Reconstruction of three-dimensional occluded object using optical flow and triangular mesh reconstruction in integral imaging |
Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 25, pp. 26373-26387 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.026373
Acrobat PDF (1910 KB)
Abstract
We proposed a reconstruction method for the occluded region of three-dimensional (3D) object using the depth extraction based on the optical flow and triangular mesh reconstruction in integral imaging. The depth information of sub-images from the acquired elemental image set is extracted using the optical flow with sub-pixel accuracy, which alleviates the depth quantization problem. The extracted depth maps of sub-image array are segmented by the depth threshold from the histogram based segmentation, which is represented as the point clouds. The point clouds are projected to the viewpoint of center sub-image and reconstructed by the triangular mesh reconstruction. The experimental results support the validity of the proposed method with high accuracy of peak signal-to-noise ratio and normalized cross-correlation in 3D image recognition.
© 2010 OSA
1. Introduction
2. P. Benzie, J. Watson, P. Surman, I. Rakkolainen, K. Hopf, H. Urey, V. Sainov, and C. von Kopylow, “A survey of 3DTV displays: techniques and technologies,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 17(11), 1647–1658 (2007). [CrossRef]
3. M. Okutomi and T. Kanade, “A multiple-baseline stereo,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15(4), 353–363 (1993). [CrossRef]
6. F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 36(7), 1598–1603 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
20. K. Hong, J. Hong, J.-H. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Rectification of elemental image set and extraction of lens lattice by projective image transformation in integral imaging,” Opt. Express 18(11), 12002–12016 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
12. M. Zhang, Y. Piao, and E.-S. Kim, “Occlusion-removed scheme using depth-reversed method in computational integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(14), 2571–2580 (2010). [CrossRef]
7. J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification,” Appl. Opt. 43(25), 4882–4895 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
7. J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification,” Appl. Opt. 43(25), 4882–4895 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
17. J.-H. Park, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent progress in three-dimensional information processing based on integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48(34), H77–H94 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
21. B. Horn and B. Schunck, “Determining optical flow,” Artif. Intell. 17(1-3), 185–203 (1981). [CrossRef]
2. Depth extraction using optical flow with sub-pixel accuracy
2.1. Pickup process based on focal mode in integral imaging and conversion between elemental image and sub-image
19. B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes,” Opt. Lett. 26(19), 1481–1482 (2001). [CrossRef]
20. K. Hong, J. Hong, J.-H. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Rectification of elemental image set and extraction of lens lattice by projective image transformation in integral imaging,” Opt. Express 18(11), 12002–12016 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
7. J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification,” Appl. Opt. 43(25), 4882–4895 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
11. J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J.-M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8800–8813 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
14. D.-H. Shin, B.-G. Lee, and J.-J. Lee, “Occlusion removal method of partially occluded 3D object using sub-image block matching in computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16294–16304 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
7. J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification,” Appl. Opt. 43(25), 4882–4895 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
14. D.-H. Shin, B.-G. Lee, and J.-J. Lee, “Occlusion removal method of partially occluded 3D object using sub-image block matching in computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16294–16304 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
2.2. Depth extraction with sub-pixel accuracy using optical flow
7. J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification,” Appl. Opt. 43(25), 4882–4895 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
17. J.-H. Park, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent progress in three-dimensional information processing based on integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48(34), H77–H94 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
7. J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification,” Appl. Opt. 43(25), 4882–4895 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
21. B. Horn and B. Schunck, “Determining optical flow,” Artif. Intell. 17(1-3), 185–203 (1981). [CrossRef]
21. B. Horn and B. Schunck, “Determining optical flow,” Artif. Intell. 17(1-3), 185–203 (1981). [CrossRef]
21. B. Horn and B. Schunck, “Determining optical flow,” Artif. Intell. 17(1-3), 185–203 (1981). [CrossRef]
3. Occlusion reconstruction based on the depth map extraction with sub-pixel accuracy using optical flow
3.1. Depth segmentation using histogram of extracted depth map
3.2. Reconstruction of occluded region using triangular mesh reconstruction of point clouds
9. G. Passalis, N. Sgouros, S. Athineos, and T. Theoharis, “Enhanced reconstruction of three-dimensional shape and texture from integral photography images,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5311–5320 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
25. H. Kim, J. Hahn, and B. Lee, “Mathematical modeling of triangle-mesh-modeled three-dimensional surface objects for digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), D117–D127 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
4. Analysis of the range of the reconstruction of occluded region using proposed method
5. Experimental result
20. K. Hong, J. Hong, J.-H. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Rectification of elemental image set and extraction of lens lattice by projective image transformation in integral imaging,” Opt. Express 18(11), 12002–12016 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
26. J. Hahn, Y. Kim, E.-H. Kim, and B. Lee, “Undistorted pickup method of both virtual and real objects for integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13969–13978 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
27. R. Martinez-Cuenca, A. Pons, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Optically-corrected elemental images for undistorted Integral image display,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9657–9663 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
6. Conclusion
Acknowledgment
References and links
1. | A. Kubota, A. Smolic, M. Magnor, M. Tanimoto, T. Chen, and C. Zhang, “Multiview imaging and 3DTV,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 24(6), 10–21 (2007). |
2. | P. Benzie, J. Watson, P. Surman, I. Rakkolainen, K. Hopf, H. Urey, V. Sainov, and C. von Kopylow, “A survey of 3DTV displays: techniques and technologies,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 17(11), 1647–1658 (2007). [CrossRef] |
3. | M. Okutomi and T. Kanade, “A multiple-baseline stereo,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15(4), 353–363 (1993). [CrossRef] |
4. | B. Lee, J.-H. Park, and S.-W. Min, Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Display, T.-C. Poon, ed. (Springer US, 2006), Chap. 12. |
5. | G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrále,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IIc Chim. 146, 446–451 (1908). |
6. | F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 36(7), 1598–1603 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
7. | J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification,” Appl. Opt. 43(25), 4882–4895 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
8. | M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, “Formation of real, orthoscopic integral images by smart pixel mapping,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9175–9180 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
9. | G. Passalis, N. Sgouros, S. Athineos, and T. Theoharis, “Enhanced reconstruction of three-dimensional shape and texture from integral photography images,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5311–5320 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
10. | D.-H. Shin and E.-S. Kim, “Computational integral imaging reconstruction of 3D object using a depth conversion technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12(3), 131–135 (2008). [CrossRef] |
11. | J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J.-M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8800–8813 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
12. | M. Zhang, Y. Piao, and E.-S. Kim, “Occlusion-removed scheme using depth-reversed method in computational integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(14), 2571–2580 (2010). [CrossRef] |
13. | S.-H. Hong and B. Javidi, “Distortion-tolerant 3D recognition of occluded objects using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12085–12095 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
14. | D.-H. Shin, B.-G. Lee, and J.-J. Lee, “Occlusion removal method of partially occluded 3D object using sub-image block matching in computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16294–16304 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
15. | K.-J. Lee, D.-C. Hwang, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Blur-metric-based resolution enhancement of computationally reconstructed integral images,” Appl. Opt. 47(15), 2859–2869 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
16. | C. M. Do and B. Javidi, “3D integral imaging reconstruction of occluded objects using independent component analysis-based K-means clustering,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(7), 257–262 (2010). [CrossRef] |
17. | J.-H. Park, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent progress in three-dimensional information processing based on integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48(34), H77–H94 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
18. | M. Levoy, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ‘96 (Association for Computing Machinery, New Orleans, 1996), pp. 31–42. |
19. | B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes,” Opt. Lett. 26(19), 1481–1482 (2001). [CrossRef] |
20. | K. Hong, J. Hong, J.-H. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Rectification of elemental image set and extraction of lens lattice by projective image transformation in integral imaging,” Opt. Express 18(11), 12002–12016 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
21. | B. Horn and B. Schunck, “Determining optical flow,” Artif. Intell. 17(1-3), 185–203 (1981). [CrossRef] |
22. | A. S. Ogale, C. Fermüller, and Y. Aloimonos, “Motion segmentation using occlusions,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 27(6), 988–992 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
23. | D. Sun, S. Roth, and M. J. Black, “Secrets of optical flow estimation and their principles,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2432–2439. |
24. | S. Baker, D. Scharstein, J. P. Lewis, S. Roth, M. J. Black, and R. Szeliski, “A database and evaluation methodology for optical flow,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–8. |
25. | H. Kim, J. Hahn, and B. Lee, “Mathematical modeling of triangle-mesh-modeled three-dimensional surface objects for digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), D117–D127 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
26. | J. Hahn, Y. Kim, E.-H. Kim, and B. Lee, “Undistorted pickup method of both virtual and real objects for integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13969–13978 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
27. | R. Martinez-Cuenca, A. Pons, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Optically-corrected elemental images for undistorted Integral image display,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9657–9663 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
OCIS Codes
(100.6890) Image processing : Three-dimensional image processing
(110.2990) Imaging systems : Image formation theory
ToC Category:
Imaging Systems
History
Original Manuscript: October 12, 2010
Revised Manuscript: November 24, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: November 27, 2010
Published: December 1, 2010
Citation
Jae-Hyun Jung, Keehoon Hong, Gilbae Park, Indeok Chung, Jae-Hyeung Park, and Byoungho Lee, "Reconstruction of three-dimensional occluded object using optical flow and triangular mesh reconstruction in integral imaging," Opt. Express 18, 26373-26387 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-25-26373
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References
- A. Kubota, A. Smolic, M. Magnor, M. Tanimoto, T. Chen, and C. Zhang, “Multiview imaging and 3DTV,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 24(6), 10–21 (2007).
- P. Benzie, J. Watson, P. Surman, I. Rakkolainen, K. Hopf, H. Urey, V. Sainov, and C. von Kopylow, “A survey of 3DTV displays: techniques and technologies,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. Video Tech. 17(11), 1647–1658 (2007). [CrossRef]
- M. Okutomi and T. Kanade, “A multiple-baseline stereo,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 15(4), 353–363 (1993). [CrossRef]
- B. Lee, J.-H. Park, and S.-W. Min, Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Display, T.-C. Poon, ed. (Springer US, 2006), Chap. 12.
- G. Lippmann, “La photographie integrále,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. IIc Chim. 146, 446–451 (1908).
- F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 36(7), 1598–1603 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth extraction by use of a rectangular lens array and one-dimensional elemental image modification,” Appl. Opt. 43(25), 4882–4895 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, “Formation of real, orthoscopic integral images by smart pixel mapping,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9175–9180 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- G. Passalis, N. Sgouros, S. Athineos, and T. Theoharis, “Enhanced reconstruction of three-dimensional shape and texture from integral photography images,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5311–5320 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D.-H. Shin and E.-S. Kim, “Computational integral imaging reconstruction of 3D object using a depth conversion technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12(3), 131–135 (2008). [CrossRef]
- J.-H. Park, G. Baasantseren, N. Kim, G. Park, J.-M. Kang, and B. Lee, “View image generation in perspective and orthographic projection geometry based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8800–8813 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Zhang, Y. Piao, and E.-S. Kim, “Occlusion-removed scheme using depth-reversed method in computational integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(14), 2571–2580 (2010). [CrossRef]
- S.-H. Hong and B. Javidi, “Distortion-tolerant 3D recognition of occluded objects using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12085–12095 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D.-H. Shin, B.-G. Lee, and J.-J. Lee, “Occlusion removal method of partially occluded 3D object using sub-image block matching in computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16294–16304 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K.-J. Lee, D.-C. Hwang, S.-C. Kim, and E.-S. Kim, “Blur-metric-based resolution enhancement of computationally reconstructed integral images,” Appl. Opt. 47(15), 2859–2869 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- C. M. Do and B. Javidi, “3D integral imaging reconstruction of occluded objects using independent component analysis-based K-means clustering,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(7), 257–262 (2010). [CrossRef]
- J.-H. Park, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent progress in three-dimensional information processing based on integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48(34), H77–H94 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Levoy, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field rendering,” in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH ‘96 (Association for Computing Machinery, New Orleans, 1996), pp. 31–42.
- B. Lee, S. Jung, S.-W. Min, and J.-H. Park, “Three-dimensional display by use of integral photography with dynamically variable image planes,” Opt. Lett. 26(19), 1481–1482 (2001). [CrossRef]
- K. Hong, J. Hong, J.-H. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Rectification of elemental image set and extraction of lens lattice by projective image transformation in integral imaging,” Opt. Express 18(11), 12002–12016 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- B. Horn and B. Schunck, “Determining optical flow,” Artif. Intell. 17(1-3), 185–203 (1981). [CrossRef]
- A. S. Ogale, C. Fermüller, and Y. Aloimonos, “Motion segmentation using occlusions,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 27(6), 988–992 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D. Sun, S. Roth, and M. J. Black, “Secrets of optical flow estimation and their principles,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2432–2439.
- S. Baker, D. Scharstein, J. P. Lewis, S. Roth, M. J. Black, and R. Szeliski, “A database and evaluation methodology for optical flow,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on International Conference on Computer Vision (IEEE, 2007), pp. 1–8.
- H. Kim, J. Hahn, and B. Lee, “Mathematical modeling of triangle-mesh-modeled three-dimensional surface objects for digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), D117–D127 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. Hahn, Y. Kim, E.-H. Kim, and B. Lee, “Undistorted pickup method of both virtual and real objects for integral imaging,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13969–13978 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- R. Martinez-Cuenca, A. Pons, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Optically-corrected elemental images for undistorted Integral image display,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9657–9663 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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