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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 25 — Dec. 6, 2010
  • pp: 25896–25905
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All-optically controllable random laser based on a dye-doped liquid crystal added with a photoisomerizable dye

Chia-Rong Lee, Jia-De Lin, Bo-Yuang Huang, Ting-Shan Mo, and Shuan-Yu Huang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 25, pp. 25896-25905 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.025896


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Abstract

This study investigates, for the first time, an all-optically controllable random laser based on a dye-doped liquid crystal (DDLC) cell added with a photoisomerizable dye. Experimental results indicate that the lasing intensity of this random laser can be all-optically controlled to decrease and increase sequentially with a two-step exposure of one UV and then one green beam. All-optically reversible controllability of the random lasing emission is attributed to the isothermal nematic(N)→isotropic(I) and I→N phase transitions for LCs due to the UV-beam-induced transcis and green-beam-induced cistrans back isomerizations of the photoisomerizable dye, respectively. The former and the latter can decrease and increase the spatial fluctuations of the order and thus of the dielectric tensor of LCs, respectively, subsequently increasing and decreasing the diffusion constant (or transport mean free path), respectively, and thus decaying and rising the scattering strength for the fluorescence photons in their recurrent multi-scattering process, respectively. The consequent decrease and increase of the lasing intensity for the random laser and thus the rise and descent of its energy threshold are generated, respectively.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Random lasers based on disordered media have received considerable interest in research for their potential applications in photonics and bio-medicine in recent years [1

1. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994). [CrossRef]

20

20. D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Such interest is owing to their unique mechanisms and capabilities for lasing emission and superiority to regular lasers, e. g., economic fabrication technology, large-scale production with miniaturization, and high emission efficiency. Many randomly dispersive materials, including semiconductor powders [1

1. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994). [CrossRef]

4

4. D. S. Wiersma, “The smallest random laser,” Nature 406(6792), 132–135 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Random laser emission from a surface-corrugated waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005). [CrossRef]

], polymers [6

6. S. Frolov, Z. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999). [CrossRef]

], human tissues [8

8. R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004). [CrossRef]

], silver nanopowders [9

9. G. D. Dice, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Plasmonically enhanced diffusive and subdiffusive metal nanoparticle-dye random laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131105 (2005). [CrossRef]

], and liquid crystal(LC)-based media [10

10. D. S. Wiersma, M. Colocci, R. Righini, and F. Aliev, “Temperature-controlled light diffusion in random media,” Phys. Rev. B 64(14), 144208 (2001). [CrossRef]

19

19. S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, “Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1), 011707 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], have been used to develop random lasers. A random laser can generally be created based on a recurrent multi-scattering mechanism with or without a coherent feedback. Notably, a sufficiently long traveling time for the fluorescence photons in the multi-scattering process in an active medium causes the gain for the fluorescence to exceed the optical loss, leading to the occurrence of a random lasing emission [1

1. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994). [CrossRef]

,4

4. D. S. Wiersma, “The smallest random laser,” Nature 406(6792), 132–135 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,20

20. D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

In above mentioned media, only those LC-based random lasers can be exploited to control the random lasing features with the externally flexible controllability of LC orientation and, thus, of either the refractive index or dielectric property of LCs [10

10. D. S. Wiersma, M. Colocci, R. Righini, and F. Aliev, “Temperature-controlled light diffusion in random media,” Phys. Rev. B 64(14), 144208 (2001). [CrossRef]

19

19. S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, “Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1), 011707 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In particular, Strangi et al. found a surprisingly unexpected random lasing action based on a homogenously-aligned dye-doped LC (DDLC) system with a thick cell-gap (~100μm) [14

14. S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, “Random lasing in freely suspended dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 557–559 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Generation of the random lasing is attributed to the recurrent multi-scattering effect from the fluctuation (i.e. spatial nonuniformity) of the order and, thus, of the dielectric tensor of LCs in the space of the LC bulk.

To realize an applicable LC random laser in photonics, this study describes for the first time an all-optically controllable random laser based on a DDLC cell added with a photoisomerizable dye (azo dye). Experimental results indicate that the lasing intensity of the random laser can be controlled to decrease and increase with increasing the irradiation times of one UV and one green beam, respectively. This all-optically reversible controllability of the LC random laser is attributed to the UV-beam-induced isothermal nematic→isotropic (N→I) and green-beam-induced isothermal I→N phase transitions of the LCs by transcis and cistrans back isomerizations of the azo dye, respectively. The former and the latter mechanisms may decrease and increase the spatial nonuniformity of the order and thus of the dielectric tensor of the LCs, respectively, thereby increasing and decreasing the diffusion constant (or transport mean free path), respectively, and thus decreasing and increasing the scattering strength for the fluorescence photons in their recurrent multi-scattering process, respectively. Subsequently the decay and rise of the random lasing and thus the increase and decrease of the corresponding energy threshold can be obtained, respectively.

2. Sample preparation and experimental setups

The materials used in this experiment include 91.7wt% NLC E7 (ne = 1.7462 and no = 1.5216 at 20°C for λ = 589nm; ni≅(ne + 2no)/3 = 1.5965 in the isotropic phase, from Merck), 0.3wt% laser dye P650 (1,2,3,5,6,7-hexamethyl-8-cyanopyrromethene-difluoroborate, from Exciton), and 8wt% photoisomerizable dye 4MAB (4-Methoxyazobenzene, from Fluka). An empty cell is pre-fabricated with two PVA-coated glass slides separated by two 188μm-thick plastic spacers, in which one of the two slides is pre-rubbed but the other not. Following infusion into the empty cell, the uniform mixture fills the entire cell via the capillary effect to form a homogeneously-aligned DDLC cell added with a photoisomerizable dye.

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Top view of the experimental setup for examining the all-optically controllable random lasing experiment in DDLC added with a photoisomerizable dye. The green and UV beams are circularly and randomly polarized, respectively. (R) denotes the rubbing direction of the cell. λ/2 WP, P, and NBS are the half-wave plate (for 532nm), polarizer, and nonpolarizing beam splitter, respectively.
displays the experimental setup for examining the all-optically controllable random lasing emission of DDLC. One pumped laser beam, derived from a Q-switched Nd:YAG second harmonic generation (SHG) pulse laser (wavelength, 532 nm) with a pulse duration of 8ns, repetition rate of 10Hz and pumped energy, E, is focused by a lens (focal length: 20cm) on the cell with an included angle of ~20° with respect to the cell normal (N). A fiber-optic probe of a fiber-based spectrometer (Jaz-Combo-2, Ocean Optics, resolution: ~0.9nm) is placed to face N with a 6cm-distance from the cell to record the random lasing output. A half-wave plate (λ/2 WP, for 532nm) and a polarizer (P) with a transmission axis along the rubbing direction of the cell (R) are placed in front of the lens for varying the incident pulse energy by rotating the direction of the optical axis of the half-wave plate. Between the lens and the polarizer, a nonpolarizing beam splitter (NBS) is inserted to split the incident beam with half the energy into the detector of the energy meter in order to measure the incident pulse energy. One randomly-polarized UV beam with a fixed intensity of 300mW/cm2 and a variable irradiated time tUV and one CW circularly polarized green beam (from a diode-pumped solid-state laser, wavelength: 532nm) with a fixed intensity of 300mW/cm2 and a variable irradiated time tG are installed to pre-illuminate the pumped spot of the cell when performing the all-optically controllable random lasing experiment. The incident angles relative to N for the green and UV beam are 40° and 180°, respectively.

3. Results and discussion

The following experiment assesses the all-optically reversible controllability of the LC random laser with a fixed E = 16μJ/pulse by successive irradiation of one UV and one green beams on the DDLC cell added with the azo dye. Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Falling and (b) rising variations of the obtained random lasing emission with the irradiation time periods of one UV and one green beams, tUV and tG, respectively, at IUV = IG = 300mW/cm2. The pumped pulse energy is fixed at 16μJ/pulse.
displays the random lasing obtained once the DDLC is irradiated by the UV beam at various irradiation time periods tUV = 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20s and a fixed irradiation intensity IUV = 300mW/cm2. Obviously, the random lasing intensity can be controlled to decrease by increasing tUV, with those results indicating that the energy threshold to generate the random lasing increases with an increasing tUV. Figure 4(b) summarizes the experimental results associated with the influence of the irradiation of the green beam on the obtained DDLC random laser. First, the UV beam with IUV = 300mW/cm2 is turned on to irradiate the cell for 2 min and then turned off. Meanwhile, the green beam with IG = 300mW/cm2 is turned on at tG = 0s. The cell is then excited by pumped pulses successively at tG = 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40s. Several random lasing signals are subsequently obtained, as displayed by the blue, green, orange, red, and black dotted curves, respectively, in Fig. 4(b). The intensity of the obtained random lasing appears to be controlled to increase back the original value by increasing tG. This finding suggests that the energy threshold can decrease back with an increasing tG. Based on the experimental results in Fig. 4, the DDLC random laser thereby possesses the all-optically (reversible) controllable feature, i.e. the random lasing can gradually decay and rise back (and thus the energy threshold can gradually increase and decrease back) as the cell is irradiated successively by the UV and green beams with increasing their irradiation durations.

Azo dye plays a major role in the above all-optical controllability of random lasing since no similar experimental results shown in Fig. 4 can be obtained based on a 4MAB-free DDLC cell. Therefore, the mechanism for the all-optical controllability of the decrease and increase of the random lasing intensity (and subsequently the increase and decrease of the energy threshold for the random lasing) are attributed to UV- and green-beam-induced isothermal N→I and I→N phase transitions of the LCs via transcis and cistrans back isomerizations of the 4MAB dyes, respectively [25

25. H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal,” Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402–1407 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. According to Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) Mechanisms for the isothermal phase transitions of LCs from N to I and I to N induced by the trans-cis and cis-trans back isomerizations, respectively, under successive irradiations of the UV and the green beams. (b) A model describing the variation of the spatial uniformity of the order and thus of the dielectric tensor of LCs caused by the UV- and green-beam-irradiations-induced-phase transition of LCs, and corresponding situations of multi-scattering of fluorescence and thus of random lasing emission, where δr, δS and δε denote the differential displacement, differential order and differential dielectric tensor of LCs between two adjacent local LC micro-domains in bulk, respectively, and (R) denotes the rubbing direction in the cell.
, the 4MAB dyes are generally in a stable trans-state in the darkness. The rod-like trans-4MAB dyes are aligned with LC molecules via the guest-host effect in the DDLC cell. The 4MAB dyes may absorb UV light and rapidly convert to curve cis-state via trans-cis isomerization and then disturb the order of the LC host. With an increasing tUV, the concentration of azo dyes transforming to cis-state increases such that the LCs gradually change from N to I phase isothermally. This process causes the spatial nonuniformity of the order [δS = S(r + δr)–S(r)] and thus of the dielectric tensor [δε = ε(r + δr)–ε(r)] of the LCs in bulk to gradually decrease from a nonzero (δS≠0 and δε≠0 at nematic phase) to a zero (δS = 0 and δε = 0 at isotropic phase) value. Consequently, the local multiple micro-domain of LCs experienced by the propagating fluorescence photons gradually disappears (as presented in the model of the recurrent multi-scattering in Fig. 5(b)), where δr, δS and δε denote the differential displacement, differential order and differential dielectric tensor of LCs between two adjacent local micro-domains of LCs in bulk, respectively. The diffusion constant of photons (D) in a disordered medium can be expressed with D = (υℓ*)/3 [10

10. D. S. Wiersma, M. Colocci, R. Righini, and F. Aliev, “Temperature-controlled light diffusion in random media,” Phys. Rev. B 64(14), 144208 (2001). [CrossRef]

], where ℓ* refers to the transport mean free path and υ is the transport velocity of photons in a disordered LC sample. The decrease of the spatial nonuniformity of the order and thus of the dielectric tensor of the LCs may increase the diffusion constant (or transport mean free path), thereby decreasing the scattering strength of the photons in the DDLC cell. Subsequently, the random lasing intensity can decrease and thus the corresponding energy threshold can increase as tUV increases. As mentioned previously, most 4MAB dyes are transformed to the cis-state as they absorb UV light, which can decay the random lasing of the cell [Fig. 4(a)]. Once the UV beam is turned off and the cell is subsequently irradiated by one green beam, the cis-4MAB dyes may transform rapidly back to the trans-state via cis-trans back isomerisation [25

25. H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal,” Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402–1407 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. The increase of the concentration of the trans-4MAB via consecutive cis-trans back isomerisation may give rise to the reverse phase transition of LCs from I to N if the irradiation time of the green beam gradually increases. The spatial nonuniformity of the order and thus of the dielectric tensor of the LCs then gradually increases back, causing the diffusion constant to decrease back and, thus, the scattering strength to increase back. Consequently, intensity of the random lasing emission increases back and thus the energy threshold decreases back with an increasing tG .

Figures 6(a)
Fig. 6 Variation of the DDLC cell pattern, observed under the transmitting polarizing optical microscope with crossed polarizers, with (a) increasing the irradiation time of UV beam tUV from 0 to 50s (IUV = 300mW/cm2, IG = 0), and then (b) increasing the irradiation time of green beam tG from 0 to 50s (IG = 300mW/cm2, IUV = 0). The included angle between the transmission axis of the polarizer and (R) in the cell is 45°. The cell pattern in bright and dark state implies that the LC is in nematic and isotropic phases, respectively.
and 6(b) display the variations in the DDLC cell pattern, observed under a transmitting polarizing optical microscope (POM) with crossed polarizers, with an increasing tUV from 0 to 50s at IUV = 300mW/cm2 (IG = 0) and then increasing tG from 0 to 50s at IG = 300mW/cm2 (IUV = 0), respectively. The angle between the transmission axis of the polarizer and R in the cell is set at 45°. Obviously, the cell transmission decreases from bright to dark state with an increasing tUV (IG = 0) [Fig. 6(a)], and then increases reversely from dark to bright state with an increasing tG (IUV = 0) [Fig. 6(b)]. These results coincide with the mechanisms to cause the reversible variation of the random lasing intensity and thus of the associated energy threshold that the UV- and green-beam-irradiation induce isothermal N→I and I→N phase transitions of LCs via trans-cis and cistrans back isomerizations of azo dye, respectively.

This study also elucidates a situation in which controllability of the random lasing presented in Fig. 4 is not attributed to the thermal-induced phase transition of the DDLC under the photo-irradiation. The variation of the temperature on the UV-beam-irradiated spot of the cell is determined with an increasing tUV from 0 to 40s (IUV = 300mW/cm2) using a thermal imager (Fluke, Ti10). Figure 7
Fig. 7 Variation of the measured temperature on the irradiated spot of the DDLC cell when increasing the irradiated time of UV beam from 0 to 40s (IUV = 300mW/cm2). The final temperature on the irradiated spot is 27.1 °C, which is far from the clearing point of DDLC (~52°C).
summarizes the experimental results in which the measured temperature on the irradiated spot increases from 23.8 to 27.1°C with an increasing tUV = 0 to 40s. Notably, no phase transition occurs because the final temperature of 27.1°C is far from the clearing point of the DDLC (~52°C). Therefore, the all-optically reversible controllability of the LC random laser is not caused by the photo-induced thermal effect but by the photoisomerization effect-induced isothermal phase transition.

4. Conclusion

This study investigates, for the first time, an all-optically controllable random laser based on a 188μm-thick homogeneously-aligned DDLC cell added with a photoisomerizable dye. Experimental results indicate that the lasing intensity of the random laser can be all-optically controlled to decrease and then increase back in sequence with a two-step exposure of one UV and then one green beam when increasing the individual irradiated time and same fixed intensity (300mW/cm2). The all-optically reversible controllability of the random lasing is attributed to the isothermal N→I and I→N phase transitions of LCs, respectively, due to the UV-beam-induced transcis and green-beam-induced cistrans back isomerizations of the photoisomerizable dye. The former and latter mechanisms can decrease and increase, respectively, the spatial nonuniformity of the order and thus of the dielectric property of LCs, leading to the increase and decrease of the diffusion constant, respectively, and thus the decay and rise of the scattering strength of the fluorescence photons in their recurrent multiple scattering process, respectively. Consequently, the decrease and increase of the lasing intensity of the random laser and thus the increase and decease of its energy threshold can be obtained, respectively. Such an all-optically controllable LC random laser is highly promising for integrated photonic applications.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the National Science Council of the Republic of China, Taiwan (Contract numbers: NSC 97-2112-M-040-001-MY2 and NSC 97-2112-M-006-013-MY3) and the Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, under projects from the Ministry of Education for financially supporting this research. We greatly appreciate Ted Knoy for editorial assistance.

References and links

1.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994). [CrossRef]

2.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999). [CrossRef]

3.

C. A. Vutha, S. K. Tiwari, and R. K. Thareja, “Random laser action in ZnO doped polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(12), 123509 (2006). [CrossRef]

4.

D. S. Wiersma, “The smallest random laser,” Nature 406(6792), 132–135 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

S. Frolov, Z. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999). [CrossRef]

7.

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Random laser emission from a surface-corrugated waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004). [CrossRef]

9.

G. D. Dice, S. Mujumdar, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Plasmonically enhanced diffusive and subdiffusive metal nanoparticle-dye random laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131105 (2005). [CrossRef]

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S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, “Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141103 (2005). [CrossRef]

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G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7737–7744 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

Q. H. Song, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, “Liquid-crystal-based tunable high-Q directional random laser from a planar random microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 373–375 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, “Random lasing in freely suspended dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 557–559 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, “Electrical tunable random laser emission from a liquid-crystal infiltrated disordered planar microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 298–300 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004). [CrossRef]

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Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, “Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011111 (2006). [CrossRef]

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C.-R. Lee, S.-H. Lin, C.-H. Guo, S.-H. Chang, T.-S. Mo, and S.-C. Chu, “All-optically controllable random laser based on a dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal with nano-sized droplets,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2406–2412 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, “Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1), 011707 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008). [CrossRef]

21.

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P. C. de Oliveira, A. E. Perkins, and N. M. Lawandy, “Coherent backscattering from high-gain scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 21(20), 1685–1687 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, “All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal,” Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402–1407 (1998). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
(160.3710) Materials : Liquid crystals
(230.1150) Optical devices : All-optical devices
(290.4210) Scattering : Multiple scattering

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: October 22, 2010
Revised Manuscript: November 24, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: November 24, 2010
Published: November 25, 2010

Citation
Chia-Rong Lee, Jia-De Lin, Bo-Yuang Huang, Ting-Shan Mo, and Shuan-Yu Huang, "All-optically controllable random laser based on a dye-doped liquid crystal added with a photoisomerizable dye," Opt. Express 18, 25896-25905 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-25-25896


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References

  1. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994). [CrossRef]
  2. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. C. A. Vutha, S. K. Tiwari, and R. K. Thareja, “Random laser action in ZnO doped polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(12), 123509 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. D. S. Wiersma, “The smallest random laser,” Nature 406(6792), 132–135 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, “Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Frolov, Z. Vardeny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. Baughman, “Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media,” Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284–R5287 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, “Random laser emission from a surface-corrugated waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004). [CrossRef]
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