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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 25 — Dec. 6, 2010
  • pp: 26728–26743
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Integrated chalcogenide waveguide resonators for mid-IR sensing: leveraging material properties to meet fabrication challenges

Nathan Carlie, J. David Musgraves, Bogdan Zdyrko, Igor Luzinov, Juejun Hu, Vivek Singh, Anu Agarwal, Lionel C. Kimerling, Antonio Canciamilla, Francesco Morichetti, Andrea Melloni, and Kathleen Richardson  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 25, pp. 26728-26743 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.026728


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Abstract

In this paper, attributes of chalcogenide glass (ChG) based integrated devices are discussed in detail, including origins of optical loss and processing steps used to reduce their contributions to optical component performance. Specifically, efforts to reduce loss and tailor optical characteristics of planar devices utilizing solution-based glass processing and thermal reflow techniques are presented and their results quantified. Post-fabrication trimming techniques based on the intrinsic photosensitivity of the chalcogenide glass are exploited to compensate for fabrication imperfections of ring resonators. Process parameters and implications on enhancement of device fabrication flexibility are presented.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) are well-known for their high infrared transparency and amenability to fabrication in fiber and thin film forms which makes them attractive candidates for mid-IR optical chemical sensors. However, they are also well-known for a variety of properties which can complicate the utility of these materials in traditional applications, including low thermal stability, low chemical durability and photosensitivity, as compared to oxide materials. Traditional fabrication techniques such as thermal evaporation and photo-lithography have been shown to be viable for large-scale production of planar optical devices, but can suffer from drawbacks, such as poor compositional fidelity and high post-fabrication surface roughness which can lead to increased optical loss. Such attributes can adversely affect the detection limit and sensitivity of the final sensor system.

In this paper we will present several methods for using these material properties in order to overcome such challenges in the fabrication of planar optical resonator systems, and their application as sensors. The low glass transition temperature (Tg) has been utilized in applying thermal reflow techniques to reduce optical loss. The solubility of these glasses in alkaline environments has been harnessed to create spin-on cladding layers with excellent compositional fidelity for optical loss reduction. Such processing flexibility opens-up novel fabrication techniques, including capillary force lithography that allows the creation of waveguide and grating structures in a single step. The intrinsic photosensitivity of the ChG materials has been utilized to fine-tune the effective refractive index of ChG waveguides, and thereby the resonant wavelength of micro-ring resonators. By using such trimming techniques, a local post-fabrication “repair” of photonic devices has been demonstrated. This process flexibility reduces component cost and enhances device performance, otherwise not possible. Discussed in this paper are the details of such capabilities and how these “traditionally” considered material limitations can be used to the advantage of device designers and fabricators creating novel functional components from ChGs.

2. Material engineering for low-loss photonic device processing

2.1 Optical loss reduction: the key to highly sensitive chem-bio detection

Optical loss reduction has been a recurring theme and device performance necessity for the systems used for sensing mechanisms currently under investigation including, Refractometry Sensing (RS) of surface molecular binding, as well as Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS) and Micro-Cavity Photo-Thermal Spectroscopy (MC-PTS) for infrared molecular absorption detection. Phenomenologically, low optical loss suggests a long, resonantly-enhanced optical path length in the resonant cavity device, which in turns creates strong photon-molecular interaction. Such enhanced interaction manifests itself as high cavity quality factors (Q-factor) and leads to high detection sensitivity. Quantitative analysis into the former two sensing mechanisms (RS and CEAS) has revealed that low overall optical loss (~0.1 dB/cm) is the key to high detection sensitivity up to a point where temperature fluctuation noise starts to take over [1

1. J. Hu, X. Sun, A. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design guidelines for optical resonator biochemical sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(5), 1032–1041 (2009). [CrossRef]

,2

2. J. Hu, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. C. Kimerling, “Cavity-enhanced infrared absorption in planar chalcogenide glass resonators: experiment & analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(23), 5240–5245 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. In contrast, sensor optimization theory for MC-PTS suggests that the major sensor performance limitation originates from material absorption loss rather than scattering loss [3

3. J. Hu, “Ultra-sensitive chemical vapor detection using micro-cavity photothermal spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22174–22186 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The intrinsic immunity of MC-PTS to scattering loss presents an important competitive advantage over CEAS, as scattering loss has been demonstrated to be the dominant loss mechanism in current High-Index-Contrast (HIC) chalcogenide glass photonic devices [4

4. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11798–11807 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It has been shown that relative sensitivity enhancement of a factor of 104 over CEAS is possible in MC-PTS [3

3. J. Hu, “Ultra-sensitive chemical vapor detection using micro-cavity photothermal spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22174–22186 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2.2 Understanding optical loss in HIC chalcogenide glass photonic waveguides

There are typically three main optical loss mechanisms in high-index-contrast waveguides: material attenuation, surface/sidewall roughness scattering, and radiative loss. Depending on its origin, material attenuation in chalcogenide glass can be categorized into intrinsic and extrinsic loss, where the former includes electronic absorption by band tail or mid-gap states (with nonlinear absorption neglected at low power), Rayleigh scattering caused by statistical density fluctuations, and phonon (bond vibrational) absorption. In the infrared wavebands of interest to spectroscopic sensing, Rayleigh scattering is negligible, given that the wavelength is much larger than the length scale of density fluctuation. Phonon absorption occurs at specific wavebands corresponding to the characteristic bond vibration frequencies. Such absorption bands in the ChG compositions are studied using Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy [5

5. L. Petit, N. Carlie, F. Adamietz, M. Couzi, V. Rodriguez, and K. C. Richardson, “Correlation between physical, optical and structural properties of sulfide glasses in the system Ge-Sb-S,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 97(1), 64–70 (2006). [CrossRef]

], and can be carefully tailored and/or avoided via compositional engineering. For example, by alloying with constituents containing heavy atoms, the photon absorption peaks can be red shifted [6

6. W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. Miller, “Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(5), 053503 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. This approach has also been demonstrated by other authors to effectively extend the long-wave IR transmission bands [7

7. A. Wilhelm, C. Boussard-Plédel, Q. Coulombier, J. Lucas, B. Bureau, and P. Lucas, “Development of Far-Infrared-Transmitting Te Based Glasses Suitable for Carbon Dioxide Detection and Space Optics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 19(22), 3796–3800 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Hence, the major material loss contributors are electronic absorption and extrinsic loss due to impurity absorption. Mid-gap state absorption does play a key role in the photosensitivity process of As2S3 chalcogenide glass at 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength [8

8. J. Hu, M. Torregiani, F. Morichetti, N. Carlie, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Resonant cavity-enhanced photosensitivity in As2S3 chalcogenide glass at 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 874–876 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is expected, however, that mid-gap state density in glasses at these wavelengths may be controlled to yield low optical loss through selective addition of certain chemical modifiers, reducing the length of the Urbach tail. The validity of this approach has been verified by a number of groups [9

9. J. Hu, X. Sun, A. M. Agarwal, J.-F. Viens, L. C. Kimerling, L. Petit, N. Carlie, K. C. Richardson, T. Anderson, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Studies on Structural, Electrical and Optical Properties of Cu-doped As-Se-Te Chalcogenide Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063520 (2007). [CrossRef]

,10

10. E. Mytilineou, “Chalcogenide amorphous semiconductors: chemical modification or doping?” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 4, 705–710 (2002).

], although detailed mechanistic studies are required to completely clarify the underlying physics of such chemical modification. Alternately, the composition may be modified in order to increase the optical band gap; however, this will also potentially influence thermal properties, and the photo-response of the glass, the impact of which must also be considered.

Roughness scattering arising from imperfections on device surfaces is particularly severe in HIC waveguiding systems, since the scattering loss scales with refractive index difference [17

17. T. Barwicz and H. Haus, “Three-dimensional analysis of scattering losses due to sidewall roughness in microphotonic waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(9), 2719–2732 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. In particular, most scattering loss is associated with scattering from sidewall roughness, as the top surface of devices are usually formed during an additive deposition process and generally feature small RMS roughness. In contrast, plasma etch patterning is conventionally employed for planar device fabrication; consequently, the sidewalls are formed during a subtractive etching process, which can lead to excessive roughness and hence increased optical loss [18

18. H. Liu, Y. Lin, and W. Hsu, “Sidewall roughness control in advanced silicon etch process,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(1), 29–34 (2003). [CrossRef]

].

Radiative loss refers to optical loss due to coupling into radiative or substrate modes caused by waveguide bending or quantum tunneling through a finite cladding thickness. Radiative loss is suppressed in our devices simply by proper device geometry design. The experimentally measured waveguide loss values usually represent the arithmetic sum of all these loss sources, and thus special techniques need to be employed to identify the individual contributions from each of these mechanisms [18

18. H. Liu, Y. Lin, and W. Hsu, “Sidewall roughness control in advanced silicon etch process,” Microsyst. Technol. 10(1), 29–34 (2003). [CrossRef]

22

22. M. Webster, R. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. Koch, “Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231108 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. In HIC strip waveguides made of Ge-Sb-S glass, shallow rib waveguides have been used to measure the intrinsic material loss, as shallow rib waveguides are known to be less sensitive to sidewall roughness scattering [20

20. D. Sparacin, R. Sun, A. Agarwal, M. Beals, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, T. Conway, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, D. Gill, M. Rasras, S. Patel, and A. White, “Low-Loss Amorphous Silicon Channel Waveguides for Integrated Photonics,” in Proceedings of 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, pp. 255–257.

]. Very low optical loss, down to 0.5 dB/cm at 1550 nm wavelength, is measured in the shallow rib waveguides made of Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide glass. In comparison, single-mode strip waveguides (750 nm wide and 400 nm high) made of the same glass composition have propagation loss numbers of (3.9 ± 0.4) dB/cm for the TM polarization and (6.4 ± 0.8) dB/cm for the TE polarization [4

4. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11798–11807 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The much higher optical loss in the strip waveguides is attributed to scattering due to sidewall roughness. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements also confirm the presence of significant sidewall roughness (RMS amplitude ~10 nm) on these as-fabricated waveguides, which is consistent with the loss figures measured. This study concludes that sidewall roughness scattering accounts for > 80% of optical loss in these sub-micron strip waveguides where the optical mode is tightly-confined. Similar trends, showing the increased impact of sidewall roughness on optical loss in small cross-section chalcogenide glass waveguides has been discovered and discussed by other researchers as well [23

23. Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5140–5145 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,24

24. D. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Plasma etching of As2S3 films for optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(27), 3179–3183 (2008). [CrossRef]

], which further validates the major contribution of roughness scattering to optical loss in high-index-contrast chalcogenide glass waveguides. This conclusion, therefore, highlights the critical importance of roughness scattering loss reduction. Two techniques for reducing the scattering loss mechanism, thermal reflow and a novel solution-based spin-on over layer coating method, will be discussed in the following sections.

2.3 Roughness scattering loss suppression in chalcogenide glass waveguides via thermal reflow

Viscosity in glassy materials often exhibits thermally activated behavior which may be phenomenologically described by a modified Arrhenius equation [25

25. A. Tverjanovich, “Calculation of viscosity of chalcogenide glasses near glass transition temperature from heat capacity or thermal expansion data,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 298(2-3), 226–231 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. The strong dependence of viscosity on temperature leads to a dramatic reduction of the glass viscosity when the glassy materials are heated to temperatures well above their glass transition temperatures (Tg). At such temperatures, the action of surface tension leads to smoothing of roughness and thus the reduction of scattering loss due to sidewall roughness. As is shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic illustration of a glass surface with sinusoidal roughness characterized by a spatial period L; (b) calculated internal pressure due to surface tension in glass with a rough surface (reproduced from Ref. 28).
, surface tension on an undulated surface leads to high positive internal pressure in the crest and negative pressure in the trough. Such a pressure gradient creates viscous flow which accounts for the roughness reduction. This process forms the cornerstone of the thermal reflow technique. Thermal reflow has already been employed to reduce optical loss in silica glass photonic devices [26

26. S. Dutta, H. Jackson, and J. Boyd, “Reduction of scattering from a glass thin-film optical waveguide by CO2 laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(6), 512–514 (1980). [CrossRef]

,27

27. R. Syms and A. Holmes, “Reflow and Burial of Channel Waveguides Formed in Sol-Gel Glass on Si Substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(9), 1077–1079 (1993). [CrossRef]

]. Applying thermal reflow to chalcogenide glasses presents several key competitive advantages over their silica counterparts: 1) the much higher refractive index of chalcogenides dictates a more significant loss reduction effect; 2) the low Tg and hence low softening temperature of chalcogenides suggest that the reflow process can be conducted at much lower temperature compared to silica, which facilitates process integration with other on-chip electronic and photonic devices; and 3) chalcogenide glasses span a vast thermal property space by composition alloying, which enables selective reflow of certain layers/patterns in complex structures (e.g. selective reflow of the waveguide core while maintaining the cladding structure intact). However, a recurring question needs to be addressed before the technique can be also successfully applied to chalcogenide glasses: does the heat treatment process (thermal reflow) induce excessive crystallization or composition segregation or volatilization (and associated optical scattering at grain boundaries or precipitates) which defeat the purpose of loss reduction?

To better understand the crystallization behavior, a direct analogy is drawn between the thermal reflow process and the optical fiber drawing process, as both processes involve heat treatment of a glass melt at temperatures well above Tg. A thermal reflow kinetic theory has been developed [28

28. J. Hu, N. N. Feng, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical loss reduction in high-index-contrast chalcogenide glass waveguides via thermal reflow,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1469–1478 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and shows that assuming the reflow process is performed within the fiber drawing viscosity window (103 to 106 Pa·s) [14

14. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Fabrication and testing of planar chalcogenide waveguide integrated microfluidic sensor,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2307–2314 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the time it takes to reduce the roughness with a characteristic wavelength of 1 μm is approximately 10−3 to 0.1 s. Thus the time scale for thermal reflow is much shorter than the dwelling time of a fiber pre-form in the fiber drawing furnace. Since state-of-the-art chalcogenide glass fibers can achieve very low optical loss (< 1 dB/m) near the 1550 nm wavelength [29], this indicates that the potential precipitation of crystallites leading to optical scattering loss can be suppressed in the fiber drawing thermal process. Thus this analogy suggests that it is possible to achieve low loss chalcogenide waveguides via thermal reflow without compromising the glass material quality, given the short reflow time required and hence low crystallization tendency. However, it is worth pointing out that this analogy has neglected surface-induced crystallization effects: in thin films, the tendency to crystallize can be enhanced by the presence of a large surface-to-volume ratio [30

30. R. Wang, S. Madden, C. Zha, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Annealing induced phase transformation in amorphous As2S3 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(6), 063524 (2006). [CrossRef]

], which can only be experimentally measured and empirically corrected as the surface crystallization rate is very difficult to model.

Experimental characterization has been performed on post-reflow-treatment planar As2S3 films and waveguide devices. This glass composition was selected for its superior stability against crystallization compared to the Ge-Sb-S glass system [31

31. We have experimentally observed second phase precipitates and optical loss increase in Ge-Sb-S glass waveguides and resonators reflowed at temperatures above 300 °C.

]. No distinctive crystallization peaks are identified on the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectra for reflowed films. Given the resolution of the XRD instruments used in this experiment, one may conclude that the crystalline precipitates in the reflow films are either very small in size (< 10 nm) or that they only occupy a small volume fraction (< 10%) in the glass matrix. The impact of such nanoscale crystalline precipitates on optical waveguide loss may then be semi-quantitatively modeled using the Rayleigh scattering theory. Taking the limiting case of 10 nm size crystallites occupying 10% volume fraction, the theory predicts a crystallite scattering loss upper limit of 0.7 dB/cm. Experimentally, optical loss reduction from ~7 dB/cm to ~3 dB/cm has been achieved for TE polarized light at the 1550 nm wavelength [28

28. J. Hu, N. N. Feng, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. C. Kimerling, “Optical loss reduction in high-index-contrast chalcogenide glass waveguides via thermal reflow,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1469–1478 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; therefore, the crystallite scattering is not a major limiting factor for loss reduction in the current devices. Consequently, radiative loss has been identified to be the main loss contributor, which is attributed to the partial evaporation of As2S3 glass during reflow (Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Surface morphology of As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides measured by AFM: (a) as-patterned; (b) reflowed at 230 °C for 15 s exhibiting reduced sidewall roughness; and (c) reflowed at 245 °C for 15 s showing significant cross-sectional geometry modification (reproduced from Ref. 28).
). Future work thus involves starting with as-fabricated waveguides of larger cross-sectional area to compensate for the partial evaporation effect and/or compositional modification based on detailed mass spectroscopy studies which can highlight optimal thermal stability of candidate glasses. The measurements are currently in progress.

3. Solution processing as an alternate fabrication route

3.1 Waveguide over-cladding for low-temperature roughness reduction

Reduction of waveguide surface roughness can result in significant improvements in optical loss. It is also known that while the As-S glass system is relatively stable to surface crystallization during heat treatment above its Tg, some glass systems, such as Ge-Sb-S are less suitable for such processing routes [31

31. We have experimentally observed second phase precipitates and optical loss increase in Ge-Sb-S glass waveguides and resonators reflowed at temperatures above 300 °C.

]. It is therefore desirable to investigate alternate processing routes for obtaining low roughness surfaces at lower temperatures. It has been demonstrated that the Ge-Sb-S and As-S glass systems are soluble in basic organic solvents (amines) and are amenable to solution processing. Moreover, spin-coated films derived from these solutions were found to reach their maximum refractive index and density through sub-Tg heat treatments, making this method promising for loss reduction in glass systems with low thermal stability. To this end, a well-known solution casting method has been investigated for a novel deposition approach for thin chalcogenide layers over lithographically defined resonator systems.

Waveguides and resonators of the glass composition Ge21Sb11S68 with 400 nm thickness were formed by thermal evaporation and lift-off lithography. Over-cladding layers were then deposited over these structures by spin-coating; the solution consisted of ground bulk glass which was first dissolved in propylamine for 48 hours at a concentration of 25 mg/ml. The optimized spin-coating conditions have been previously published [32

32. S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-Coating of Ge23Sb7S70 Chalcogenide Glass Thin Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009). [CrossRef]

], and the spin speed was chosen to give a coating thickness of 100 or 200 nm (spun at 9000 and 6000 rpm respectively). Films were heat treated under vacuum (~1 Torr) at varying temperatures from 120 to 180 °C for one hour. Figure 4
Fig. 4 Cross-sectional SEM micrograph of Ge-Sb-S waveguides (a) before and (b) after solution cladding.
displays SEM micrographs of waveguides before and after solution cladding.

It is clear that the waveguide has become thicker and wider after coating, and the profile has changed, becoming more rounded and with sloping sidewalls, as compared to the vertical sidewalls of the as-fabricated waveguide. This increased size is expected to alter the mode profile of the guide, but may be compensated for in the design of the uncoated structures. The low contrast visible in the image between the core and cladding suggest good agreement in composition, and indeed the composition of the coating was found to match that of the parent bulk glass to within ± 2 atomic percent, using energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy. XRD data confirms that the coating is amorphous. In order to examine the effect of coating on surface roughness, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was performed on coated and uncoated guides. Figure 5
Fig. 5 AFM line scans for coated and uncoated waveguides.
demonstrates single line scans along the sidewalls of the guides.

The reduction in roughness is clear from the AFM results. The large number of peaks and valleys up to 50 nm in height in the uncoated waveguide have been reduced to only a few ~5 nm valleys after coating. These remaining valleys were later found to correspond to small pores in the surface of the spin-coated layer. Average RMS sidewall roughness was found to decrease from 19 ( ± 1) to 1.4 ( ± 0.1) nm due to application of the cladding layer.

Finally, the optical loss of the coated and uncoated samples at a wavelength of 1550 nm was examined. Relative loss values for guides coated at varying speeds, and heat treated at various temperature are shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Relative optical loss at 1550 nm for coated waveguides as a function of spin-speed and hard-bake temperature (speed/temperature).
.

It is clear that solution over-cladding can be used to reduce the optical loss of lithographically defined planar ChG waveguides. It is interesting to note that the loss systematically increases if the thickness of the coating is decreased, or the heat treatment temperature is increased, despite similar roughness values for all coated guides. Because the refractive index of solution-derived films has been shown to increase with higher heat treatment temperatures, this suggests that there are two mechanisms for the loss reduction. The first mechanism is through roughness reduction, while the second is through the increase of waveguide cross-sectional dimensions and hence reduced optical mode overlap with the sidewalls. It is also interesting to note that the TE polarization exhibits lower loss than the TM polarization in the coated waveguides. As the TE mode in HIC waveguides is typically far more susceptible to roughness scattering than the TM counterpart, the experimental observation suggests that sidewall roughness scattering is becoming insignificant in the overall loss contribution. Design of an optimized overlayer coating thickness and heat treatment procedures may lead to application of this technique with improved loss values compared to those found in this non-optimized study, which is promising for future low-loss IR photonics applications.

3.2 Direct fabrication of waveguides using solution-based methods

It has been recently demonstrated that ChG waveguides can be fabricated directly using solution-based methods [33

33. C. Tsay, E. Mujagić, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mid-infrared characterization of solution-processed As2S3 chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15523–15530 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], which has the potential to simplify processing of devices. Unfortunately, the existing capillary flow technique [33

33. C. Tsay, E. Mujagić, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mid-infrared characterization of solution-processed As2S3 chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15523–15530 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] does not allow the fabrication of isolated structures such as disk and ring resonators, which have proven to be critical for achieving low detection limits and high sensitivity in planar optical sensor platforms [1

1. J. Hu, X. Sun, A. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design guidelines for optical resonator biochemical sensors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(5), 1032–1041 (2009). [CrossRef]

4

4. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11798–11807 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Alternative methods, such as ink-jet printing [34

34. A. Atkinson, J. Doorbar, A. Hudd, D. L. Segal, and P. J. White, ““Continuous ink-jet printing using sol-gel “Ceramic” inks,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8(1-3), 1093–1097 (1997). [CrossRef]

] and micro-contact printing [35

35. H. Nagata, S. W. Ko, E. Hong, C. A. Randall, S. Trolier-McKinstry, P. Pinceloup, D. Skamser, M. Randall, and A. Tajuddin, “Microcontact Printed BaTiO3 and LaNiO3 Thin Films for Capacitors,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 2816–2821 (2006).

] may have the potential to fabricate such geometries, but printing techniques do not currently allow sufficient pattern fidelity to achieve low-loss structures, and all of the above techniques suffer from the need for good wetting of the glass solution to the mold and substrate materials, limiting the choice of the solution chemistry [33

33. C. Tsay, E. Mujagić, C. K. Madsen, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mid-infrared characterization of solution-processed As2S3 chalcogenide glass waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15523–15530 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Proposed here is an alternate soft-lithograpy [36

36. X. Yu, Z. Wang, and Y. Han, “Microlenses fabricated by discontinuous dewetting and soft lithography,” Microelectron. Eng. 89, 18781881 (2008).

] technique that may remedy these drawbacks, known as capillary force lithography (CFL) [37

37. K. Y. Suh, Y. S. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Capillary Force Lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(18), 1386–1389 (2001). [CrossRef]

], which is illustrated in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Process flow chart for capillary force lithography technique.
.

In this technique, a thin film is first formed by spin-coating onto a glass or semiconductor substrate. A PDMS mold is then applied to the surface of the film, and the system is exposed to elevated temperatures in order to allow viscous flow. When the mold is removed from the film at room temperature, the inverse of the pattern in the mold is retained in the film. This is similar to commonly used embossing methods, wherein a mold is pressed against the surface of the film and increased temperature is used to allow the film to flow. In this case however, the mold is applied to the surface during the natural heat treatment process used to remove solvent from the solution-derived film after spin-coating [32

32. S. Song, N. Carlie, J. Boudies, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-Coating of Ge23Sb7S70 Chalcogenide Glass Thin Films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(45-47), 2272–2278 (2009). [CrossRef]

], preventing the use of additional high-temperature processing steps and avoiding potential thermal stability concerns.

As a proof of concept, a grating has been prepared by first casting a PDMS stamp on the surface of a standard re-writable compact disk (CDRW). This created a mold with a sinusoidal grating pattern with a 200 nm line height and 2 µm pitch. The mold was then applied to a 500 nm thick As2S3 film which was heated to near its Tg (210 °C) and held for a period of 30 minutes before being cooled to room temperature. Figure 8
Fig. 8 High (a) and low (b) resolution scans of CFL-derived As2S3 grating, showing good reproduction of mold geometry, but with high roughness.
presents AFM surface profiles of the resulting grating.

It was found that CFL gratings formed in As2S3 near Tg show relatively high surface roughness, which has been attributed to phase separation and crystallization of realgar (As4S4) from the film (confirmed using XRD). In order to demonstrate the utility of solution-based fabrication for decreased surface roughness, the same procedure was repeated for solution-derived films, and the mold was applied either during the initial soft-bake (1 hr at 90°C under N2) or during the hard-bake (1 hr 150 °C under vacuum) heat treatment. AFM surface scans for low-temperature CFL gratings are shown in Fig. 9
Fig. 9 AFM surface profiles for soft-bake (a) and hard-bake (b) CFL-derived As2S3 grating, showing significantly improved surface roughness.
.

From the figure, it is clear that the surfaces of the low-temperature CFL gratings are significantly less rough. RMS surface roughness was found to decrease from 23 nm with CFL at 210°C to 1.3 and 0.9 nm when CFL was performed on solution-derived films at 90 and 150 °C respectively. The occurrence of viscous flow at temperatures well below the Tg of the corresponding bulk glass suggests that residual solvent molecules present in the film depolymerize the glass network, leading to lower viscosity at a given temperature. The fact that the mold surface is precisely duplicated even at such low temperatures demonstrates the potential of capillary force lithography for the direct fabrication of low-roughness ChG planar devices even for low-stability compositions. Because many devices can be created from each mold, and many PDMS molds from each master, there is great potential for large-scale and rapid fabrication of complete devices. It should also be noted that these patterns covered relatively large areas (25 mm diameter) and the solvent evaporation was found to be equally complete at the center and edge of the grating, suggesting that solvent evaporates through the PDMS mold by diffusion, rather than along the grating lines. This observation supports the idea that this technique is not limited to small gratings or waveguides. Complex geometries such as micro-lens arrays and resonators can also theoretically be reproduced over large areas, provided that the mold design can mechanically support the necessary aspect ratio, and a film of sufficient thickness is first deposited. A complete study comparing the optical loss of lift-off waveguides and resonator systems to their CFL counterparts is currently ongoing.

4. Leveraging photosensitivity for post-fabrication trimming

High photosensitivity in the visible spectrum is a well-known and widely used property of ChGs [38

38. A. van Popta, R. Decorby, C. Haugen, T. Robinson, J. McMullin, D. Tonchev, and S. Kasap, “Photoinduced refractive index change in As2Se3 by 633nm illumination,” Opt. Express 10(15), 639–644 (2002). [PubMed]

42

42. O. Efimov, L. Glebov, K. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. Park, M. Couzi, and J. Bruneel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17(3), 379–386 (2001). [CrossRef]

], and solution-derived ChG films have recently been shown to exhibit photosensitivity similar to that of traditional thermally evaporated films [43

43. S. Song, N. Carlie, L. Petit, K. Richardson, and C. B. Arnold, “Spin-Coated Ge23Sb7S70 Thin Films with Large Photo-Induced Refractive Index Change” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO): CTuG6 (2010).

45

45. S. Song, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Solvent-casting of Photo-refractive Chalcogenide Glasses and their Application in Quantum Cascade Laser Tuning” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO): CMGG6 (2007).

]. The absorption of light with near-band gap energy produces local modifications of the atomic structure of the glass and therefore to its optical properties, i.e. electronic band gap and refractive index [46

46. A. Zakery and S. R. Elliot, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. The magnitude and sign of these photoinduced changes, as well as their thermal reversibility are highly dependent on the chemical composition and the fabrication process of the specific glass as well as the exposure conditions [47

47. K. Tanaka, “Reversible photostructural change: mechanisms, properties and applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35–36, 1023–1034 (1980). [CrossRef]

,48

48. T. T. Nang, M. Okuda, and T. Matsushita, “Photo-induced absorption change in some Se-based glass alloy systems,” Phys. Rev. B 19(2), 947–955 (1979). [CrossRef]

].The photoinduced refractive index change Δn of chalcogenide materials can be exploited to directly write optical planar waveguides [49

49. N. Hô, M. C. Phillips, H. Qiao, P. J. Allen, K. Krishnaswami, B. J. Riley, T. L. Myers, and N. C. Anheier Jr., “Single-mode low-loss chalcogenide glass waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1860–1862 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], Bragg gratings [50

50. A. Saliminia, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstyan, S. LaRochelle, and K. Richardson, “First- and Second-Order Bragg Gratings in Single-Mode Planar Waveguides of Chalcogenide Glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(5), 837–842 (1999). [CrossRef]

] or photonic crystal cavities [51

51. S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C. Martijn de Sterke, and D. J. Moss, “High-Q cavities in photosensitive photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 542–544 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Besides these, the opportunity for large induced index variation (up to 4 × 10−2) [46

46. A. Zakery and S. R. Elliot, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003). [CrossRef]

] using low illumination intensities as well as the flexibility and the simplicity of the principle make photosensitivity in ChG-based integrated devices a promising tool for a variety of novel applications.

For instance, in order to achieve target specifications for desired functionalities, integrated optical circuits require a high degree of accuracy, uniformity and reproducibility in the definition of the geometric and optical parameters of the waveguides. These requirements become even more challenging when resonant structures based on micro-rings, micro-disks, or photonic crystals are exploited to make compact, sensitivity-enhanced and highly selective devices for filtering and sensing applications. The capability to realize a post-fabrication permanent trimming of both the local and global properties of photonic devices is therefore highly attractive.

The irradiation of resonant structures allows tuning of the working wavelength or the optimization of its local parameters for different applications. This enables lower acceptable fabrication tolerances, by permitting post-fabrication reconfiguration of the optical components. In contrast to other previously investigated tuning and trimming techniques, such as thermo-optic effects [52

52. Y. Yanagase, S. Yamagata, and Y. Kokubun, “Wavelength tunable polymer microring resonator filter with 9.4 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 39(12), 922–924 (2003). [CrossRef]

,53

53. A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, “Continuously tunable 1 byte delay in coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2389–2391 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], liquid crystal or micro-fluidic channel integration [54

54. W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with liquid crystal cladding using the longitudinal field component,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2054–2056 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,55

55. U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman, “On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111107 (2006). [CrossRef]

], post-process chemical treatments [56

56. R. T. Brown, “Laser-assisted selective chemical etching for active trimming of GaAs waveguide devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(5), 346–348 (1990). [CrossRef]

] or mechanical deformation [57

57. M.-C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, “Tunable coupling regimes of silicon microdisk resonators using MEMS actuators,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4703–4712 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the photosensitivity approach does not require additional fabrication steps and enables local control of the refractive index over an area down to micrometer scale. Initial results regarding the tuning of an As2S3 resonant device made by two directly coupled micro-ring resonators are presented here.

The scheme of this device, realizing a second order optical filter, is shown in Fig. 10(a)
Fig. 10 (a) Schematic of a second order filter made by two directly coupled micro-ring resonators; (b) theoretical spectral response of the filter with FSR = 1 nm and B = 0.25 nm when λR1 = λR2 (blue solid line), and when λR1 - λR2 = FSR/3 = 0.3 nm (black dashed line).
. Despite its simplicity, this structure already includes the critical attributes of more complex coupled-resonator devices employed in advanced applications [58

58. F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11934–11941 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. When the two rings have the same resonance wavelength, λR1 = λR2 = λR, i.e. when their optical length is exactly the same, an optical signal incoming from the input port (In) is transmitted to the output port (Out) only if its wavelength matches the resonance wavelength of the rings; otherwise, the input signal continues propagating in the input bus waveguide [59

59. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. A careful design of the power coupling coefficients between the rings and between each ring and the bus waveguide allows the shaping of a flat pass-band with the desired width and extinction ratio [60

60. A. Melloni and M. Martinelli, “Synthesis of Direct-Coupled-Resonators Bandpass Filters for WDM Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 296–303 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. As an example, the blue solid curve in Fig. 10(b) shows the theoretical spectral response of an ideal double-ring filter with free spectral range FSR = 1 nm and bandwidth B = 0.25 nm.

To underscore how demanding this issue can be, it should be recalled that the relative wavelength shift ΔλR / λR = Δn / n g = ΔLr / Lr, where n g is the group refractive index (typically n g = 2.48 for As2S3 waveguides) and Lr is the geometrical length of the ring. A resonance wavelength error of ΔλR = 0.3 nm means an error in the ring length of only ΔLr = 180 nm or, more challenging, a refractive index error of Δn = 5 × 10−4. As n g varies with the width of the guide, this corresponds to a waveguide width error of only Δw = Δnwn g) ≈2.5 nm (as δn g / δw is typically in the order of 2 × 10−4 nm−1). This value is well below the typical technological tolerances guaranteed by the fabrication process, as discussed in Sec. 2.2.

To demonstrate the use of post fabrication trimming, two-ring As2S3 filters were fabricated with bending radius R = 100 μm and coupling straight sections with a Ls = 150 μm, providing FSR = 130 GHz (corresponding to 1.04 nm); employed strip waveguides are 450 nm high and 800 nm wide, with an estimated n g = 2.48 and are realized using the method described in [4

4. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11798–11807 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; coupling sections have all the same gap size (700 nm), while the desired coupling coefficients are obtained by shifting the rings, as shown in the photograph of Fig. 11(a)
Fig. 11 (a) Photograph of the As2S3 two-ring device and schematic of the post-fabrication photoinduced trimming process: the sample is selectively illuminated with visible light through a rectangular aperture; (b) experimental spectral response of the filter: as fabricated (black dashed line), during the progressive tuning of resonances (dotted lines) and in the tuning condition after the exposure (blue solid line) (Media 1).
.

The measured spectral response of the as fabricated device, which is shown as a black dashed line in Fig. 11(b), suffers from a relative detuning of the rings’ resonance wavelengths of about ΔλR = 0.35 nm. Therefore, the ChG glass photosensitivity was used to tune the resonant wavelength of the rings, compensating for the fabrication inaccuracies. According to the scheme in Fig. 11(a), the ring (R1) with the lowest resonance wavelength λR1 was illuminated by a halogen lamp through a rectangular aperture in a mask, while the rest of the surface of the chip was shadowed. The rectangular aperture has a minimum size of 100 μm and was mounted on a 3-axis micro-positioning stage. In this way, selective change of the refractive index is induced in ring R1 only, in order to finely tune its resonance wavelength up to that of the other resonator. The halogen lamp has an intensity of 0.3 mW/cm2, with most of the emission spectrum lying in the visible region from 450 nm to 650 nm.

The progressive red-shift of λR1 from the initial condition (black dashed line) to the tuned condition λR2 = λR1 (blue solid line) is reported in Fig. 11(b) (Media 1). After exposure, the device shows a flat pass-band with a band width of 32.5 GHz and an extinction ratio of about 20 dB, in good agreement with design specifications and the ideal response reported in Fig. 10(b). It should be noticed that the photoinduced trimming does not induce any additional observable loss, demonstrating the great potential of this approach.

Once the desired shape of the spectral response is recovered, photosensitivity can be further exploited to finely adjust the working wavelength of the device, as previously demonstrated in distributed feedback lasers [61

61. T. Sudoh, Y. Nakano, and K. Tada, “Wavelength trimming technology for multiple-wavelength distributed feedback laser array by photo-induced refractive index change,” Electron. Lett. 33(3), 216–217 (1997). [CrossRef]

] and in photonic crystals [62

62. M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. L. Smith, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan, and Y. H. Lee, “Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1277–1285 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The control of the absolute spectral position is indeed a fundamental issue in many applications, not only in sensing, but also, for instance, in the optical communication field. To this purpose, a “rigid” spectral shift of the filter response is required. By removing the aperture and completely illuminating the device, the refractive index was simultaneously changed throughout the whole circuit. Experimental results are shown in Fig. 12(a)
Fig. 12 (a) Permanent tuning of the device working wavelength by visible light exposure of the whole circuit: from the initial position (black dashed line), the experimental spectral response is “rigidly” shifted over a full FSR (blue solid line). (Media 2); (b) comparison between the experimental spectral responses measured immediately after the 2nd exposure (black dashed line) and after 1-week storage in dark (blue solid line).
(Media 2). The transfer function is progressively red-shifted, in less than 4-minute exposure, from the initial position (black dashed line) over a full FSR, i.e. over 1 nm wavelength range (blue solid line), without any visible distortion or performance degradation. Moreover, after the trimming process, the spectral response remains stable in time. The device was stored in dark and measured again after one week to check the spectral drift. Experimental results shown in Fig. 12(b) demonstrate that there are no significant differences between the spectral response measured at the end of the exposing cycles (black dashed line) and one week later (blue solid line).

The illumination of the whole device was then allowed to proceed over 20 FSRs, corresponding to an overall wavelength shift of 20 nm and to a variation of the waveguide effective index of 3.2 × 10−2. Neither spectral distortions nor saturation effects were observed until that point. The trimming velocity can be easily controlled by varying the light intensity. In these experiments a maximum rate of 0.25 nm/minute was achieved with a light intensity of 2 mW/cm2, reducing in this way the trimming time of the devices.

5. Conclusions

This work has demonstrated several ways in which the unique properties of chalcogenide glasses, often seen a drawbacks, can be used to achieve unique applications. The low glass transition temperatures of ChGs, when combined with their high thermal stability against crystallization, allows thermal reflow of planar optical waveguides. Thermal reflow was shown to decrease residual surface roughness, and thereby optical loss. The achievement of such low loss figures is crucial to the development of high-sensitivity optical sensors.

The solubility of these materials in alkaline conditions allows for the production of IR-transparent thin films from non-aqueous amine-based solvents. The application of solution derived coatings allows for alternate route to roughness and loss reduction even in compositions that display low thermal stability. Additionally, solution processing allows for the direct fabrication of complex optical structures using capillary force lithography in a single step, without the need for high-vacuum processing. This simple and rapid technique offers the potential for rapid large-scale production.

The photosensitivity of chalcogenide glasses allows for a permanent refractive index change achieved using visible light exposure. In As2S3 glasses, no relaxation effect was observed within a time scale of several weeks in experimental devices. This can be usefully exploited for post-fabrication trimming of optically resonant devices for a broad range of applications, in order to compensate for local fabrication imperfections and to finely adjust the working wavelength of photonic devices enabling reduced component cost with enhanced their performance. Post-processing refinement alleviates the need for restrictively tight fabrication tolerances, and may benefit many applications in telecommunications and optical sensing.

Acknowledgments

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50.

A. Saliminia, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstyan, S. LaRochelle, and K. Richardson, “First- and Second-Order Bragg Gratings in Single-Mode Planar Waveguides of Chalcogenide Glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(5), 837–842 (1999). [CrossRef]

51.

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C. Martijn de Sterke, and D. J. Moss, “High-Q cavities in photosensitive photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 542–544 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

52.

Y. Yanagase, S. Yamagata, and Y. Kokubun, “Wavelength tunable polymer microring resonator filter with 9.4 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 39(12), 922–924 (2003). [CrossRef]

53.

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, “Continuously tunable 1 byte delay in coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2389–2391 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

54.

W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with liquid crystal cladding using the longitudinal field component,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2054–2056 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

55.

U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman, “On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111107 (2006). [CrossRef]

56.

R. T. Brown, “Laser-assisted selective chemical etching for active trimming of GaAs waveguide devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(5), 346–348 (1990). [CrossRef]

57.

M.-C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, “Tunable coupling regimes of silicon microdisk resonators using MEMS actuators,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4703–4712 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

58.

F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11934–11941 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

59.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997). [CrossRef]

60.

A. Melloni and M. Martinelli, “Synthesis of Direct-Coupled-Resonators Bandpass Filters for WDM Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 296–303 (2002). [CrossRef]

61.

T. Sudoh, Y. Nakano, and K. Tada, “Wavelength trimming technology for multiple-wavelength distributed feedback laser array by photo-induced refractive index change,” Electron. Lett. 33(3), 216–217 (1997). [CrossRef]

62.

M. W. Lee, C. Grillet, C. L. Smith, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan, and Y. H. Lee, “Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1277–1285 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(130.3060) Integrated optics : Infrared
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(130.6010) Integrated optics : Sensors
(140.3948) Lasers and laser optics : Microcavity devices
(070.5753) Fourier optics and signal processing : Resonators

ToC Category:
Chalcogenide Glass

History
Original Manuscript: September 7, 2010
Revised Manuscript: October 26, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: October 28, 2010
Published: December 6, 2010

Virtual Issues
Chalcogenide Glass (2010) Optics Express

Citation
Nathan Carlie, J. David Musgraves, Bogdan Zdyrko, Igor Luzinov, Juejun Hu, Vivek Singh, Anu Agarwal, Lionel C. Kimerling, Antonio Canciamilla, Francesco Morichetti, Andrea Melloni, and Kathleen Richardson, "Integrated chalcogenide waveguide resonators for mid-IR sensing: leveraging material properties to meet fabrication challenges," Opt. Express 18, 26728-26743 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-25-26728


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  52. Y. Yanagase, S. Yamagata, and Y. Kokubun, “Wavelength tunable polymer microring resonator filter with 9.4 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 39(12), 922–924 (2003). [CrossRef]
  53. A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, C. Ferrari, and M. Martinelli, “Continuously tunable 1 byte delay in coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2389–2391 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. W. De Cort, J. Beeckman, R. James, F. A. Fernández, R. Baets, and K. Neyts, “Tuning of silicon-on-insulator ring resonators with liquid crystal cladding using the longitudinal field component,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2054–2056 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  55. U. Levy, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, S. Mookherjea, and Y. Fainman, “On-chip microfluidic tuning of an optical microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111107 (2006). [CrossRef]
  56. R. T. Brown, “Laser-assisted selective chemical etching for active trimming of GaAs waveguide devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2(5), 346–348 (1990). [CrossRef]
  57. M.-C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, “Tunable coupling regimes of silicon microdisk resonators using MEMS actuators,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4703–4712 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. F. Xia, M. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact high order ring resonator filters using submicron silicon photonic wires for on-chip optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11934–11941 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  59. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997). [CrossRef]
  60. A. Melloni and M. Martinelli, “Synthesis of Direct-Coupled-Resonators Bandpass Filters for WDM Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 296–303 (2002). [CrossRef]
  61. T. Sudoh, Y. Nakano, and K. Tada, “Wavelength trimming technology for multiple-wavelength distributed feedback laser array by photo-induced refractive index change,” Electron. Lett. 33(3), 216–217 (1997). [CrossRef]
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