OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 24 — Nov. 22, 2010
  • pp: 25321–25328
« Show journal navigation

Localized surface plasmon resonance interaction with Er3+-doped tellurite glass

V. A. G. Rivera, S. P. A. Osorio, Y. Ledemi, D. Manzani, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. O. Nunes, and E. Marega, Jr.  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 24, pp. 25321-25328 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.025321


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1361 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We show the annealing effect on silver and Erbium- doped tellurite glasses in the formation of nanoparticles (NPs) of silver, produced by the reduction of silver (Ag+→Ag0), aiming to an fluorescence enhancement. The absorption spectra show typical Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) band of Ag0 NP in addition to the distinctive absorption peaks of Er3+ ions. Both observations demonstrate that the photoluminescence enhancement is due to the coupling of dipoles formed by NPs with the Er3+ 4I13/24I15/2 transition. This plasmon energy transfer to the Er3+ ions was observed in the fluorescence spectrum with a blue-shift of the peaks.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

The interaction of light with rare-earth (RE) doped glasses containing metallic NPs have been attracting large attention due to their relevance for a variety of applications such as colored displays and amplifier waveguides for telecommunications [1

1. P. N. Prasad, Nanophotonics (Wiley, New York, 2004).

]. The Erbium-doped tellurite glass is a well known host matrix that plays an important role as optical amplifiers and optic fibers due to a variety of potential applications, and high solubility for RE ions [2

2. C. Li, Z. Quan, J. Yang, P. Yang, and J. Lin, “Highly uniform and monodispersive β-NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Tb, Yb/Er and Yb/Tm) hexagonal microprism crystals: Hydrothermal synthesis and luminescent properties,” Inorg. Chem. 46(16), 6329–6337 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Moreover, they have attracted much interest in optoelectronic and photonic applications because the emission in the telecommunication optical window is due to the 4f↔4f transitions, not only the 4I13/24I15/2 transition, but also the upconversion transition. These transitions intensities depend strongly on the nature and structure of chemical environment around Er3+ ion. On the other hand, NPs can be a candidate for enhancement fluorescence studies, as showing by several efforts devoted on the study and exploitation of Localized Surface Plasmons Resonance (LSPR) and local field properties of metal NPs and their potential applications. However, the controlled production of anisotropic NPs embedded in glasses matrix is a current challenging with promissory applications [3

3. K. R. Brown, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, “Seeding of colloidal Au nanoparticle solutions. 2. Improved control of particle size and shape,” Chem. Mater. 12(2), 306–313 (2000). [CrossRef]

].

2. Samples preparation and the experimental setup

The glasses samples of 10 g weight were obtained using the following starting composition: 75TeO2–2GeO2–15Na2O–7ZnO–1Er2O3-xAgCl (mol%). The 1 mol% Er2O3 concentration is equivalent to 10000 ppm in weight of erbium, where x = 0.25 and 0.50 for the samples TE025-Y and TE050-Y respectively, and Y is the annealing time at a fixed temperature at 300 °C (Y = 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 hours).

The glass samples were prepared by the conventional technique of melt-quenching. A gold crucible containing the glass constituents was placed in a furnace from ambient temperature up to 750 °C, where it remained for 2 h. After melting, the glass is quenched and cooled to ambient temperature. Finally, to reduce internal stresses caused by the thermal shock, the glass samples underwent annealing as mentioned previously. Silver NPs embedded in this host matrix were synthesized according to the annealing time. The final samples were cut in square pieces of 10×30×1.5 mm3 approximately and polished until obtaining an adequate transparency for optical characterization.

The different annealing times Y results in the formation of different NPs sizes with different distances between them dispersed in the vitreous matrix. TEM photograph was done using a Philips-CM120 operating at 200 kV. Through XRD measurements, the average NP size was calculated using Scherre’s formula: d=0.9λ/{FWHMcos(2θpeak)}, where l is the wavelength of XRD (Cu Ka = 1.5418 Å), FWHM is the full width at half maximum 2θ. The XRD was performed by a Rigaku-Rota Flex mod. RU200B, with 2θ varying from 10° to 80° with step of 0.02°, using Ni filter, at 40 mA and 40 kV. In our calculations it is assumed that the NPs are perfectly spherical. We also have calculated the concentration N (atoms/cm3) of Ag and the distance between various species (mean inter-ionic distance rm) in each NP by the relation: N(ions or atoms/cm3)=A×N0×ρ/Mav, and rm=(1/N)1/3 [4

4. T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Nanosilver enhanced upconversion fluorescence of erbium ions in Er3+: Ag-antimony glass nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013102 (2009). [CrossRef]

], where A is the ion or atom per cent, N0 is Avogadro’s number, ρ is glass density (g/cm3), and Mav glass average molecular weight. The density of the glass samples was measured by the Archimedes method using distilled water as immersion medium, obtained in average ρ TE025-Y = 5.1 ± 0.1 and ρ TE050-Y = 5.3 ± 0.1. The characteristic temperatures of the glass, the glass transition temperature Tg, the temperature of the onset of crystallization Tx, and the maximum crystallization temperature Tc were determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) with heating rates of 10 °C/min. The results are show in the Table 1

Table 1. Some calculated physical properties and relative intensities of the luminescence enhancement of the samples. Besides as well glass transition temperatures Tg

table-icon
View This Table
| View All Tables
.

Absorption spectroscopy was performed by a Perkin–Elmer Lambda 900 UV/Vis/NIR spectrophotometer, in the range from 400 to 1800 nm at room temperature. Luminescence spectra were performed using a 980 nm diode laser of 2.0 W of power, an InGaAs detector and lock-in technique. For measuring the 4I13/2 lifetime, the samples were irradiated with a 980-nm-laser diode with a pulse train of 50 μs up and with dead time of 100 ms. The emission signal was measured by a 400 MHz oscilloscope (Tektronix TDS 380).

Based on the thermal parameters obtained for the glass (see Table 1), the proposed annealing temperature was 300 °C (just up Tg) to perform the NPs formation.

3. Results and discussions

Tellurite glass doped Er3+ ions and co-doped with NPs can induce significant enhancement of the Erbium fluorescence due to long-range electromagnetic interaction between the plasmons of the Ag NPs in the host medium. This strong enhancement of electromagnetic fields is essential in nonlinear optics effects, and allowed achieve to high values of electromagnetic field enhancement through the excitation of LSP [5

5. S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A LSP is a free electrons oscillation of a metallic particle, whose frequency of resonance is the plasma frequency (wP) tuned by the size and shape of the particle. Such oscillations are caused by the interaction between the incident radiation and the NPs, these oscillations are dependent on the shape and size of NPs.

Thus, the enhancement obtained with these NPs is due to the formation of electric dipoles (ED) which generates a polarization given by PNP=qeN'x, where x is the distance between each NP, q=πd3/6 is the NP specific volume, N' is the conduction electrons density, and e is the electronic charge. Therefore, a modification in the local electric field is produced by these dipoles that can be understood as a local field correction. Now, the interaction of a homogeneous NP of diameter d (d<<l) with electromagnetic field will be considered in two regimes: First, for large particles (d > 20 nm), where the quasi-static approximation breaks down due to absorption effects, and second, the regime of very small NP d ≤ 20 nm, where the particle dimensions are appreciably smaller than the mean free path of its oscillating electrons.

Using the results obtained by O.L. Malta et al [7

7. O. L. Malta, P. O. Santa-Cruz, G. F. de Sá, and F. Auzel, “Fluorescence enhancement induced by the presence of small silver particles in Eu3+ doped materials,” J. Lumin. 33(3), 261–272 (1985). [CrossRef]

], the effective electric field can be written as: Eeff=(ε0+2)(1+qωP2/{3ε0[(1q)(ωP2/3ε0)ω2+iγω]})E0/3, where g is the damping the resonance, ε0 is the dielectric constant in the presence of an external electromagnetic field of amplitude E0. In the presence of an electromagnetic field we have LSPR which forms EDs separated by different distance r¯, some of which will contribute to the luminescence enhancement.

Assuming that the Er3+ ions may occupy different sites in the host, a direct coupling between the excited states of the Er3+ ions and the Ag NPs modifies the Stark levels energies, see Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Energy diagram of the Er3+ showing the splitting of levels due to electron-electron (Coulomb) interaction take place the 4I terms, spin-orbit interaction yielding the manifolds J = 15/2, 13/2, 11/2 and 9/2 and the Stark levels induced by crystal field of tetrahedral symmetry. Also is indicated the process of radiative and non-radiative energy transfer from the pump to ED, and from the pump to Er3+. ET: energy transfer, R: radiative, NR: non-radiative.
. In this frame, the quantitative determination of the properties is obtained through proper group symmetry operations. As the NPs just give a contribution to the local field when the light is present, the oscillator strength (Pstrength) of a spectral line, corresponding to transition from the ion ground level i to the component f of the excited level, is given by:

Pstrength=χ[8π2mυ3h(2J+1)](|i|Dq(1)nearestneighbor|f|2+|i|Dq'(1)AgNP|f|2)
(1)

This equation is modified, for the second term into parenthesis, from the theory of Judd [13

13. B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962). [CrossRef]

], and represents the ED transition due to SPR of Ag NP, where m is the mass of an electron, h is the Planck constant, υ is the frequency of the line. The factor χ is an adjustable factor that depends on the refractive index of the medium in which the Er3+ ions are embedded, and J is the total angular momentum. To obtain non vanishing matrix elements of the components Dq'(1)AgNP it is necessary to admix into i| and |f other states of opposite parity. This occur for q’ = 2, 4 and 6. Thus, the initial and final states is:
i|=φi|+βφi|Vcrys|φβ/(EiEβ)φβ|,
and
|f=|φf+βφβ|Vcrys|φf/(EfEβ)|φβ,
then:
i|P+PNP|f=β{φi|Vcrys|φβφβ|P|φf/(EiEβ)+φi|P|φβφβ|Vcrys|φf/(EfEβ)+φi|Vcrys|φβφβ|PNP|φf/(EiEβ)+φi|PNP|φβφβ|Vcrys|φf/(EfEβ)}.
where Vcrys is the crystalline field responsible for the Stark levels and treated as a perturbation, ϕi and ϕf have the same parity, ϕβ has opposite parity in relation of ϕi and ϕf, P is the ED from the light interaction. In this sense, Er3+ ions presented an electronic configuration [Xe]4f11, with J = 15/2 been the spin-orbit ground state because the f shell is more than half-filled. In a weak tetrahedral crystal field, the spin–orbit manifolds split into a number of Stark levels (Γ6, Γ7 and Γ8). The order of these Stark levels depends on the strength of the crystal field and the influence of PNP, as shown schematically in Fig. 3. This can be verified by the photoluminescence spectra of the samples TE025-10 and TE050-(2.5 and 5.0) [Fig. 2(a) and 2(b) respectively], showing an enhancement of the corresponding peaks. For Er3+ ions, the J manifold splits into (2J + 1)/2 Stark levels taking into account the Kramer’s degeneracy. The central positions of the Stark levels were obtained by spectrum deconvolution with a fitted Gaussian curve, and listed in Table 2

Table 2. Positions of the Er3+ Stark levels taken from absorption and luminescence spectra at ambient temperature (cm−1). The shown values are the average for each concentration of Ag with the different annealing times

table-icon
View This Table
| View All Tables
.

The Fig. 2(a) and 2(b), shows the enhancement luminescence from effective electric field which is directly connected to the quality factor of the LSP and SPR, e. g. LSPR. This is determined both by intrinsic properties of the NPs via the wavelength-dependent dielectric function of the glass and by the surface effect on the electronic response [14

14. F. Vallé, In Nanoscience: Nanomaterials and Nanochemistry, C. Dupas and M. Lahmani, Eds.; (Springer, Berlin, 2008), 197 pages.

]. As the LSPR properties are sensitive to its environment in the order of its size [15

15. D. D. Evanoff, R. L. White, and G. Chumanov, “Measuring the Distance Dependence of the Local Electromagnetic Field from Silver Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(5), 1522–1524 (2004). [CrossRef]

], the dielectric function of the glass containing the NPs express the LSPR bandwidth and resonance frequency. It can be written as the sum of the bound and quasi-free (conduction) electron contributions [16

16. H. Baida, P. Billaud, S. Marhaba, D. Christofilos, E. Cottancin, A. Crut, J. Lermé, P. Maioli, M. Pellarin, M. Broyer, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, A. Sánchez-Iglesias, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Quantitative determination of the size dependence of surface plasmon resonance damping in single Ag@SiO(2) nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3463–3469 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]: ε(ω)=εib(ω)ωp2/ω[ω+iγ], the bound electron contribution εib remains unchanged [17

17. C. Voisin, N. Del Fatti, D. Christofilos, and F. J. Valleé, “Ultrafast electron dynamics and optical nonlinearities in metal nanoparticles,” Phys. Chem. B 105(12), 2264–2280 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. A similar expression can be used for the contribution of conduction electrons [18

18. F. Hache, D. Ricard, and C. J. Flytzanis, “Optical nonlinearities of small metal particles: surface-mediated resonance and quantum size effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3(12), 1647–1655 (1986). [CrossRef]

]: γ=1/τNP=1/τ0+2gsVF/d. Where the first term, 1/τ0 is associated to bulklike electron scattering process in the particle and the second term is a consequence of quasi-electron-free interaction with the surface and, for a sphere, VF is the Fermi velocity, and gs is the surface factor [16

16. H. Baida, P. Billaud, S. Marhaba, D. Christofilos, E. Cottancin, A. Crut, J. Lermé, P. Maioli, M. Pellarin, M. Broyer, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, A. Sánchez-Iglesias, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Quantitative determination of the size dependence of surface plasmon resonance damping in single Ag@SiO(2) nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3463–3469 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

We can see the dependence of the LSPR damping factor g that produce a quenching on the luminescence [TE025-(2.5 and 5.0) and TE050-(7.5 and 10.0)] as the effective electric field is a function of g and q which in turn depend on d. This dependence only permits enhancement fluorescence for the samples TE025-10.0 and TE050-(2.5 and 5.0), whose size range is 17.0 < d < 20.0 nm. Furthermore, is verified from the absorption spectrum [pictures into Fig. 1 (a)] that lP-TE025-Y = 790 ± 3 nm and lP-TE050-Y = 548 ± 3, this values are obtained through the plasma frequency: ωp=4πne2/(ε0εd(ω)m*), where n is the charge carrier density, e is the electron charge, εd(ω) is the dielectric permittivity in function the excitation frequency ω, and m* is the electron mass.

The silver’s dielectric constant has a very small imaginary part and very high electrical conductivity, which leads to excellent optical and electronic properties of Ag nanostructures, which have motivated us to study silver NPs embedded in a dielectric matrix, with the aim to achieve strong light absorption in a broad spectral region. The luminescence spectrum of Fig. 2(a) and 2(b) shows a blue-shift due to the size dependence of the LSPR (see Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Calculated NPs’ diameter (d) of the NPs versus annealing time to samples both TE025-Y and TE050-Y samples. The inserted figures are a schematic representation of one ED, showing it size d and separation distance rm. (b) The 600 × 600 nm2 TEM photograph of the Ag NPs (TE025-10.0) show closely dispersed particles, the majority of which are ellipse shape. The maximum length (major axis) of the NPs varies from 19 to 23 nm and aspect ratio 1.0–1.2. (c) Histogram of Ag NPs size from picture (b).
).

The growth process of the NPs involves several steps which includes the formation, diffusion, and adsorption of growth species Ag+ onto the growth surface, and subsequent incorporation of this adsorbed species into the bulk. A diffusion-limited growth causes a different size distribution of NPs, Fig. 4(b) and 4(c). In this sense, the ions Ag+ are produced during the melting process and the NPs growth occurs when the glass is annealed at 300 °C (above Tg), when the glass viscosity is sufficient to promote the Ag+ diffusion. If the NPs start to growth at different times, or the Ag+ ions are non-homogeneously distributed into the glass, we can expect a broad distribution of NPs size, see Fig. 4(c).

It’s important to note that, the samples TE025-Y and TE050-Y show prominent diffraction peaks of Ag at = 44.8 ± 0.4° (d’ = 2.0231 ± 0.0169 Å), which corresponds to the (hkl - 200) diffraction planes of Ag crystals [20

20. JCPDS Card File No. 4–0783.

]. By XRD analysis we can verify the complete reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 with annealing, without any formation of silver oxides, such as Ag2O (Ag+), Ag2O3 (Ag3+), or AgO (Ag2+).

Other effect produced by the presence of NPs is the decreasing in the 4I13/2 lifetime (see Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 Lifetime of the 4I13/2 level for all samples, as compared with the lifetime of the sample without NP (dashed line). The bars indicate errors of ± 2%. (b) Absorption spectra show the increasing absorption due to the presence of silver NPs.
] due to nonradiative energy transfer after the incidence of the pump energy [l = 980 nm) to excite the NPs, yielding LSPR that can be adjusted by the size of the NP (see Fig. 5). This effect contrast with the absorption spectra of the samples (see Fig. 1), who shows that the more the absorption, the less the lifetime is. Mathematically, the radiative lifetime τr can be derived from the Judd-Ofelt equation [13

13. B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962). [CrossRef]

,21

21. G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of Crystal Spectra of Rare‐Earth Ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962). [CrossRef]

]: 1/τr=JAJ'J, where AJ’J is the transition probability for any excited state transition (J’→J). This means that an increment in the absorption is due to the presence of NPs and results a lifetime decrease. In particular the samples TE025-5.0 and TE050-10.0 shows an absorption enhancement with the increment of NP size [Fig. 5(b)]. In addition, the lifetime also arise from the increase of radiative decay rate ΓR (=1/τr=Γall=ΓR+ΓNR) due the presence the NPs with a little g that is favorable, such as in samples TE025-10, TE050-2.5, TE050-5.0 where photoluminescence intensity is improved from the Ag NPs presence [Fig. 2(a) and 2(b)].

4. Conclusion

In summary, we have shown that Er3+-doped tellurite glass are a good host matrix that permitted the formation and the diffusion of NP into the host in function of the annealing time in comparison others [4

4. T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Nanosilver enhanced upconversion fluorescence of erbium ions in Er3+: Ag-antimony glass nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013102 (2009). [CrossRef]

,7

7. O. L. Malta, P. O. Santa-Cruz, G. F. de Sá, and F. Auzel, “Fluorescence enhancement induced by the presence of small silver particles in Eu3+ doped materials,” J. Lumin. 33(3), 261–272 (1985). [CrossRef]

,19

19. F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008). [CrossRef]

and 22

22. H. Mertens and A. Polman, “Plasmon-enhanced erbium luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211107 (2006). [CrossRef]

,], inducing the formation of EDs that are activated by the energy transfer between the Er3+ ions and the NPs, forming LSPR, by non radiative energy transfer and consequently causing a decrease in the 4I13/2 lifetime of ours samples. The effective field turns out to beEeff=Eloc+Ei. The EDs cause a great enhancement of the Er3+ 4I13/24I15/2 transition due to the energy transfer from the ED to the Er3+, which depends on the ratio d/rm as evidenced by a blue-shift of the luminescence peaks. Besides, the presence of NPs into the host did not modify the crystalline field, but it is responsible for the changes in the energy of Stark levels as indicated in Eq. (1). This significant enhancement in the fluorescence has a potential application in amplifiers waveguide for plasmonic devices. The most exciting feature of this work is that the fabrication process is very simple and it can be potentially scaled up to mass production of amplifiers and other photonic devices.

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the Brazilian agencies Fapesp, CNPq, INOF. We are grateful to Agusto L. da Rocha for technical support provided X-ray measurements.

References and links

1.

P. N. Prasad, Nanophotonics (Wiley, New York, 2004).

2.

C. Li, Z. Quan, J. Yang, P. Yang, and J. Lin, “Highly uniform and monodispersive β-NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Tb, Yb/Er and Yb/Tm) hexagonal microprism crystals: Hydrothermal synthesis and luminescent properties,” Inorg. Chem. 46(16), 6329–6337 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

K. R. Brown, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, “Seeding of colloidal Au nanoparticle solutions. 2. Improved control of particle size and shape,” Chem. Mater. 12(2), 306–313 (2000). [CrossRef]

4.

T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Nanosilver enhanced upconversion fluorescence of erbium ions in Er3+: Ag-antimony glass nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013102 (2009). [CrossRef]

5.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

O. L. Malta, P. O. Santa-Cruz, G. F. de Sá, and F. Auzel, “Fluorescence enhancement induced by the presence of small silver particles in Eu3+ doped materials,” J. Lumin. 33(3), 261–272 (1985). [CrossRef]

8.

V. A. G. Rivera, E. Rodriguez, E. F. Chillcce, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, “Waveguide produced by fiber on glass method using Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(4), 339–343 (2007). [CrossRef]

9.

V. A. G. Rivera, E. F. Chillcce, E. Rodriguez, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, “Planar waveguides by ion exchange in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(5), 363–367 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Compositional dependence of Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(6), 3305–3310 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

T. Catunda, L. A. O. Nunes, A. Florez, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Spectroscopic properties and upconversion mechanisms in Er3+-doped fluoroindate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(10), 6065–6070 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

Y. D. Huang, M. Mortier, and F. Auzel, “Stark levels analysis for Er3+-doped oxide glasses: germanate and silicate,” Opt. Mater. 15(4), 243–260 (2001). [CrossRef]

13.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962). [CrossRef]

14.

F. Vallé, In Nanoscience: Nanomaterials and Nanochemistry, C. Dupas and M. Lahmani, Eds.; (Springer, Berlin, 2008), 197 pages.

15.

D. D. Evanoff, R. L. White, and G. Chumanov, “Measuring the Distance Dependence of the Local Electromagnetic Field from Silver Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(5), 1522–1524 (2004). [CrossRef]

16.

H. Baida, P. Billaud, S. Marhaba, D. Christofilos, E. Cottancin, A. Crut, J. Lermé, P. Maioli, M. Pellarin, M. Broyer, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, A. Sánchez-Iglesias, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Quantitative determination of the size dependence of surface plasmon resonance damping in single Ag@SiO(2) nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3463–3469 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

C. Voisin, N. Del Fatti, D. Christofilos, and F. J. Valleé, “Ultrafast electron dynamics and optical nonlinearities in metal nanoparticles,” Phys. Chem. B 105(12), 2264–2280 (2001). [CrossRef]

18.

F. Hache, D. Ricard, and C. J. Flytzanis, “Optical nonlinearities of small metal particles: surface-mediated resonance and quantum size effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3(12), 1647–1655 (1986). [CrossRef]

19.

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008). [CrossRef]

20.

JCPDS Card File No. 4–0783.

21.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of Crystal Spectra of Rare‐Earth Ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962). [CrossRef]

22.

H. Mertens and A. Polman, “Plasmon-enhanced erbium luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211107 (2006). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(300.6280) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, fluorescence and luminescence

ToC Category:
Optics at Surfaces

History
Original Manuscript: August 31, 2010
Revised Manuscript: October 11, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: October 14, 2010
Published: November 19, 2010

Citation
V. A. G. Rivera, S. P. A. Osorio, Y. Ledemi, D. Manzani, Y. Messaddeq, L. A. O. Nunes, and E. Marega, "Localized surface plasmon resonance interaction with Er3+-doped tellurite glass," Opt. Express 18, 25321-25328 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-24-25321


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. P. N. Prasad, Nanophotonics (Wiley, New York, 2004).
  2. C. Li, Z. Quan, J. Yang, P. Yang, and J. Lin, “Highly uniform and monodispersive β-NaYF4:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Tb, Yb/Er and Yb/Tm) hexagonal microprism crystals: Hydrothermal synthesis and luminescent properties,” Inorg. Chem. 46(16), 6329–6337 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. R. Brown, D. G. Walter, and M. J. Natan, “Seeding of colloidal Au nanoparticle solutions. 2. Improved control of particle size and shape,” Chem. Mater. 12(2), 306–313 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Som and B. Karmakar, “Nanosilver enhanced upconversion fluorescence of erbium ions in Er3+: Ag-antimony glass nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013102 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. O. L. Malta, P. O. Santa-Cruz, G. F. de Sá, and F. Auzel, “Fluorescence enhancement induced by the presence of small silver particles in Eu3+ doped materials,” J. Lumin. 33(3), 261–272 (1985). [CrossRef]
  8. V. A. G. Rivera, E. Rodriguez, E. F. Chillcce, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, “Waveguide produced by fiber on glass method using Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(4), 339–343 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. V. A. G. Rivera, E. F. Chillcce, E. Rodriguez, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, “Planar waveguides by ion exchange in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(5), 363–367 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Tanabe, T. Ohyagi, N. Soga, and T. Hanada, “Compositional dependence of Judd-Ofelt parameters of Er3+ ions in alkali-metal borate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46(6), 3305–3310 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Catunda, L. A. O. Nunes, A. Florez, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Spectroscopic properties and upconversion mechanisms in Er3+-doped fluoroindate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 53(10), 6065–6070 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. D. Huang, M. Mortier, and F. Auzel, “Stark levels analysis for Er3+-doped oxide glasses: germanate and silicate,” Opt. Mater. 15(4), 243–260 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962). [CrossRef]
  14. F. Vallé, In Nanoscience: Nanomaterials and Nanochemistry, C. Dupas and M. Lahmani, Eds.; (Springer, Berlin, 2008), 197 pages.
  15. D. D. Evanoff, R. L. White, and G. Chumanov, “Measuring the Distance Dependence of the Local Electromagnetic Field from Silver Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(5), 1522–1524 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. H. Baida, P. Billaud, S. Marhaba, D. Christofilos, E. Cottancin, A. Crut, J. Lermé, P. Maioli, M. Pellarin, M. Broyer, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallée, A. Sánchez-Iglesias, I. Pastoriza-Santos, and L. M. Liz-Marzán, “Quantitative determination of the size dependence of surface plasmon resonance damping in single Ag@SiO(2) nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3463–3469 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. Voisin, N. Del Fatti, D. Christofilos, and F. J. Valleé, “Ultrafast electron dynamics and optical nonlinearities in metal nanoparticles,” Phys. Chem. B 105(12), 2264–2280 (2001). [CrossRef]
  18. F. Hache, D. Ricard, and C. J. Flytzanis, “Optical nonlinearities of small metal particles: surface-mediated resonance and quantum size effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3(12), 1647–1655 (1986). [CrossRef]
  19. F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008). [CrossRef]
  20. JCPDS Card File No. 4–0783.
  21. G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of Crystal Spectra of Rare‐Earth Ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962). [CrossRef]
  22. H. Mertens and A. Polman, “Plasmon-enhanced erbium luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211107 (2006). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4 Fig. 5
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited