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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 25 — Dec. 6, 2010
  • pp: 26259–26267
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Photonic arbitrary waveform generation applicable to multiband UWB communications

Mario Bolea, José Mora, Beatriz Ortega, and José Capmany  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 25, pp. 26259-26267 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.026259


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Abstract

A novel photonic structure for arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) is proposed based on the electrooptical intensity modulation of a broadband optical signal which is transmitted by a dispersive element and the optoelectrical processing is realized by combining an interferometric structure with balanced photodetection. The generated waveform can be fully reconfigured through the control of the optical source power spectrum and the interferometric structure. The use of balanced photodetection permits to remove the baseband component of the generated signal which is relevant in certain applications. We have theoretically described and experimentally demonstrated the feasibility of the system by means of the generation of different pulse shapes. Specifically, the proposed structure has been applicable to generate Multiband UWB signaling formats regarding to the FCC requirements in order to show the flexibility of the system.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) has become an interesting research area due to the wide number of applications in which is involved such as: radar systems, wireless communications, software defined radio and modern instrumentation. Photonically assisted microwave AWG is one of the major topics covered by Microwave Photonics due to the capability to generate high frequency and large bandwidth signals. Moreover, Microwave Photonics involves the inherent advantages of operating in optical domain such as: low loss, small size, tunability, reconfigurability and immunity to electromagnetic interferences (EMI). In fact, it achieves a great potential in Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) systems since they profit from the different components which are involved in the transport and distribution of the signals by optical fiber [1

1. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

2. Theoretical description of the system

Firstly, we consider an optical signal S(ω) whose power spectra distribution comes from an optical broadband source (BBS) and can be modified by using a dynamic optical filter (DOF). As example, inset (a) of Fig. 1 plots the optical spectra distribution at the point A of the structure as a uniform profile centred around the optical frequency ωo = 2π x 193.8 THz with an optical bandwidth δω = 2π x 1 THz.

The optical signal S(ω) is amplitude modulated by using an electrooptical modulator (EOM). The resulting signal is launched into a dispersive element characterized by the optical transfer function HDISP(ω):

HDISP(ω)=ejφ(ω)  where   φ(ω)=φ0+φ˙0(ωω0)+12φ¨0(ωω0)2
(1)

The phase dependence φ(ω) can be developed by means of a Taylor expansion centered at the frequency ω0. The parameters φ˙0 and φ¨0 corresponds to the group delay time at the optical frequency ω0 and the dispersion induced in the system, respectively [17

17. J. Mora, B. Ortega, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, J. Capmany, and D. Pastor, “Photonic microwave tunable single-bandpass filter based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(7), 2500–2509 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

At the end of the dispersive element, a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) is located which is based on two 50/50 couplers and a Variable Delay Line (VDL). The optical transfer function at each output of the MZI (P1 and P2 respectively) is given by:
HMZIOUT1(ω)=12(ejωτ1+ejωτ2)
(2)
and
HMZIOUT1(ω)=12(ejωτ1ejωτ2)
(3)
where τ1 and τ2 correspond to the time delay introduced by both MZI arms. This element produces a slicing in the optical signal to obtain the different taps of the equivalent microwave photonic filter. To illustrate this fact, inset (b) of Fig. 1 shows the optical signal corresponding to the point B of the structure when the optical delay between both MZI arms, defined as Δτ = τ1 - τ2, is set.

Finally, a balanced photodetector (BPD) is placed to detect the optical signal. The use of this type of photodetection produces an electrical transfer function of the system, HRF(Ω), given by:
HRF(Ω)=HOUT1RF(Ω)HOUT2RF(Ω)
(4)
where HOUT1RF(Ω)and HOUT2RF(Ω)corresponds with the electrical transfer functions taking into account the MZI responses from Eq. (2) and (3), respectively. In this way, the electrical transfer function of the system can be expressed as:

HRF(Ω)=cos(12φ¨0Ω(ΩΩ0))H0RF(ΩΩ0)+cos(12φ¨0Ω(Ω+Ω0))H0RF(Ω+Ω0)
(5)

The term H0RF(Ω) corresponds to the transfer function which is given by the following expression:

H0RF(Ω)=S(ω)eφ¨0(ωω0)ΩS(ω)dω
(6)

The frequency of design Ωo = 2π x fo which appears in Eq. (5) takes into account the passband component of the electrical transfer function and depends on the slicing realized by the MZI and the total dispersion induced in the system as:

Ω0=Δτ|φ¨0|
(7)

As we have commented, our approach uses an amplitude modulator previously to the dispersive element. Therefore, Carrier Suppression Effect (CSE) would be present around the frequency of design Ωo since Double-Side-Band (DSB) modulation is used in photonic systems as known [17

17. J. Mora, B. Ortega, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, J. Capmany, and D. Pastor, “Photonic microwave tunable single-bandpass filter based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(7), 2500–2509 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Nevertheless, we can observe from Eq. (5) that the first term is a modified version of the CSE which is negligible around the frequency Ωo. In this way, our structure avoids the restriction of the frequency operation range in terms of Carrier Suppression Effect over full radiofrequency range.

The operation principle of the proposed AWG has been analyzed in terms of microwave photonic filtering as previously mentioned. Nevertheless, AWGs are also performed by a frequency-to-time process [3

3. J. Azaña, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, and B. Fischer, “Reconfigurable generation of high-repetition-rate optical pulse sequences based on time-domain phase-only filtering,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3228–3230 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8

8. T. He, N. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation-based packet generation and all-optical separation for optical-label switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 715–717 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, our structure can be understood by a frequency-to-time mapping of a reshaped incoherent light source [20

20. C. Dorrer, “Temporal van Cittert-Zernike theorem and its application to the measurement of chromatic dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(8), 1417–1423 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

3. Experimental capabilities of the system

4. Conclusion

Acknowledgements

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) under project 212.352 ALPHA “Architectures for fLexible Photonic Home and Access networks.” The authors also wish to acknowledge “Ajudes per a la realització de projectes precompetitius de I+D per a equips d’investigació” GVPRE/2008/250 supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and PROMETEO GVA 2008/092 MICROWAVE PHOTONICS and complementary help for I + D projects for quality groups by Generalitat Valenciana ACOMP/2010/196.

References and links

1.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

O. Mendoza-Yero, G. Mínguez-Vega, J. Lancis, and V. Climent, “Diffractive pulse shaper for arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 535–537 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

J. Azaña, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, and B. Fischer, “Reconfigurable generation of high-repetition-rate optical pulse sequences based on time-domain phase-only filtering,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3228–3230 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

H. Chi and J. Yao, “Symmetrical waveform generation based on temporal pulse shaping using amplitude-only modulator,” Electron. Lett. 43(7), 415–417 (2007). [CrossRef]

5.

J. D. McKinney, I. S. Lin, and A. M. Weiner, “Ultrabroadband arbitrary electromagnetic wavefom synthesis,” Opt. Photon. News 17(4), 24–29 (2006). [CrossRef]

6.

C. Wang and J. Yao, “Large time-bandwidth product microwave arbitrary waveform generation using a spatially discrete chirped fiber bragg grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(11), 1652–1660 (2010). [CrossRef]

7.

C. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation and characterization using spectral line-by-line control,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(7), 2487–2494 (2006). [CrossRef]

8.

T. He, N. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation-based packet generation and all-optical separation for optical-label switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 715–717 (2010). [CrossRef]

9.

G. R. Aiello and G. D. Rogerson, “Ultra-Wideband wireless systems,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 4(2), 36–47 (2003). [CrossRef]

10.

J. D. McKinney, I. S. Lin, and A. M. Weiner, “Shaping the Power Spectrum of Ultra-Wideband Radio-Frequency Signals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(12), 4247–4255 (2006). [CrossRef]

11.

H. Mu and J. Yao, “Photonic generation of UWB pulses with pulse position modulation,” Electron. Lett. 46(1), 99–100 (2010). [CrossRef]

12.

H. Chen, M. Chen, T. Wang, M. Li, and S. Xie, “Methods for Ultra-Wideband Pulse Generation Based on Optical Cross-Polarization Modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(15), 2492–2499 (2008). [CrossRef]

13.

M. Bolea, J. Mora, B. Ortega, and J. Capmany, “Optical UWB pulse generator using an N tap microwave photonic filter and phase inversion adaptable to different pulse modulation formats,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5023–5032 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

H. Chen, T. Wang, M. Li, M. Chen, and S. Xie, “Optically tunable multiband UWB pulse generation,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7447–7452 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

H. Chen, C. Qiu, M. Chen, and S. Xie, “Multiband UWB pulse generation using hybrid photonic microwave filters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA66.

16.

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A Tutorial on Microwave Photonic Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 201–229 (2006). [CrossRef]

17.

J. Mora, B. Ortega, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, J. Capmany, and D. Pastor, “Photonic microwave tunable single-bandpass filter based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(7), 2500–2509 (2006). [CrossRef]

18.

M. Abtahi, M. Dastmalchi, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Generation of arbitrary UWB waveforms by spectral pulse shaping and thermally-controlled apodized FBGs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(23), 5276–5283 (2009). [CrossRef]

19.

J. D. McKinney, “Background-free arbitrary waveform generation via polarization pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(16), 1193–1195 (2010). [CrossRef]

20.

C. Dorrer, “Temporal van Cittert-Zernike theorem and its application to the measurement of chromatic dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(8), 1417–1423 (2004). [CrossRef]

21.

C. Dorrer, “Statistical analysis of incoherent pulse shaping,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3341–3352 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: September 13, 2010
Revised Manuscript: October 29, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: November 4, 2010
Published: December 1, 2010

Citation
Mario Bolea, José Mora, Beatriz Ortega, and José Capmany, "Photonic arbitrary waveform generation applicable to multiband UWB communications," Opt. Express 18, 26259-26267 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-25-26259


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References

  1. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 319–330 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. O. Mendoza-Yero, G. Mínguez-Vega, J. Lancis, and V. Climent, “Diffractive pulse shaper for arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 535–537 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Azaña, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, and B. Fischer, “Reconfigurable generation of high-repetition-rate optical pulse sequences based on time-domain phase-only filtering,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3228–3230 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Chi and J. Yao, “Symmetrical waveform generation based on temporal pulse shaping using amplitude-only modulator,” Electron. Lett. 43(7), 415–417 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. J. D. McKinney, I. S. Lin, and A. M. Weiner, “Ultrabroadband arbitrary electromagnetic wavefom synthesis,” Opt. Photon. News 17(4), 24–29 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. C. Wang and J. Yao, “Large time-bandwidth product microwave arbitrary waveform generation using a spatially discrete chirped fiber bragg grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(11), 1652–1660 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. C. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation and characterization using spectral line-by-line control,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(7), 2487–2494 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. T. He, N. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, D. J. Geisler, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Optical arbitrary waveform generation-based packet generation and all-optical separation for optical-label switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(10), 715–717 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. G. R. Aiello and G. D. Rogerson, “Ultra-Wideband wireless systems,” IEEE Microw. Mag. 4(2), 36–47 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. J. D. McKinney, I. S. Lin, and A. M. Weiner, “Shaping the Power Spectrum of Ultra-Wideband Radio-Frequency Signals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(12), 4247–4255 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. H. Mu and J. Yao, “Photonic generation of UWB pulses with pulse position modulation,” Electron. Lett. 46(1), 99–100 (2010). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Chen, M. Chen, T. Wang, M. Li, and S. Xie, “Methods for Ultra-Wideband Pulse Generation Based on Optical Cross-Polarization Modulation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(15), 2492–2499 (2008). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Bolea, J. Mora, B. Ortega, and J. Capmany, “Optical UWB pulse generator using an N tap microwave photonic filter and phase inversion adaptable to different pulse modulation formats,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5023–5032 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Chen, T. Wang, M. Li, M. Chen, and S. Xie, “Optically tunable multiband UWB pulse generation,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7447–7452 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Chen, C. Qiu, M. Chen, and S. Xie, “Multiband UWB pulse generation using hybrid photonic microwave filters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA66.
  16. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A Tutorial on Microwave Photonic Filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 201–229 (2006). [CrossRef]
  17. J. Mora, B. Ortega, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, J. Capmany, and D. Pastor, “Photonic microwave tunable single-bandpass filter based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(7), 2500–2509 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Abtahi, M. Dastmalchi, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Generation of arbitrary UWB waveforms by spectral pulse shaping and thermally-controlled apodized FBGs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(23), 5276–5283 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. J. D. McKinney, “Background-free arbitrary waveform generation via polarization pulse shaping,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(16), 1193–1195 (2010). [CrossRef]
  20. C. Dorrer, “Temporal van Cittert-Zernike theorem and its application to the measurement of chromatic dispersion,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(8), 1417–1423 (2004). [CrossRef]
  21. C. Dorrer, “Statistical analysis of incoherent pulse shaping,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3341–3352 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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