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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 24 — Nov. 22, 2010
  • pp: 25000–25007
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The spatially varying polarization of a focused Gaussian beam in quasi-phase-matched superlattice under electro-optic effect

Haibo Tang, Lixiang Chen, and Weilong She  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 24, pp. 25000-25007 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.025000


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Abstract

We present in this paper a wave coupling theory of linear electro-optic (EO) effect for quasi-phase matched (QPM) of focused Gaussian beam in an optical superlattice (OSL). The numerical results indicate that, due to the EO effect of an appropriate applied electric field, the output beam will form spatially inhomogeneous polarization, changing continuously in transverse section of beam; the confocal parameter has a significant impact on the output polarization of Gaussian beam and determines the half-wave voltage.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

2. Theory and Analyses

Figure 1
Fig. 1 The experimental schematic diagram of EO effect for QPM of focused Gaussian beam in an OSL. The arrows indicate the directions of the polarizations of crystal domains. x, y and z stand for three principal axes of the crystal. The applied electric field E 0 is along the y -axis of the OSL. a, b, c are three unite vectors of two independent electromagnetic wave components and applied electric field, respectively.
shows the experimental schematic diagram of EO effect for QPM of focused Gaussian beam in an OSL. The applied electric field is along the y-axis of the OSL and a monochromatic light wave propagates along the x-axis of the OSL. In a cylindrical coordinate system, the total electric field participating in the process of linear EO effect can be expressed as [29

29. W. She and W. Lee, “Wave coupling theory of linear electrooptic effect,” Opt. Commun. 195(1-4), 303–311 (2001). [CrossRef]

]
E(r,x,t)=E(0)+[E(r,x)exp(iωt)/2+c.c.],
(1)
where r is the radial distance from the propagation axis; E(0) is the dc electric field or slow varying electric field; [E(r,x)exp(-iωt)/2 + c.c.] is the light field with frequency ω; c.c. denotes the complex conjugate. According to Ref [30

30. A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, and P. Porto, “Optimum beams for efficient frequency mixing in crystals with second order nonlinearity,” Opt. Commun. 177, 9–13 (2000). [CrossRef]

,31

31. A. Ciattoni, G. Cincotti, and C. Palma, “Nonparaxial description of reflection and transmission at the interface between an isotropic medium and a uniaxial crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(7), 1422–1431 (2002). [CrossRef]

], the paraxial approximation is determined by the parameter g = 1/(k 0/W 0), where k 0 is the wave number of the light field in vacuum and W 0 is the waist radius at the input surface. For a wavelength λ = 632.8 nm, when g = 1/(k 0/W 0)≤0.01, namely W 0≥10.07µm, the paraxial approximation condition holds. And the x component (longitudinal component) of light field is too small so that it can be neglected. But, there exist two independent electromagnetic wave components of a monochromatic light wave propagating in the OSL, i.e.,
E(r,x)=E1(r,x)exp(ik1x)+E2(r,x)exp(ik2x),
(2)
where E 1(r,x) and E 2(r,x) denote the complex amplitudes of two perpendicular components of the light field when k 1 = k 2, or those of two independent electric field components experiencing different refractive indices when k 1k 2.

For a Gaussian beam, the light field can be expressed as E j(r,x) = G j(x)uj(r,x) (j = 1,2), where G j(x) are the expansion coefficients of the Laguerre-Gaussian modes of zero order, and uj(r,x) are the Gaussian modes [10

10. V. Magni, “Optimum beams for efficient frequency mixing in crystals with second order nonlinearity,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 245–255 (2000). [CrossRef]

,11

11. G. Xu, T. Ren, Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, S. Zhu, and N. Ming, “Third-harmonic generation by use of focused Gaussian beams in an optical superlattice,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(2), 360–365 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Here, the waist of the incident Gaussian beam is set at the input surface of OSL, then the two independent polarization components of light fields have the same waist radius, W 01 = W 02 = W 0. Therefore, uj(r,x) (j = 1,2) read [10

10. V. Magni, “Optimum beams for efficient frequency mixing in crystals with second order nonlinearity,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 245–255 (2000). [CrossRef]

12

12. C. Zhang, Y. Q. Qin, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Perfect quasi-phase matching for the third-harmonic generation using focused Gaussian beams,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 720–722 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]
uj(r,x)=2π1W0[1i(2x/bj)]exp{r2W02[1i(2x/bj)]},
(3)
where bj = kjW 0 2 are the confocal parameters and b 2 = n 2/n 1 b 1, with n 1 and n 2 being the unperturbed refractive indices of two wave components of different polarizations.

Let G1(x)=ω/n1A1(x)a, G2(x)=ω/n2A2(x)b, E(0)=E0c, where a, b, and c are three unit vectors and ab=0; A 1(x) and A 2(x) are the normalized amplitudes of the two wave components. Similarly to Ref [10

10. V. Magni, “Optimum beams for efficient frequency mixing in crystals with second order nonlinearity,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 245–255 (2000). [CrossRef]

12

12. C. Zhang, Y. Q. Qin, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Perfect quasi-phase matching for the third-harmonic generation using focused Gaussian beams,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 720–722 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,29

29. W. She and W. Lee, “Wave coupling theory of linear electrooptic effect,” Opt. Commun. 195(1-4), 303–311 (2001). [CrossRef]

,32

32. G. L. Zheng, H. C. Wang, and W. L. She, “Wave coupling theory of Quasi-Phase-Matched linear electro-optic effect,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5535–5540 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], starting from Maxwell’s equations and taking the EO second-order nonlinearity as a perturbation, we derive the wave coupling equations that describe the interaction between a light wave and an applied electric field under the slow varying amplitude approximation and the paraxial approximation, as follows
dA1(x)dx=id1f(x)A2(x)exp(iΔkx)11+i(x/b1)(1n1/n2)id2f(x)A1(x),
dA2(x)dx=id3f(x)A1(x)exp(iΔkx)11i(x/b1)(1n1/n2)id4f(x)A2(x),
(4)
where f(x) = 1 and −1 correspond to the positive and negative domains of OSL, respectively; Δk=k2k1 is the wave vector mismatch; andd1=k02nn12reff1E0, d2=k02n1reff2E0, d3=k02nn12reff1E0, d4=k02n2reff3E0, with reffi (i = 1, 2, 3) being the same as those in Ref. [29

29. W. She and W. Lee, “Wave coupling theory of linear electrooptic effect,” Opt. Commun. 195(1-4), 303–311 (2001). [CrossRef]

].

To compensate for the wave vector mismatch perfectly, similarly to Ref [12

12. C. Zhang, Y. Q. Qin, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Perfect quasi-phase matching for the third-harmonic generation using focused Gaussian beams,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 720–722 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], we consider such a structure of OSL, f(x) = sgn(Re{[1 + i(x/b 1)(1-n 1/n 2)]−1exp(iΔkx)}),where Re represents the real part; sgn is the sign function, sgn(x) = 1 when x≥0, sgn(x) = −1 when x<0. Under the condition of QPM, Eqs. (4) can be simplified as
dA1(x)dx=id1A2(x)f111+(x/b1)2(1n1/n2)2id2f(x)A1(x),
dA2(x)dx=id3A1(x)f111+(x/b1)2(1n1/n2)2id4f(x)A2(x),
(5)
wheref1=0Lf(x)exp[iRx+ϕ(x)]dx/L is the Fourier coefficient for given structure; L is the length of OSL; R is the reciprocal vector provided by the OSL; and φ(x) = arg{[1 ± i(x/b 1)(1-n 1/n 2)]−1}. For plane-wave interactions, φ(x) becomes a constant, and the OSL will degenerate to a periodic one [33

33. T. Kartaloğlu, Z. G. Figen, and O. Aytür, “Simultaneous phase matching of optical parametric oscillation and second-harmonic generation in aperiodically poled lithium niobate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(2), 343–350 (2003). [CrossRef]

].

Equations (5) are those describing the linear EO effect for QPM of focused Gaussian beam in an OSL, which are different from the coupled equations of the linear EO effect for QPM of plane-wave [32

32. G. L. Zheng, H. C. Wang, and W. L. She, “Wave coupling theory of Quasi-Phase-Matched linear electro-optic effect,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5535–5540 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. And the main difference is that there is a coefficient of [1 ± i(x/b 1) (1-n 1/n 2)]−1 for each term on the right side of Eqs. (5). The factor [1 ± i(x/b 1)(1-n 1/n 2)]−1 depends on x, which causes a continuously phase variation, so-called Gouy phase shift. When x<<b 1, Eqs. (5) reduce to the familiar wave coupling equations under the plane-wave approximation [32

32. G. L. Zheng, H. C. Wang, and W. L. She, “Wave coupling theory of Quasi-Phase-Matched linear electro-optic effect,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5535–5540 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Compared with the EO effect for QPM of the plane wave, a significant character of present case is that, due to the EO effect, the polarization of output beam will form a transversely inhomogeneous distribution in space. Generally, the description of the polarization state (ellipse) requires two parameters: azimuth angle ψ∈ [-90°, 90°] and ellipticity e∈ [-1, 1] (the positive and negative correspond to right- and left-handed polarizations, respectively). ψ and e can be obtained by the relations [34

34. R. Azzam, and N. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1977).

]
tan (2ψ)=2Re (X)1-|X|2,sin (2arctan  e)=2Im (X)1+|X|2,
(6)
where X=E2(r,x)/E1(r,x)=ω/n2A2(x)u2(r,x)/[ω/n1A1(x)u1(r,x)]. For a Gaussian beam, the polarization of output beam does not depend on the coordinate azimuthal angle in a cylindrical coordinate system [10

10. V. Magni, “Optimum beams for efficient frequency mixing in crystals with second order nonlinearity,” Opt. Commun. 184(1-4), 245–255 (2000). [CrossRef]

12

12. C. Zhang, Y. Q. Qin, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Perfect quasi-phase matching for the third-harmonic generation using focused Gaussian beams,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 720–722 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, the polarization of output beam varies with propagation distances. And more interesting is that, at a fixed x, the output beam will form a spatially inhomogeneous polarization, changing continuously in the transverse section of beam. It is obviously different from the EO effect of plane wave, for which the output beam has a polarization with homogeneous distribution transversely in space. The reason is that, two independent polarization components of Gaussian beam have different confocal parameters, i.e., b 1b 2, which result in a phase difference between two independent wave components in OSL. The following numerical results will illustrate this further.

In our calculation, the wavelength λ, the temperature T, the length of the OSL L and the beam waist W 0 are 632.8 nm, 298 K, 2.5 cm and 15 µm, respectively, which satisfy the paraxial approximation; the nonvanishing EO coefficients of lithium niobate used are r 22 = 3.4 and r 51 = 3.4 (in 10−12 m/V) [29

29. W. She and W. Lee, “Wave coupling theory of linear electrooptic effect,” Opt. Commun. 195(1-4), 303–311 (2001). [CrossRef]

]; the Sellmeier equations for lithium niobate are from Ref [35

35. M. V. Hobden and J. Warner, “The temperature dependence of the refractive indices of pure lithium niobate,” Phys. Lett. 22(3), 243–244 (1966). [CrossRef]

]. For an extraordinary incident beam with initial condition A 1(0) = 0, A 2(0) = 1, we obtain the numerical results shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The spatial distribution of polarization of output beam for different E 0 and with λ = 632.8 nm, T = 298 K, L = 2.5 cm, W 0 = 15 µm fixed. (a) E 0 = 0; (b) E 0 = 15 V/mm; (c) E 0 = 30 V/mm; (d) E 0 = 45 V/mm; (e) E 0 = 64 V/mm.
, which demonstrates the spatial distribution of polarization of output beam for different applied electric field E 0. One sees from Figs. 2(a) and 2(e) that, when E 0 = 0 or 64 V/mm, the output beam is linearly polarized. This is because that when E 0 = 0, it has no EO effect and the output beam is an extraordinary one; and when E 0 = 64 V/mm,

|A 1(L)|2 = 1 the output beam has become an ordinary one fully. More interesting is that, when E 0 takes other values, for example, E 0 = 15, 30 or 45 V/mm, the polarization of output beam becomes spatially inhomogeneous. To further identify the relative change of polarization for output beam, we plot the dependence of ψ and e on r at different E 0, as shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Dependence of ψ and e on r for different E 0. (a) ψ on r; (b) e on r. Solid, long dashed, short dashed lines correspond respectively to E 0 = 15, 30, and 45 V/mm for λ = 632.8 nm, T = 298 K, L = 2.5 cm, and W 0 = 15 µm fixed.
. One sees from Fig. 3 that, when E 0 = 15 V/mm [corresponding to Fig. 2(b)], ψ varies from −0.10° to −8.63° (Δψ = 8.53°) and e from −0.40 to −0.34 (Δe = 0.06) with r increasing from 0 to 150 µm; when E 0 = 45 V/mm [corresponding to Fig. 2(d)], ψ varies from 0.14° to 13.82° (Δψ = 13.68°) and e from −0.48 to −0.46 (Δe = 0.02) with r (Note that in Figs. 2(b) and 2(d), though Δe are small, Δψ are great, the spatial inhomogeneity of polarization of output beam is still evident); and when E 0 = 30 V/mm [corresponding to Fig. 2(c)], ψ varies from −1.60° to −34.23° (Δψ = 32.63°) and e from −0.93 to −0.66 (Δe = 0.27) with r. Δe and Δψ are both great, so the spatial inhomogeneity of polarization of output beam is very evident.

We find that the transverse spatial inhomogeneity of polarization of output beam is not only controlled by the applied electric field E 0, but also affected by the confocal parameters b 1 and b 2. To demonstrate this, we fix E 0 at 30 V/mm, and change b 1 (b 2 = n 2/n 1 b 1). The numerical results are shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The spatial distribution of polarization of output beam for different b 1 and with λ = 632.8 nm, T = 298 K, L = 2.5 cm, E 0 = 30 V/mm fixed. (a) b 1 = 5.11 mm; (b) b 1 = 4 × 5.11 mm; (c) b 1 = 16 × 5.11 mm; (d) b 1 = 64 × 5.11 mm.
. It is found that, when b 1 = 5.11 mm (W 0 = 15µm), the spatial inhomogeneity of polarization of output beam is very evident. With the increase of b 1, however, the transverse polarization of output beam varies gradually from spatial inhomogeneity to spatial homogeneity. It can be understood by Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Dependence of ψ and e on r for different b 1. (a) ψ on r; (b) e on r. Thick solid, thin solid, long dashed, short dashed lines correspond respectively to b 1 = 5.11, 4 × 5.11, 16 × 5.11, and 64 × 5.11 mm for λ = 632.8 nm, T = 298 K, and L = 2.5 cm fixed.
. One sees that, when b 1 = 4 × 5.11 mm, ψ varies from −6.62° to −20.40° (Δψ = 13.78°) and e from 0.94 to 0.68 (Δe = 0.26) with r. Δψ is much smaller than that at b 1 = 5.11 mm. And when b 1 = 16 × 5.11 mm, ψ varies from −6.25° to 4.83° (Δψ = 11.08°) and e from −0.92 to −0.84 (Δe = 0.08) with r. Both of Δψ and Δe are much smaller than those at b 1 = 5.11 mm. Further, when b 1 = 64 × 5.11 mm, ψ varies from −1.91° to 0.87° (Δψ = 2.78°) and e from −0.916 to −0.913 (Δe = 0.003) with r. Compared with that for b 1 = 5.11 mm, the Δψ here is very small and Δe is almost unchanged, meaning that the polarization is almost spatially homogeneous.

We also investigate the effect of the confocal parameter b 1 on the half-wave voltage V π = E 0'd, where E 0' is the applied electric field for turning an extraordinary light into an ordinary one fully; d is the thickness of OSL along the direction of applied electric field. The dependence of E 0' on b 1 for the output intensity of o-ray reaching at its maximum value is shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Dependence of the applied electric field E 0' on the confocal parameter b 1 when the output intensity of o-ray obtains its maximum value for λ = 632.8 nm, T = 298 K, L = 2.5 cm.
, from which one sees that, E 0' (or V π) continually decreases as b 1 increases from 2.3 to 21.14 mm. And when b 1≥21.14 mm, E 0' (or V π) almost keeps a constant since (x/b 1)2(1-n 1/n 2)2 in Eq. (5) is close to zero in this case. Then, it is easy to obtainVπ=(πn1n2d)/(k0reff1f1L) according to Ref [29

29. W. She and W. Lee, “Wave coupling theory of linear electrooptic effect,” Opt. Commun. 195(1-4), 303–311 (2001). [CrossRef]

,32

32. G. L. Zheng, H. C. Wang, and W. L. She, “Wave coupling theory of Quasi-Phase-Matched linear electro-optic effect,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5535–5540 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The output intensity of o-ray, |A 1(L)|2 as a function of b 1 and E 0 is shown in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The output intensity of o-ray |A 1(L)|2 as a function of the confocal parameter b 1 and the applied electric field E 0, for λ = 632.8 nm, T = 298 K, L = 2.5 cm.
, which exhibits a recurrence of o-ray to its maximum intensity with E 0 for a fixed b 1. It can be understood as follows: according to Eq. (6), the ratio A 2(L)/A 1(L) determines the polarization of light field. And Fig. 7 shows that A 1(L) and A 2(L) have some periodicity vs E 0 for a fixed b 1, which means that the dependence of the polarization on E 0 has some periodicity. The phenomenon is slightly different from the recent work of J.W. Zhao et al. [36

36. J. W. Zhao, C. P. Huang, Z. Q. Shen, Y. H. Liu, L. Fan, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Simultaneous harmonic generation and polarization control in an optical superlattice,” Appl. Phys. B 99(4), 673–677 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. In their experiment, they utilized a focused Gaussian beam to generate simultaneous second-harmonic (SH) generation (SHG) and EO coupling in a periodic or quasi-periodic OSL, where there is a competition between the SHG and EO coupling [37

37. C. P. Huang, Q. J. Wang, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Cascaded frequency doubling and electro-optic coupling in a single optical superlattice,” Appl. Phys. B 80(6), 741–744 (2005). [CrossRef]

39

39. H. Tang, L. Chen, G. Zheng, D. Huang, and W. She, “Electrically controlled second harmonic generation of circular polarization in a single LiNbO3 optical superlattice,” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 661–666 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. For a larger applied electric field, the EO coupling is dominant and the SHG becomes less efficient so that e-polarized SH becomes weak; and as a result of EO coupling, o-polarized SH also becomes weak. So for a too large applied electric field, both e- and o- polarized SH synchronously become weak, and the energy is concentrated into the fundamental wave. Therefore, the intensity of o- polarized SH does not exhibit a recurrence with E 0. A similar mechanism was found from acousto-optic tunable SHG [40

40. Z. Y. Yu, F. Xu, F. Leng, X. S. Qian, X. F. Chen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Acousto-optic tunable second harmonic generation in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11965–11971 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

3. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have developed a wave coupling theory of EO effect for QPM of focused Gaussian beam in an OSL. It is found that an electrically controllable and spatially inhomogeneous polarization beam can be obtained by a special designed OSL under EO effect. This type of spatially inhomogeneous polarization beam may have potential applications in some special photonic devices and optical systems. Here we have not considered the effects of pump-depletion, absorption, other hybrid excitation schemes and optical medium properties or defects, which are of interesting but will make the theoretical model more complicated, needing further studies.

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 10874251).

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A. Ciattoni, B. Crosignani, and P. Porto, “Optimum beams for efficient frequency mixing in crystals with second order nonlinearity,” Opt. Commun. 177, 9–13 (2000). [CrossRef]

31.

A. Ciattoni, G. Cincotti, and C. Palma, “Nonparaxial description of reflection and transmission at the interface between an isotropic medium and a uniaxial crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(7), 1422–1431 (2002). [CrossRef]

32.

G. L. Zheng, H. C. Wang, and W. L. She, “Wave coupling theory of Quasi-Phase-Matched linear electro-optic effect,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5535–5540 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

T. Kartaloğlu, Z. G. Figen, and O. Aytür, “Simultaneous phase matching of optical parametric oscillation and second-harmonic generation in aperiodically poled lithium niobate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(2), 343–350 (2003). [CrossRef]

34.

R. Azzam, and N. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1977).

35.

M. V. Hobden and J. Warner, “The temperature dependence of the refractive indices of pure lithium niobate,” Phys. Lett. 22(3), 243–244 (1966). [CrossRef]

36.

J. W. Zhao, C. P. Huang, Z. Q. Shen, Y. H. Liu, L. Fan, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Simultaneous harmonic generation and polarization control in an optical superlattice,” Appl. Phys. B 99(4), 673–677 (2010). [CrossRef]

37.

C. P. Huang, Q. J. Wang, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Cascaded frequency doubling and electro-optic coupling in a single optical superlattice,” Appl. Phys. B 80(6), 741–744 (2005). [CrossRef]

38.

Y. Kong, X. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Competition of frequency conversion and polarization coupling in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. B 91(3-4), 479–482 (2008). [CrossRef]

39.

H. Tang, L. Chen, G. Zheng, D. Huang, and W. She, “Electrically controlled second harmonic generation of circular polarization in a single LiNbO3 optical superlattice,” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 661–666 (2009). [CrossRef]

40.

Z. Y. Yu, F. Xu, F. Leng, X. S. Qian, X. F. Chen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Acousto-optic tunable second harmonic generation in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11965–11971 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
(230.2090) Optical devices : Electro-optical devices
(260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: November 1, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: November 4, 2010
Published: November 16, 2010

Citation
Haibo Tang, Lixiang Chen, and Weilong She, "The spatially varying polarization of a focused Gaussian beam in quasi-phase-matched superlattice under electro-optic effect," Opt. Express 18, 25000-25007 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-24-25000


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  31. A. Ciattoni, G. Cincotti, and C. Palma, “Nonparaxial description of reflection and transmission at the interface between an isotropic medium and a uniaxial crystal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(7), 1422–1431 (2002). [CrossRef]
  32. G. L. Zheng, H. C. Wang, and W. L. She, “Wave coupling theory of Quasi-Phase-Matched linear electro-optic effect,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5535–5540 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. T. Kartaloğlu, Z. G. Figen, and O. Aytür, “Simultaneous phase matching of optical parametric oscillation and second-harmonic generation in aperiodically poled lithium niobate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(2), 343–350 (2003). [CrossRef]
  34. R. Azzam, and N. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1977).
  35. M. V. Hobden and J. Warner, “The temperature dependence of the refractive indices of pure lithium niobate,” Phys. Lett. 22(3), 243–244 (1966). [CrossRef]
  36. J. W. Zhao, C. P. Huang, Z. Q. Shen, Y. H. Liu, L. Fan, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Simultaneous harmonic generation and polarization control in an optical superlattice,” Appl. Phys. B 99(4), 673–677 (2010). [CrossRef]
  37. C. P. Huang, Q. J. Wang, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Cascaded frequency doubling and electro-optic coupling in a single optical superlattice,” Appl. Phys. B 80(6), 741–744 (2005). [CrossRef]
  38. Y. Kong, X. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Competition of frequency conversion and polarization coupling in periodically poled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. B 91(3-4), 479–482 (2008). [CrossRef]
  39. H. Tang, L. Chen, G. Zheng, D. Huang, and W. She, “Electrically controlled second harmonic generation of circular polarization in a single LiNbO3 optical superlattice,” Appl. Phys. B 94(4), 661–666 (2009). [CrossRef]
  40. Z. Y. Yu, F. Xu, F. Leng, X. S. Qian, X. F. Chen, and Y. Q. Lu, “Acousto-optic tunable second harmonic generation in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11965–11971 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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