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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 25 — Dec. 6, 2010
  • pp: 26196–26205
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Strategies for P2P connectivity in reconfigurable converged wired/wireless access networks

Gustavo Puerto, José Mora, Beatriz Ortega, and José Capmany  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 25, pp. 26196-26205 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.026196


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Abstract

This paper presents different strategies to define the architecture of a Radio-Over-Fiber (RoF) Access networks enabling Peer-to-Peer (P2P) functionalities. The architectures fully exploit the flexibility of a wavelength router based on the feedback configuration of an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) and an optical switch to broadcast P2P services among diverse infrastructures featuring dynamic channel allocation and enabling an optical platform for 3G and beyond wireless backhaul requirements. The first architecture incorporates a tunable laser to generate a dedicated wavelength for P2P purposes and the second architecture takes advantage of reused wavelengths to enable the P2P connectivity among Optical Network Units (ONUs) or Base Stations (BS). While these two approaches allow the P2P connectivity in a one at a time basis (1:1), the third architecture enables the broadcasting of P2P sessions among different ONUs or BSs at the same time (1:M). Experimental assessment of the proposed architecture shows approximately 0.6% Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) degradation for wireless services and 1 dB penalty in average for 1x10−12 Bit Error Rate (BER) for wired baseband services.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 describes the three proposed architectures along with the experimental environment used to assess their performance. Section 3 presents the performance evaluation for each one of the approaches and finally section 4 summarizes the paper.

2. System description

This section describes the proposed architectures for P2P physical connectivity in RoF access networks conveying converged wired and wireless signals. The P2P connectivity is offered by the proposed wavelength router based remote node that is able to route transparently signals among different ONU/BS.

2.1 Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) architecture with dedicated wavelength (1:1)

PAWG=[M+N+(M1)]inx[M+N]out
(1)

With the number of AWG ports used for P2P purposes given by:

PAWG_P2P=[M1]inx[M]out
(2)

That is, [M-1] input ports more are needed in the AWG to implement the P2P functionality while the [M] output ports are reused due to the cyclical response of the AWG. Following the same considerations, the number of input and output ports required in the optical switch for the P2P connectivity is:

PSwitch_P2P=[M]inx[M1]out
(3)

Figure 2(b) shows two scenarios for P2P connectivity among four ONU/BSs. For the scenario shown in Fig. 2(b) left, each ONU/BS has its own fixed channel, the extra capacity channels have been dynamically assigned to ONU/BSs-1 and 3 and ONU/BS-1 has a P2P session with ONU/BS-2 and ONU/BS-3 onto λ1’ = 1561.14 nm, which is the assigned P2P wavelength for sessions originated in ONU/BS-1. Figure 2(b) right, shows a second scenario with a P2P session originated in ONU/BS-3 and transmitted onto its P2P wavelength at λ3’ = 1562.74 nm and ended up in ONU/BS-1 and ONU/BS-2 respectively.

2.2 Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) architecture with wavelength reuse (1:1)

2.3 WDM architecture with wavelength reuse (1:M)

PAWG=[M+N+L]inx[M+N]out.
(4)

With the number of AWG ports for P2P determined by:
PAWG_P2P=[L]inx[M]out,
(5)
and the number of input and output ports in the switch for P2P purposes (PSwitch_P2P) is given by:

PSwitch_P2P=[M]inx[M]out.
(6)

3. Performance evaluation

3.1 TDM architecture with dedicated wavelength (1:1)

3.2 WDM architecture with wavelength reuse (1:1)

The wavelength reused architecture has been evaluated with the scenario shown in Fig. 3(b), left which corresponds to the P2P session from ONU/BS-1 and ONU/BS-2 and 3 using the fixed wavelength assigned to ONU/BS-1 (λ1 = 1546.65). Figure 6(a)
Fig. 6 Experimental results. (a), (b) Signal quality of the P2P services. (c), (d) Signal quality of the upstream services.
shows the signal quality in ONU/BS-2 and 3 respectively and additionally it also shows the BER curve for the downstream signal at ONU/BS-1.

3.3 WDM architecture with wavelength reuse (1:M)

The system performance was evaluated by measuring the quality of signals in the scenario shown in Fig. 4(b) left, which corresponds to the P2P session from ONU/BS-1 to ONU/BS-2, 3 and 4. Figure 7(a)
Fig. 7 Experimental results. (a), (b) Signal quality of the P2P services. (c), (d) Signal quality of the upstream services.
shows the signal quality in ONU/BS-2, ONU/BS-3 and ONU/BS-4 respectively and additionally it also shows the BER curve for the downstream signal at ONU/BS-1. The results show that the signals for the P2P session with ONU/BS-2, ONU/BS-3 and ONU/BS-4 present a penalty of 1.1 dB compared to the signal in ONU/BS-1 and 1.5 dB penalty with respect to the back-to-back curve.

4. Conclusions

Three different architectures of a wavelength router based remote node to enable P2P connectivity in a converged wired/wireless RoF access network were presented. The first architecture uses a tunable laser in the remote node to generate the P2P wavelength while the second and third approach reuses the fixed wavelength of the ONU/BS to enable the P2P session. Remarkable differences among the systems lies in the capability of holding simultaneous P2P sessions, while the first two approaches allows 1:1 connectivity based on TDM and WDM respectively, the third one enable WDM based 1:M assignment. The approach enables the broadcasting of P2P sessions among different ONU/BSs whereas the demonstrated functionalities negotiate the backhaul requirements for 4G radio access in terms of capacity, multi-service capability and inter ONU/BS logical mesh connectivity.

A discussion on the RN dimensioning was also presented showing that, in general, the requirements of the AWG capacity increase by a factor of (M-1) ONU/BSs while the size of the optical switch is directly proportional to the number of ONU/BSs (M) featuring P2P connectivity.

Acknowledgments

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7) under project 212 352 ALPHA “Architectures for fLexible Photonic Home and Access networks” and Generalitat Valenciana through the PROMETEO research excellency award programme GVA PROMETEO 2008/092.

References and links

1.

A. Sentinelli, G. Marfia, M. Gerla, L. Kleinrock, and S. Tewari, “Will IPTV ride the peer-to-peer stream?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(6), 86–92 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

C. P. Larsen, A. Gavler, and S. Junique, “The Impact of Peer-to-Peer networking on user behaviour and network design,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC), Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2010, paper NTuA5.

3.

G. K. Venkatesan, and K. Kulkarni, “Wireless backhaul for LTE - requirements, challenges and options,” 2nd International Symposium on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, 2008. ANTS '08, pp.1–3, 15–17 Dec. 2008.

4.

J. J. Vegas Olmos, T. Kuri, T. Sono, K. Tamura, H. Toda, and K. I. Kitayama, “Wireless and Optical-Integrated Access Network With Peer-To-Peer Connection Capability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1127–1129 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

B. Ortega, J. Mora, G. Puerto, and J. Capmany, “Symmetric reconfigurable capacity assignment in a bidirectional DWDM access network,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16781–16786 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

G. Puerto, J. Mora, B. Ortega, and J. Capmany, “Wavelength Data Rewriter for Centralized-Source Radio-Over-Fiber Access Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1102–1104 (2010). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.4250) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks
(060.4265) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks, wavelength routing

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: August 9, 2010
Revised Manuscript: October 30, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: November 4, 2010
Published: December 1, 2010

Citation
Gustavo Puerto, José Mora, Beatriz Ortega, and José Capmany, "Strategies for P2P connectivity in reconfigurable converged wired/wireless access networks," Opt. Express 18, 26196-26205 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-25-26196


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References

  1. A. Sentinelli, G. Marfia, M. Gerla, L. Kleinrock, and S. Tewari, “Will IPTV ride the peer-to-peer stream?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45(6), 86–92 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. C. P. Larsen, A. Gavler, and S. Junique, “The Impact of Peer-to-Peer networking on user behaviour and network design,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC), Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 2010, paper NTuA5.
  3. G. K. Venkatesan, and K. Kulkarni, “Wireless backhaul for LTE - requirements, challenges and options,” 2nd International Symposium on Advanced Networks and Telecommunication Systems, 2008. ANTS '08, pp.1–3, 15–17 Dec. 2008.
  4. J. J. Vegas Olmos, T. Kuri, T. Sono, K. Tamura, H. Toda, and K. I. Kitayama, “Wireless and Optical-Integrated Access Network With Peer-To-Peer Connection Capability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1127–1129 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. B. Ortega, J. Mora, G. Puerto, and J. Capmany, “Symmetric reconfigurable capacity assignment in a bidirectional DWDM access network,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16781–16786 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Puerto, J. Mora, B. Ortega, and J. Capmany, “Wavelength Data Rewriter for Centralized-Source Radio-Over-Fiber Access Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1102–1104 (2010). [CrossRef]

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