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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 25 — Dec. 6, 2010
  • pp: 26062–26067
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IR spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous silica aerogel

Yu. N. Ponomarev, T. M. Petrova, A. M. Solodov, and A. A. Solodov  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 25, pp. 26062-26067 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.026062


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Abstract

The absorption spectrum of the water vapor, confined in the nanoporous silica aerogel, was measured within 5000-5600 cm−1 with the IFS 125 HR Fourier spectrometer. It has been shown, that tight confinement of the molecules by the nanoporous size leads to the strong lines broadening and shift. For water vapor lines, the HWHM of confined molecules are on the average 23 times larger than those for free molecules. The shift values are in the range from −0.03 cm−1 to 0.09 cm−1. Some spectral lines have negative shift. The data on the half-widths and center shifts for some strongest H2O lines have been presented.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

In recent years, the behavior of water molecules inside nano-size structures like zeolites, silicogels, carbon nanotubes, and different biological objects attracts growing attention of researchers [1

1. J. C. Rasaiah, S. Garde, and G. Hummer, “Water in nonpolar confinement: from nanotubes to proteins and beyond,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59(1), 713–740 (2008). [CrossRef]

5

5. I. D. Hartley, F. A. Kamke, and H. Peemoeller, “Cluster Theory for Water Sorption in Wood,” Wood Sci. Technol. 26(2), 83–99 (1992). [CrossRef]

]. The character of interaction of molecules with the inner surface of such structures can be studied by the IR spectroscopy methods. At present, it is well known how the absorption spectrum of matter, adsorbed in nano-materials, changes – the fine rotational structure of the gas phase disappears due to the loss or limitation of the rotational degrees of freedom, while the presence of the electric field inside nano-materials can lead to the appearance of bands forbidden in the IR absorption [6

6. L. H. Little, Infrared spectra of adsorbed species (Academic Press, 1966).

].

One of the interesting peculiarities of the nano-structure materials is a possibility of studying the absorption spectra of gases under limitation of the mean free path of the molecules (MFPM). Earlier this problem has been discussed in connection of studying spectra of gases at low pressure (10−4- 10−6 atm) in the microwave region [7

7. P. E. Wagner, R. M. Somers, and J. L. Jenkins, “Line Broadening and Relaxation of Three Microwave Transitions in Ammonia by Wall and Intermolecular Collisions,” J. Phys. B 14(24), 4763–4770 (1981). [CrossRef]

10

10. R. M. Somers, T. O. Poehler, and P. E. Wagner, “Microwave Time Domain Fabry-Perot Emission Spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 46(6), 719–725 (1975). [CrossRef]

]. At the length of the cell comparable with MFPM, additional broadening of spectral lines on the order of a few kilohertz was observed due to gas-surface interaction. For water vapor molecules at room temperature and pressure of 10 mbar MFPM is about 7000 nm. This value is several orders of magnitude larger than size of the nanopores in the nanoporous materials. In this case, the absorption spectra are formed under strong limitation of MFPM and the line shape and the line width and shift for water vapor molecules are predominantly determined by the collision of molecules with the nanopores walls rather than with each other. The information obtained from studying absorption spectra under such condition is very important for understanding the processes of gas-surface interaction.

Until now absorption spectra of water vapor confined in nanopores are poorly known. There are only a few works [11

11. T. Svensson, M. Lewander, and S. Svanberg, “Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16460–16473 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-16460. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13

13. Yu. N. Ponomarev, T. M. Petrova, A. M. Solodov, and A. A. Solodov, “Absorbance spectrum of water vapor in aerogel nanopores” in Proceedings of XVI International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics. Atmospheric Physics (Tomsk, Russia, 12–15 Oct. 2009), pp. 97–98.

], in which such measurements have been performed. In [11

11. T. Svensson, M. Lewander, and S. Svanberg, “Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16460–16473 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-16460. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] absorption spectra of H2O in gas phase at pressure of 21 mbar, confined in nanoporous alumina (nanopores size is 70 nm) have been studied, where lines broadening due to wall collision was found to be 1.5 time larger as compared for free molecules. Earlier [12

12. Yu. N. Ponomarev, T. M. Petrova, A. M. Solodov, and A. A. Solodov, “Spectroscopic Properties of Some Atmospheric Gases in Aerogel Nanopores” presented at the XVI International Symposium on High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy HighRus-2009, Listvyanka vil., Russia, 5–10 July 2009.

,13

13. Yu. N. Ponomarev, T. M. Petrova, A. M. Solodov, and A. A. Solodov, “Absorbance spectrum of water vapor in aerogel nanopores” in Proceedings of XVI International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics. Atmospheric Physics (Tomsk, Russia, 12–15 Oct. 2009), pp. 97–98.

] we briefly reported about the spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous silica aerogel. In this work we present more detailed description of the method of the measurements and the results obtained on the broadening and shift of water vapor spectral lines due to interaction of the water molecules with the nanoporous walls of aerogel.

2. Experimental details

The H2O absorption spectra in nanoporous aerogel were measured within 5000-5800 cm−1 at room temperature and at the resolution of 0.05 cm−1, using the IFS 125HR Fourier spectrometer. The choice of the measurement range was determined by two factors: very weak self-absorption of aerogel in this range and the presence of rather strong ν2 + ν3 water vapor absorption band [14

14. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” JQSRT 110, 533–572 (2009).

]. Silica aerogel is a material transparent in the visible and IR spectral ranges, light-weight (0.03 – 0.3g/cm3), and highly porous (porosity of 80-90%). Its structure is formed by small spherical clusters of SiO2 with sizes of several nm. The SiO2 clusters form chains which make up a porous 3D net filled with air. The pore sizes vary from several tens to hundreds of nanometers. More detailed description of the structural, mechanical and optical properties of the aerogel is presented in [15

15. Yu. N. Kharzheev, “Use of Silica Aerogels in Cherenkov Counters,” Phys. Part. Nucl. 39, 107–135 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Aerogel sample used in our measurements was produced at the Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. It had dimensions of 58×53×20 mm, its specific density was 0.25 g/cm3. The mean size of pores was 20 nm according to data on the low temperature adsorption of nitrogen.

Before measurements, the atmospheric air was evacuated from the aerogel pores. To achieve this, the aerogel sample was centered perpendicular to the IR beam path in the middle of the 65 mm length vacuum chamber, which had been pumped out for 36 hours, first with the forevacuum pump, and then with the diffusion pump. The length of the cell was larger than the length of the aerogel sample, therefore, the absorption contribution of water vapor, located between the cell windows and the aerogel sample, should be taken into account. For this purpose, the second cell was used, the length of which was equal to the length of the gaps between aerogel and windows of the first cell, i. e., 7 mm. Both cells were located in the spectrometer’s cell compartment and can be used in turn, by beam path switching from one cell to another. The volumes of the cells were connected with each other. Since the inner surface area of aerogel is very large (900 m2/g), it took about 4 hours to achieve the equilibrium between the amount of the adsorbed water by the aerogel and the amount of water localized in the gaps between aerogel and windows of the measurement cell. It should noted, that in [11

11. T. Svensson, M. Lewander, and S. Svanberg, “Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16460–16473 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-16460. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,16

16. D. A. Bostain, J. S. Brenizer Jr, and P. M. Norris, “Neutron Radioscopic Measurement of Water Adsorption Coefficients in Aerogels,” Res. Nondestruct. Eval. 14, 47–57 (2002).

] the same time was needed to uptake an aerogel by the water vapor. The water absorption spectra in nanoporous aerogel and in the second cell were measured in turn. All measurements have been performed at room temperature and water vapor pressure of 10 mbar. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio, the coaddition of 15000 interferograms was done for each channel. The water vapor absorption spectrum confined in nanoporous aerogel was obtained through subtraction of the absorption spectra obtained in both cells.

3. Results and discussion

The large length of the aerogel sample allowed us to record the absorption spectrum of the gas-phase water confined in nanoporous aerogel and to measure profile of individual spectral lines, as well as their broadening and shift. Figure 1a
Fig. 1 (a) - Absorption spectrum of water in aerogel recorded at spectral resolution 0.05 cm−1. Broad band profile is due to absorption of the water, adsorbed by the surface of the nanopores. The inset shows a detailed view of the absorption spectrum around 5400 cm−1. (b) - Detailed view of the water vapor absorption lines formed by two superimposed profiles. Narrow profile is formed due to the water vapor absorption in gaps between the cell windows and the aerogel sample. Wide profile is formed due to the water vapor absorption in nanoporous aerogel. The spectrum recorded at spectral resolution of 0.05 cm−1 and water vapor pressure of 10 mbar. A logarithm base-e absorbance scale is used.
presents the summarized absorption spectrum measured in the first channel of the spectrometer. It shows a wide profile formed by the absorption of water, adsorbed by the surface of the nanoporous aerogel, and the fine structure of vibration-rotation transitions of the gas phase. A more detailed picture of individual gas-phase spectral lines (Fig. 1b) reveals the complex structure of the profile formed in nanoporous by the water vapor absorption in aerogel (wide profile) and in gaps between the cell windows and the aerogel sample (narrow profile).

Figure 2a
Fig. 2 (a) - Fragment of the absorption spectrum of gas-phase water confined in the nanoporous aerogel, recorded at spectral resolution of 0.05 cm−1. (b) - Observed (solids quares) and simulated (solid lines) profiles of the water vapor confined in nanopores. The respective residuals are given in below panel. Arrow indicates spectral line, which is shown on the right panel.
presents the water vapor absorption spectrum in nanoporous aerogel obtained after subtraction of the absorption spectra recorded at the same pressure in different channels of the spectrometer. The processing of these absorption spectra was performed by fitting the Lorentz profiles to the experimentally recorded ones. The result of fitting for one of the line, centered near 5393.64 cm−1 is presented on the Fig. 2b. The fitting produced the values of half-widths, line center positions, and the standard deviations for some of the strongest water vapor absorption lines which are presented in Table 1

Table 1. Measured values of the H2O lines half-width and shift in aerogel nanopore volume and in the standard measurement cell.

table-icon
View This Table
.

The values of the H2O line half-widths in aerogel (γ1) at the pressure of 10 mbar are presented in column 5 of the Table 1. It is interesting to compare these data with those for free gas. For that we used literature data on self broadening of water vapor [17

17. I. V. Ptashnik, K. M. Smith, and K. P. Shine, “Self-broadened Line Parameters for Water Vapour in the Spectral Region 5000–5600 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 232, 186–201 (2005). [CrossRef]

], from which we calculated the values lines half-widths at the pressure of 10 mbar (γ2), presented in column 6 of the Table 1. Comparison of these data shows, that water vapor lines broadening due to gas-surface interaction (γ1) is on the average 23 times larger than those (γ2) for free gas. It should be noted, that in [11

11. T. Svensson, M. Lewander, and S. Svanberg, “Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16460–16473 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-16460. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] the ratio γ1 to γ2 is approximately 1.5. In [11

11. T. Svensson, M. Lewander, and S. Svanberg, “Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16460–16473 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-16460. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] the measurements of water vapor lines broadening due to gas-surface interaction (γ1) have been performed in nanoporous alumina at pressure of 21 mbar. Such big difference in the line broadening may be connected, first, with the nanopores size (70 nm in [11

11. T. Svensson, M. Lewander, and S. Svanberg, “Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16460–16473 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-16460. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and 20 nm in our work) and, second, with the different nanostructure materials and the method of the measurements used.

Column 4 of Table 1 presents values of H2O lines shift (δ) in aerogel relative to their line centre position, measured in the second cell at the pressure of 10 mbar. The method of the lines shift measurement is described in [18

18. N. N. Lavrentieva, T. M. Petrova, A. M. Solodov, and A. A. Solodov, “Measurements of N2-Broadening and –Shifting Parameters of the Water Vapor Spectral Lines in the Second Hexad Region,” JQSRT 111, 2291–2297 (2010).

]. The shift values fall in the range from −0.03 cm−1 to 0.09 cm−1. As it follows from the table, the shift values are unexpectedly large and some spectral lines have negative shift (Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Profiles of two water vapor absorption lines, recorded at a spectral resolution of 0.05 cm−1 in the nanoporous aerogel volume (1) and at 0.01 cm−1 in the standard measurement cell (2). In order to visualize the strong line broadening and shift due to nano-confinenment, a peak normalized for water vapor at 10 mbar is shown for reference.
). The physical phenomenon responsible for such behavior of lines shift is not clear but their analysis is in progress.

The profile of H2O absorption lines in a nanopore volume are formed under the action of two factors. The first one consists in the limitation of the MFPM from 7000 nm in free state to the nanopore sizes values (in the given case, 20 nm) which leads to the increase of the collision frequency water vapor molecules with the walls of nanopores. As it follows from [7

7. P. E. Wagner, R. M. Somers, and J. L. Jenkins, “Line Broadening and Relaxation of Three Microwave Transitions in Ammonia by Wall and Intermolecular Collisions,” J. Phys. B 14(24), 4763–4770 (1981). [CrossRef]

13

13. Yu. N. Ponomarev, T. M. Petrova, A. M. Solodov, and A. A. Solodov, “Absorbance spectrum of water vapor in aerogel nanopores” in Proceedings of XVI International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics. Atmospheric Physics (Tomsk, Russia, 12–15 Oct. 2009), pp. 97–98.

] the increase of the collision frequency, leads to additional line broadening, depending on the MFPM and nanopores size ratio. In our case of the strong limitation of the MFPM, nano-confinement is a major source of line broadening.

The second factor is connected with the properties of the nanopores inner surface. In [4

4. J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of submonolayer water adsorption in hydrophilic silica aerogel,” Opt. Lett. 29(9), 1031–1033 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] it has been shown, that water vapor at pressure of 23.6 mbar, adsorbed by the walls of the nanoporous aerogel is in the submonolayer state. The submonolayer was formed during adsorption of the water vapor by an aerogel. The theory of water sorption (see [5

5. I. D. Hartley, F. A. Kamke, and H. Peemoeller, “Cluster Theory for Water Sorption in Wood,” Wood Sci. Technol. 26(2), 83–99 (1992). [CrossRef]

] and references therein) considers a multilayer adsorption, assuming a monolayer tightly bonded to the nanoporous substrate. The water molecules in a monolayer are expected to be translationally immobile and having the predominant spatial orientation adsorbed molecules relative to the nanopore surface. It may be supposed, that the collision moving gas-phase molecules in nanopores with “immobile” adsorbed molecules, leads to the absence of the correlation between magnitudes of the water vapor line broadening in aerogel and in the free gas. As to the shift of line centers, this factor may leads to the appearance of negative shift

4. Conclusion

Thus, the conducted measurements of the water vapor confined in nanopores aerogel shows that the water inside the nanopores can be in the gas phase; and its spectroscopic properties significantly differ from the water vapor properties under the standard conditions. For water vapor lines broadening due to gas-surface interaction these values are on the average 23 times larger than those for free gas. The shift values are varied in the range from −0.03 cm−1 to 0.09 cm−1. Some spectral lines have negative shift (Fig. 3). An analysis of such behavior of the lines shift is in progress. The results we obtained on the water vapor lines broadening and shift, together with the data in [11

11. T. Svensson, M. Lewander, and S. Svanberg, “Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16460–16473 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-16460. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], can be used to construct the theoretical model of the process of gas-surface interaction.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to A. F. Daniluk for manufacturing of the silica aerogel sample. This work was supported by the Physical Science Program of RAS: project No. III.9.3 and No. III.9.4.

References and links

1.

J. C. Rasaiah, S. Garde, and G. Hummer, “Water in nonpolar confinement: from nanotubes to proteins and beyond,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59(1), 713–740 (2008). [CrossRef]

2.

F.-X. Coudert, R. Vuilleumier, and A. Boutin, “Dipole moment, hydrogen bonding and IR spectrum of confined water,” ChemPhysChem 7(12), 2464–2467 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

T. Inagaki, H. Yonenobu, and S. Tsuchikawa, “Near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of the water adsorption/desorption process in modern and archaeological wood,” Appl. Spectrosc. 62(8), 860–865 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of submonolayer water adsorption in hydrophilic silica aerogel,” Opt. Lett. 29(9), 1031–1033 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

I. D. Hartley, F. A. Kamke, and H. Peemoeller, “Cluster Theory for Water Sorption in Wood,” Wood Sci. Technol. 26(2), 83–99 (1992). [CrossRef]

6.

L. H. Little, Infrared spectra of adsorbed species (Academic Press, 1966).

7.

P. E. Wagner, R. M. Somers, and J. L. Jenkins, “Line Broadening and Relaxation of Three Microwave Transitions in Ammonia by Wall and Intermolecular Collisions,” J. Phys. B 14(24), 4763–4770 (1981). [CrossRef]

8.

S. C. M. Luijendijk, “The Effect of Wall Collisions on the Shape of Microwave Absorption Lines,” J. Phys. B 8(18), 2995–3000 (1975). [CrossRef]

9.

S. L. Coy, “Speed Dependence of Microwave Rotational Relaxation Rates,” J. Chem. Phys. 73(11), 5531–5555 (1980). [CrossRef]

10.

R. M. Somers, T. O. Poehler, and P. E. Wagner, “Microwave Time Domain Fabry-Perot Emission Spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 46(6), 719–725 (1975). [CrossRef]

11.

T. Svensson, M. Lewander, and S. Svanberg, “Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16460–16473 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-16460. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

Yu. N. Ponomarev, T. M. Petrova, A. M. Solodov, and A. A. Solodov, “Spectroscopic Properties of Some Atmospheric Gases in Aerogel Nanopores” presented at the XVI International Symposium on High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy HighRus-2009, Listvyanka vil., Russia, 5–10 July 2009.

13.

Yu. N. Ponomarev, T. M. Petrova, A. M. Solodov, and A. A. Solodov, “Absorbance spectrum of water vapor in aerogel nanopores” in Proceedings of XVI International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics. Atmospheric Physics (Tomsk, Russia, 12–15 Oct. 2009), pp. 97–98.

14.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” JQSRT 110, 533–572 (2009).

15.

Yu. N. Kharzheev, “Use of Silica Aerogels in Cherenkov Counters,” Phys. Part. Nucl. 39, 107–135 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

D. A. Bostain, J. S. Brenizer Jr, and P. M. Norris, “Neutron Radioscopic Measurement of Water Adsorption Coefficients in Aerogels,” Res. Nondestruct. Eval. 14, 47–57 (2002).

17.

I. V. Ptashnik, K. M. Smith, and K. P. Shine, “Self-broadened Line Parameters for Water Vapour in the Spectral Region 5000–5600 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 232, 186–201 (2005). [CrossRef]

18.

N. N. Lavrentieva, T. M. Petrova, A. M. Solodov, and A. A. Solodov, “Measurements of N2-Broadening and –Shifting Parameters of the Water Vapor Spectral Lines in the Second Hexad Region,” JQSRT 111, 2291–2297 (2010).

OCIS Codes
(020.3690) Atomic and molecular physics : Line shapes and shifts
(300.3700) Spectroscopy : Linewidth
(300.6300) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, Fourier transforms
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

ToC Category:
Spectroscopy

History
Original Manuscript: September 21, 2010
Revised Manuscript: October 17, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: November 11, 2010
Published: November 30, 2010

Citation
Yu. N. Ponomarev, T. M. Petrova, A. M. Solodov, and A. A. Solodov, "IR spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous silica aerogel," Opt. Express 18, 26062-26067 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-25-26062


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References

  1. J. C. Rasaiah, S. Garde, and G. Hummer, “Water in nonpolar confinement: from nanotubes to proteins and beyond,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59(1), 713–740 (2008). [CrossRef]
  2. F.-X. Coudert, R. Vuilleumier, and A. Boutin, “Dipole moment, hydrogen bonding and IR spectrum of confined water,” ChemPhysChem 7(12), 2464–2467 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Inagaki, H. Yonenobu, and S. Tsuchikawa, “Near-infrared spectroscopic monitoring of the water adsorption/desorption process in modern and archaeological wood,” Appl. Spectrosc. 62(8), 860–865 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of submonolayer water adsorption in hydrophilic silica aerogel,” Opt. Lett. 29(9), 1031–1033 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. D. Hartley, F. A. Kamke, and H. Peemoeller, “Cluster Theory for Water Sorption in Wood,” Wood Sci. Technol. 26(2), 83–99 (1992). [CrossRef]
  6. L. H. Little, Infrared spectra of adsorbed species (Academic Press, 1966).
  7. P. E. Wagner, R. M. Somers, and J. L. Jenkins, “Line Broadening and Relaxation of Three Microwave Transitions in Ammonia by Wall and Intermolecular Collisions,” J. Phys. B 14(24), 4763–4770 (1981). [CrossRef]
  8. S. C. M. Luijendijk, “The Effect of Wall Collisions on the Shape of Microwave Absorption Lines,” J. Phys. B 8(18), 2995–3000 (1975). [CrossRef]
  9. S. L. Coy, “Speed Dependence of Microwave Rotational Relaxation Rates,” J. Chem. Phys. 73(11), 5531–5555 (1980). [CrossRef]
  10. R. M. Somers, T. O. Poehler, and P. E. Wagner, “Microwave Time Domain Fabry-Perot Emission Spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 46(6), 719–725 (1975). [CrossRef]
  11. T. Svensson, M. Lewander, and S. Svanberg, “Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics,” Opt. Express 18(16), 16460–16473 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-16460 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Yu. N. Ponomarev, T. M. Petrova, A. M. Solodov, and A. A. Solodov, “Spectroscopic Properties of Some Atmospheric Gases in Aerogel Nanopores” presented at the XVI International Symposium on High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy HighRus-2009, Listvyanka vil., Russia, 5–10 July 2009.
  13. Yu. N. Ponomarev, T. M. Petrova, A. M. Solodov, and A. A. Solodov, “Absorbance spectrum of water vapor in aerogel nanopores” in Proceedings of XVI International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics. Atmospheric Physics (Tomsk, Russia, 12–15 Oct. 2009), pp. 97–98.
  14. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” JQSRT 110, 533–572 (2009).
  15. Yu. N. Kharzheev, “Use of Silica Aerogels in Cherenkov Counters,” Phys. Part. Nucl. 39, 107–135 (2008). [CrossRef]
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