OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 25 — Dec. 6, 2010
  • pp: 25999–26006
« Show journal navigation

Mid-IR laser oscillation in Cr2+:ZnSe planar waveguide

J. E. Williams, V. V. Fedorov, D. V. Martyshkin, I. S. Moskalev, R. P. Camata, and S. B. Mirov  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 25, pp. 25999-26006 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.025999


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1107 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We demonstrate 2.6 µm mid-infrared lasing at room temperature in a planar waveguide structure. Planar waveguides were fabricated using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) by depositing chromium doped zinc selenide thin films on sapphire substrate (Cr2+:ZnSe/sapphire). Highly doped Cr2+:ZnSe/Sapphire thin film sample was also used to demonstrate passive Q-switching of Er:YAG laser operating at 1.645 µm.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Transition metal doped II-VI semiconductor laser crystals have stimulated extensive interest in the scientific community as active materials for tunable middle infrared (mid-IR) lasers operating over the 2–5 µm range [1

1. L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. F. Krupke, “Transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenides: spectroscopy and laser demonstration of a new class of gain media,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 885–895 (1996). [CrossRef]

5

5. V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, and V. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm Tunable solid state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Of particular interest are Cr2+ ions incorporated in ZnSe crystals (Cr2+:ZnSe) featuring intra-center 2–3 µm transitions between the crystal-field-split ground 5T2 and first excited 5E states [6

6. A. Fazzio, M. J. Caldas, and A. Zunger, “Many-electron multiplet effects in the spectra of 3d impurities in heteropolar semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 30(6), 3430–3455 (1984). [CrossRef]

]. The availability of affordable low loss polycrystalline ZnSe, and the ability to fabricate high quality uniformly doped Cr2+:ZnSe crystals via post-growth thermal diffusion make them the gain materials of choice for development of high power mid-IR lasers, broadly tunable over the 2–3 µm spectral range [3

3. S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, and C. Kim, “Progess in Cr2+ and Fe2+ doped mid-IR laser materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(1), 21–41 (2010). [CrossRef]

,4

4. S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, and D. V. Martyshkin, “Recent progress in transition metal doped II-VI mid-IR lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 810–822 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Cr2+:ZnSe lasers documented in the literature operate at room temperature in continuous wave (CW) regime with a slope efficiency and output power greater than 60% and 10 W, respectively [3

3. S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, and C. Kim, “Progess in Cr2+ and Fe2+ doped mid-IR laser materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(1), 21–41 (2010). [CrossRef]

,7

7. G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, and A. Burger, “Continuous-wave broadly tunable Cr2+:ZnSe laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(1), 19–21 (1999). [CrossRef]

9

9. I. S. Moskalev, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, P. A. Berry, and K. L. Schepler, “12-Watt CW polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnSe laser pumped by Tm-fiber laser,” in Advance Solid-State Photonics, on CD-ROM (The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2009).

]. Further advancements in power scaling require thorough thermal management of the active element. Among different thermal management and beam quality control approaches, waveguide laser geometry design holds a lot of promise. The majority of reported Cr2+:ZnSe lasers relied on bulk gain material fabrication methods [3

3. S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, and C. Kim, “Progess in Cr2+ and Fe2+ doped mid-IR laser materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(1), 21–41 (2010). [CrossRef]

] and did not offer waveguiding of the optical field.

Thin film deposition techniques are promising for fabrication of Cr2+:ZnSe waveguide laser and electroluminescent structures. Previously, mid-IR electroluminescence has been reported for bulk [10

10. V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, I. Moskalev, and S. B. Mirov, “En route to electrically pumped broadly tunable middle infrared lasers based on transition metal doped II-VI semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 125(1-2), 184–195 (2007). [CrossRef]

12

12. N. A. Vlasenko, P. F. Oleksenko, Z. L. Denisova, M. O. Mukhlyo, and L. I. Veligura, “Cr-related energy levels and mechanism of Cr2+ ion photorecharge in ZnSe:Cr,” Phys. Status Solidi 245(11), 2550–2557 (2008) (b). [CrossRef]

] and thin film [13

13. A. V. Vasilyev, N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, A. I. Riskin, and A. Ya. Chomyak, “Electroluminescent emitters on range of 1.8-2.7 mkm,” Optoelecktronika I poluprovodnikovaya technika, Naukova Dumka 25, 68 (1993).

,14

14. N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, L. I. Veligura, and Yu. A. Tsyrkunov, “Near-infrared-emitting ZnSe:Er and ZnS(Se):Cr TFEL devices,” SID J. 12, 179–182 (2004).

] Cr2+:ZnSe samples. Thin film fabrication technique offers a versatile fabrication method minimizing layer interface roughness and enabling the development of the entire structure in situ in vacuum. Several Cr2+:ZnSe thin film structures featuring room temperature photoluminescence (PL) from the optically active Cr2+ions have been fabricated by means of molecular beam epitaxy [15

15. A. Gallian, V. V. Fedorov, J. Kernal, J. Allman, S. B. Mirov, E. M. Dianov, A. O. Zabezhaylov, and I. P. Kazakov, “Spectroscopic studies of molecular-beam epitaxially grown Cr2+-doped ZnSe thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091105 (2005). [CrossRef]

], radio frequency magnetron sputtering [16

16. N. Vivet, M. Morales, M. Levalois, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, “Photoluminescence properties of Cr2+:ZnSe films deposited by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181915 (2007). [CrossRef]

] and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) [17

17. J. E. Williams, R. P. Camata, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Pulsed laser deposition of chromium-doped zinc selenide thin films for mid-infrared applications,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(2), 333–335 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Building on the success of PLD growth of Cr2+:ZnSe film, we report here the first PLD grown Cr2+:ZnSe planar waveguide structure exhibiting mid-IR lasing. In addition, highly doped PLD grown Cr2+:ZnSe thin film was used for the first time as a saturable absorber for passive Q-switching of Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 nm.

2. Thin film deposition

Chromium doped ZnSe films were deposited on epi-ready double-side-polished c-plane (0001) oriented sapphire substrates (Cr2+:ZnSe/sapphire) by means of laser ablation of a solid chromium doped ZnSe target. Since the index of refraction of ZnSe is nZnSe ~2.44 and that of sapphire is nsapphire ~1.73 in the 2–3 µm region, the structure air/Cr2+:ZnSe/sapphire should provide waveguiding-confinement of the optical field within the Cr2+:ZnSe active region. Laser ablation targets were fabricated in-house by manually mixing powders of ZnSe (99.99% purity) and CrSe (99.9% purity) in the appropriate weight percentages to obtain the desired chromium doping concentrations within the targets. The mixed powders were compressed into a solid pellet approximately 1 inch in diameter which was then vacuum sealed at 10−4 Torr in a quartz ampoule and annealed at 1000 C for 10 days. The target was then ablated by a KrF excimer laser at 2 J/cm2. The details of the deposition procedure are described in Ref [17

17. J. E. Williams, R. P. Camata, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Pulsed laser deposition of chromium-doped zinc selenide thin films for mid-infrared applications,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(2), 333–335 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

3. Experimental results

3.1 Characterization of the crystalline quality of deposited films

The surface roughness of the deposited films was analyzed with atomic force microscopy (AFM) in contact mode. The AFM images of a 10 μm thick Cr2+:ZnSe film deposited on sapphire is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 AFM images of (a) 50 × 50 μm scan area and (b) 5 × 5 μm scan area of a 10 μm thick Cr2+:ZnSe film deposited on sapphire. The surface areas RMS roughness was smaller than 10 nm.
. An image of a 50 × 50 μm scan area is depicted in Fig. 1(a) and Fig. 1(b) shows a closer 5 × 5 μm scan area of the film’s surface. Both images showed a surface area root mean square (RMS) roughness of less than 7 nm. On average, the area RMS roughness of all the Cr2+:ZnSe film surfaces deposited by PLD was less than 10 nm which indicates a very good smooth surface morphology.

The crystalline quality of the films was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) with CuKα radiation of 1.5418 Å and room temperature Raman scattering. In Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) θ-2θ XRD patterns and (b) Raman spectra of Cr2+:ZnSe films deposited on sapphire substrate at various growth temperatures.
the θ-2θ XRD scans of Cr2+:ZnSe/sapphire films deposited at various deposition temperatures are shown. All XRD patterns obtained indicated that the films deposited were polycrystalline ZnSe in a cubic (zinc blende) structure. The XRD patterns showed the (111), (220), and (311) cubic ZnSe planes perpendicular to the substrates surface along with reflections from the substrate (0006) plane. At growth temperatures lower than 475 C, there appears to be some mixture of ZnSe hexagonal crystallites within the films as evident from the ZnSe wurtzite (100) XRD peak seen around 2θ~25.9. As growth temperature increases, the degree of hexagonality of the films diminished as the XRD peak corresponding to the ZnSe wurtzite structure gradually disappeared. This suggests that at growth temperatures of 600 C, the films deposited were purely cubic as oppose to a mixed-polytype structure of cubic and hexagonal ZnSe structures seen in films deposited at lower temperatures. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the (111) and (311) peaks decreased from 0.852 to 0.472 and 1.226 to 0.683, respectively, with increasing deposition temperature from 350 C to 600 C. The narrowing of the FWHM with increasing growth temperatures indicated the formation of higher quality crystalline ZnSe lattices within the films.

The Raman spectra for Cr2+:ZnSe films deposited on sapphire at various temperatures are shown in Fig. 2(b) with comparison to a bulk ZnSe polycrystal Raman spectrum. The Raman measurements are consistent with XRD analysis that the crystal quality of the films was better at deposition temperatures above 425 C. This assertion is supported by the well resolved intense peaks at 205 cm−1 and 250 cm−1 attributed to the transversal optical (TO) and longitudinal optical (LO) phonon modes of ZnSe, respectively [18

18. O. Madelung, U. Rossler, and W. V. Osten, “Intristic properties of group IV elements and III-V, II-VI and II-VI compounds,” in Landolt-Bornstein: Numerical data and functional relationships in science and technology, H. Landolt, and R. Bornstein (Springer, 1987).

], indicating the growth of high crystalline quality ZnSe lattice in samples deposited at the higher temperatures. Also visible at higher growth temperatures is a broader weak transversal acoustic (2TA) ZnSe phonon mode around 140 cm−1. At growth temperatures below 475 C, only a much broader LO phonon mode of ZnSe is distinguishable from the Raman spectra indicating that the films deposited at these temperatures were partially amorphous.

3.2 Optical characterization of deposited films

The optical transmission spectrum over 1000–270`0 nm spectral range of a typical Cr2+:ZnSe/sapphire film deposited at a substrate temperature of 400 οC is shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The transmission spectrum of a 7.5 µm thick Cr2+:ZnSe/sapphire sample with Cr2+ concentration of ~6 × 1019 cm−3 deposited at 400 C.
. The interference pattern revealed a good homogeneous film. By using the transmission oscillation period with the index of refraction of nZnSe ~2.44, the thickness of each deposited film was determined. The absorption dip seen near 1700 nm resulted from the 5T25E transition of Cr2+ ions. Using the obtained film thickness and assuming a peak absorption cross section of σ~1 × 10−18 cm2 for the Cr2+ ions similar to that measured through spectroscopic experiments in bulk samples [19

19. J. T. Vallin, G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, and A. E. Hughes, “Infrared absorption in some II-VI compounds doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B 2(11), 4313–4333 (1970). [CrossRef]

,20

20. A. Burger, K. Chattopadhyay, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, S. H. Morgan, C. I. Rablau, C. H. Su, S. Feth, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, and S. A. Payne, “Preparation conditions of chromium doped ZnSe and their infrared luminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 249–256 (2001). [CrossRef]

], the Cr2+ ion concentration in each film was estimated. The Cr2+ concentrations were determined in this manner for several Cr2+:ZnSe/sapphire films deposited at various substrate temperatures from 375 C to 575 C using the same laser ablation target. The overall variation in calculated dopant ion concentration was less than 15% over the analyzed films. This result indicates that the ablation targets produced in-house were fairly uniformly doped and that there was adequate transfer of stoichiometry from target to film during PLD growth independently of substrate temperature.

Mid-IR planar waveguide lasing in gain-switched mode was demonstrated using a Cr2+:ZnSe film of thickness 7.5 μm deposited on sapphire at a substrate temperature of 400 C. From the sample’s transmission spectrum shown in Fig. 3, the Cr2+ concentration was estimated to be 6 × 1019 cm−3. The Cr2+:ZnSe/sapphire sample was optically pumped at room temperature by 1560 nm D2-Raman shifted Nd:YAG laser radiation with a pulse duration of 5 ns. The pump beam of diameter ~3.1 mm was directed perpendicularly to the front facet of the film. The resulting mid-IR emission spectrum along the waveguided direction of the Cr2+:ZnSe/sapphire sample edge facet was collected with a CaF2 lens and detected with an ARC-300i spectrometer and a liquid nitrogen cooled InSb detector. The PL kinetics were measured using a digital oscilloscope and the PL intensity was processed through a boxcar averager. At low pumped energies (Fig. 4(b)(i)), the typical PL measurement similar to the spectral characteristics seen in Fig. 4(a) was obtained from the sample. The kinetics of the luminescence from the film was measured to be shorter than the InSb detector response time (~500 ns) and significantly shorter that Cr2+ PL lifetime in low concentration doped ZnSe bulk samples (~5.4 µs). This is understandable since the film dopant concentration of 6 × 1019 cm−3 is much greater than the critical dopant concentration Ncr~1 × 1019 cm−3 that marks the beginning of concentration quenching. However, for Cr2+ concentration of 6 × 1019 cm−3, the estimated lifetime of luminescence should be longer than the pump pulse duration of 5 ns used for gain-switched excitation and a high concentration of the active ions should provide high amplification in the planar waveguide. Figure 4(b)(ii) shows that pumping above threshold resulted in the appearance of an intense, much narrower stimulated emission with a central peak around 2600 nm, much different than the typical PL seen at lower pumped energies. This stimulated emission is attributed to the planar waveguiding of the optical field set up by the lower index of refraction of the sapphire substrate with respect to the Cr2+:ZnSe film. The lasing peak at 2600 nm is shifted to the longer wavelengths with respect to the PL peak around 2100 nm. This shift resulted from the trade-off between maximum emission cross-section at ~2400 nm [22

22. I. T. Sorokina, “Cr2+-doped II-VI materials for laser and nonlinear optics,” Opt. Mater. 26(4), 395–412 (2004). [CrossRef]

] (see Fig. 4(b)(iii)) and optical losses in the waveguide due to non-saturated chromium absorption (see Fig. 4(b)(iv)). Figure 4(c) depicts the dependence of the intensity of Cr2+:ZnSe planar waveguide emission at 2600 nm versus pump energy. The output-input characteristics clearly show the threshold-like behavior of the output signal with a threshold pumped energy density for planar lasing around 0.11 J/cm2.

Highly-doped Cr2+:ZnSe thin-film could be potentially used for passive Q-switching of the cavities of Er, Tm, and Ho lasers operating over 1.5–2.1 µm spectral range. Experiments were conducted to study CW and passively Q-switched Er:YAG laser pumped by an Er-fiber laser. A 5 mm diameter antireflection coated Er:YAG rod with Er concentration of 0.5 atomic % was used for the experiments. A 20 W Er fiber laser (ELR-20 IPG Photonics Corporation) with polarized oscillation at 1532 nm wavelength was used as the pump source. The optical scheme for the laser experiments is shown in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) The optical scheme used for the laser experiments. (b) Comparative Er:YAG input-output laser characteristics in Cr2+:ZnSe thin film Q-switched regime with (i) output coupler reflectivity R = 80%, (ii) R = 95%, and (iii) free running (R = 80%) regimes of operation. (c) The output pulses from passively Q-switched Er:YAG laser at pump power of 1.5 W with 95% output coupler.
. The features of the input-output characteristics of the passively Q-switched Er:YAG laser using a 6 × 1019 cm−3 doped Cr2+:ZnSe thin film sample, and (i) 80% and (ii) 95% reflectivity of the output couplers is shown in Fig. 5(b). The output power obtained reached the level of 100 mW at 3W pumped power. For comparison, the CW oscillation of the Er:YAG laser with 80% output coupler was measured in the same cavity without the Cr2+:ZnSe sample (Fig. 5(b)(iii)). As one can see from Fig. 5(b) (i) and (iii), the slope efficiencies obtained were similar. However, the use of Cr2+:ZnSe thin-film Q-switcher results in laser threshold increasing from 0.6 W to 1.5 W for 80% reflectivity of the output coupler. Figure 5(c) represents a characteristic train of Q-switched Er:YAG pulses at 1.645μm obtained for input power of 1.5 W and 95% reflectivity of the output coupler. The emission spectrum shows that the passively Q-switched Er:YAG laser operates at repetition rate of 21 kHz and features an output pulse energy on the order of magnitude of several microjoules. This successful Q-switch demonstration exemplify the potential for Cr2+:ZnSe thin films to be used as possible passive mode-lockers of Er:YAG laser by increasing the Cr2+ concentration to the level higher than that used in the current Q-switch laser experiments. By increasing the dopant concentration, the excited state lifetime of the Cr2+ ions continues to drastically diminish as concentration quenching becomes dominant. This short-lived excited state of the Cr2+ ions is desirable for passive mode-lock applications involving Er, Tm, and Ho lasers operating in the 1.5–2.1 µm.

4. Conclusions

In summary, we report that highly doped Cr2+:ZnSe thin films can be used as saturable absorbers for passive Q-switching of Er:YAG laser cavity with potential to be used as a passive mode-locker of Er, Tm, and Ho lasers operating over 1.5–2.1 µm spectral region. The first demonstration of 2.6 μm mid-IR lasing in Cr2+:ZnSe waveguide structures grown by PLD is also reported. The transition metal doped II-VI planar waveguide laser structures could be attractive for chip-integrated optical laser design with diode laser excitation and electronic control of tunability required for highly sensitive portable opto-chemical sensors.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge funding support from the University of Dayton Research Institiute (Subcontract RSC 09011) and Materials and Manufacturing Directorate of AFRL, Prime Contract No. FA8650-06-D-5401/0013), and the National Science Foundation under grants DMR-0116098, EPS-0814103, and ECCS-0901376.

The work reported here partially involves intellectual property developed at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. This intellectual property has been licensed to the IPG Photonics Corporation. The UAB co-authors declare competing financial interests.

Currently a part of IPG Photonics Corporation.

References and links

1.

L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, and W. F. Krupke, “Transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenides: spectroscopy and laser demonstration of a new class of gain media,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 885–895 (1996). [CrossRef]

2.

R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. Deloach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, and A. Burger, “Cr2+-doped Zinc Chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 33(4), 609–619 (1997). [CrossRef]

3.

S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, and C. Kim, “Progess in Cr2+ and Fe2+ doped mid-IR laser materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(1), 21–41 (2010). [CrossRef]

4.

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, and D. V. Martyshkin, “Recent progress in transition metal doped II-VI mid-IR lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 810–822 (2007). [CrossRef]

5.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, and V. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm Tunable solid state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006). [CrossRef]

6.

A. Fazzio, M. J. Caldas, and A. Zunger, “Many-electron multiplet effects in the spectra of 3d impurities in heteropolar semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 30(6), 3430–3455 (1984). [CrossRef]

7.

G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, and A. Burger, “Continuous-wave broadly tunable Cr2+:ZnSe laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(1), 19–21 (1999). [CrossRef]

8.

I. S. Moskalev, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “10-watt, pure continuous-wave, polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnS laser,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2048–2056 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

I. S. Moskalev, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, P. A. Berry, and K. L. Schepler, “12-Watt CW polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnSe laser pumped by Tm-fiber laser,” in Advance Solid-State Photonics, on CD-ROM (The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2009).

10.

V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, I. Moskalev, and S. B. Mirov, “En route to electrically pumped broadly tunable middle infrared lasers based on transition metal doped II-VI semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 125(1-2), 184–195 (2007). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Jaeck, R. Haidar, E. Rosencher, M. Caes, M. Tauvy, S. Collin, N. Bardou, J. Luc Pelouard, F. Pardo, and P. Lemasson, “Room-temperature electroluminescence in the mid-infrared (2-3 mµ) from bulk chromium-doped ZnSe,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3501–3503 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

N. A. Vlasenko, P. F. Oleksenko, Z. L. Denisova, M. O. Mukhlyo, and L. I. Veligura, “Cr-related energy levels and mechanism of Cr2+ ion photorecharge in ZnSe:Cr,” Phys. Status Solidi 245(11), 2550–2557 (2008) (b). [CrossRef]

13.

A. V. Vasilyev, N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, A. I. Riskin, and A. Ya. Chomyak, “Electroluminescent emitters on range of 1.8-2.7 mkm,” Optoelecktronika I poluprovodnikovaya technika, Naukova Dumka 25, 68 (1993).

14.

N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, L. I. Veligura, and Yu. A. Tsyrkunov, “Near-infrared-emitting ZnSe:Er and ZnS(Se):Cr TFEL devices,” SID J. 12, 179–182 (2004).

15.

A. Gallian, V. V. Fedorov, J. Kernal, J. Allman, S. B. Mirov, E. M. Dianov, A. O. Zabezhaylov, and I. P. Kazakov, “Spectroscopic studies of molecular-beam epitaxially grown Cr2+-doped ZnSe thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091105 (2005). [CrossRef]

16.

N. Vivet, M. Morales, M. Levalois, J. L. Doualan, and R. Moncorge, “Photoluminescence properties of Cr2+:ZnSe films deposited by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181915 (2007). [CrossRef]

17.

J. E. Williams, R. P. Camata, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Pulsed laser deposition of chromium-doped zinc selenide thin films for mid-infrared applications,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(2), 333–335 (2008). [CrossRef]

18.

O. Madelung, U. Rossler, and W. V. Osten, “Intristic properties of group IV elements and III-V, II-VI and II-VI compounds,” in Landolt-Bornstein: Numerical data and functional relationships in science and technology, H. Landolt, and R. Bornstein (Springer, 1987).

19.

J. T. Vallin, G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, and A. E. Hughes, “Infrared absorption in some II-VI compounds doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B 2(11), 4313–4333 (1970). [CrossRef]

20.

A. Burger, K. Chattopadhyay, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, S. H. Morgan, C. I. Rablau, C. H. Su, S. Feth, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, and S. A. Payne, “Preparation conditions of chromium doped ZnSe and their infrared luminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 249–256 (2001). [CrossRef]

21.

A. Sennaroglu, U. Demirbas, A. Kurt, and M. Somer, “Direct experimental determination of the optimum chromium concentration in continuous-wave Cr2+:ZnSe lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 823–830 (2007). [CrossRef]

22.

I. T. Sorokina, “Cr2+-doped II-VI materials for laser and nonlinear optics,” Opt. Mater. 26(4), 395–412 (2004). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(160.6990) Materials : Transition-metal-doped materials
(230.7390) Optical devices : Waveguides, planar
(310.1860) Thin films : Deposition and fabrication
(310.6860) Thin films : Thin films, optical properties

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: August 25, 2010
Revised Manuscript: October 3, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: October 3, 2010
Published: November 30, 2010

Citation
J. E. Williams, V. V. Fedorov, D. V. Martyshkin, I. S. Moskalev, R. P. Camata, and S. B. Mirov, "Mid-IR laser oscillation in Cr2+:ZnSe planar waveguide," Opt. Express 18, 25999-26006 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-25-25999


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. L. D. DeLoach, R. H. Page, G. D. Wilke, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, “Transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenides: spectroscopy and laser demonstration of a new class of gain media,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 32(6), 885–895 (1996). [CrossRef]
  2. R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, L. D. Deloach, G. D. Wilke, F. D. Patel, J. B. Tassano, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, K. T. Chen, A. Burger, “Cr2+-doped Zinc Chalcogenides as efficient, widely tunable mid-infrared lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 33(4), 609–619 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Mirov, V. Fedorov, I. Moskalev, D. Martyshkin, C. Kim, “Progess in Cr2+ and Fe2+ doped mid-IR laser materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(1), 21–41 (2010). [CrossRef]
  4. S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, I. S. Moskalev, D. V. Martyshkin, “Recent progress in transition metal doped II-VI mid-IR lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 810–822 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm Tunable solid state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. A. Fazzio, M. J. Caldas, A. Zunger, “Many-electron multiplet effects in the spectra of 3d impurities in heteropolar semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 30(6), 3430–3455 (1984). [CrossRef]
  7. G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, A. Burger, “Continuous-wave broadly tunable Cr2+:ZnSe laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(1), 19–21 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. I. S. Moskalev, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, “10-watt, pure continuous-wave, polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnS laser,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2048–2056 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. I. S. Moskalev, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, P. A. Berry, and K. L. Schepler, “12-Watt CW polycrystalline Cr2+:ZnSe laser pumped by Tm-fiber laser,” in Advance Solid-State Photonics, on CD-ROM (The Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2009).
  10. V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, I. Moskalev, S. B. Mirov, “En route to electrically pumped broadly tunable middle infrared lasers based on transition metal doped II-VI semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 125(1-2), 184–195 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Jaeck, R. Haidar, E. Rosencher, M. Caes, M. Tauvy, S. Collin, N. Bardou, J. Luc Pelouard, F. Pardo, P. Lemasson, “Room-temperature electroluminescence in the mid-infrared (2-3 mµ) from bulk chromium-doped ZnSe,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3501–3503 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. A. Vlasenko, P. F. Oleksenko, Z. L. Denisova, M. O. Mukhlyo, L. I. Veligura, “Cr-related energy levels and mechanism of Cr2+ ion photorecharge in ZnSe:Cr,” Phys. Status Solidi 245(11), 2550–2557 (2008) (b). [CrossRef]
  13. A. V. Vasilyev, N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, A. I. Riskin, A. Ya. Chomyak, “Electroluminescent emitters on range of 1.8-2.7 mkm,” Optoelecktronika I poluprovodnikovaya technika, Naukova Dumka 25, 68 (1993).
  14. N. A. Vlasenko, Z. L. Denisova, Ya. F. Kononets, L. I. Veligura, Yu. A. Tsyrkunov, “Near-infrared-emitting ZnSe:Er and ZnS(Se):Cr TFEL devices,” SID J. 12, 179–182 (2004).
  15. A. Gallian, V. V. Fedorov, J. Kernal, J. Allman, S. B. Mirov, E. M. Dianov, A. O. Zabezhaylov, I. P. Kazakov, “Spectroscopic studies of molecular-beam epitaxially grown Cr2+-doped ZnSe thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(9), 091105 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. N. Vivet, M. Morales, M. Levalois, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorge, “Photoluminescence properties of Cr2+:ZnSe films deposited by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181915 (2007). [CrossRef]
  17. J. E. Williams, R. P. Camata, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, “Pulsed laser deposition of chromium-doped zinc selenide thin films for mid-infrared applications,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 91(2), 333–335 (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. O. Madelung, U. Rossler, and W. V. Osten, “Intristic properties of group IV elements and III-V, II-VI and II-VI compounds,” in Landolt-Bornstein: Numerical data and functional relationships in science and technology, H. Landolt, and R. Bornstein (Springer, 1987).
  19. J. T. Vallin, G. A. Slack, S. Roberts, A. E. Hughes, “Infrared absorption in some II-VI compounds doped with Cr,” Phys. Rev. B 2(11), 4313–4333 (1970). [CrossRef]
  20. A. Burger, K. Chattopadhyay, J. O. Ndap, X. Ma, S. H. Morgan, C. I. Rablau, C. H. Su, S. Feth, R. H. Page, K. I. Schaffers, S. A. Payne, “Preparation conditions of chromium doped ZnSe and their infrared luminescence properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 225(2-4), 249–256 (2001). [CrossRef]
  21. A. Sennaroglu, U. Demirbas, A. Kurt, M. Somer, “Direct experimental determination of the optimum chromium concentration in continuous-wave Cr2+:ZnSe lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 823–830 (2007). [CrossRef]
  22. I. T. Sorokina, “Cr2+-doped II-VI materials for laser and nonlinear optics,” Opt. Mater. 26(4), 395–412 (2004). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4 Fig. 5
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited