
  24. D. Haranath, V. Shanker, H. Chander, and P. Sharma, “Studies on the decay characteristics of strontium aluminate phosphor on thermal treatment,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 78(1), 6–10 (2003). [CrossRef]

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