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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 4 — Feb. 15, 2010
  • pp: 3385–3391
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Study on the effect of heat-annealing and irradiation on spectroscopic properties of Bi:α-BaB2O4 single crystal

Jun Xu, Hengyu Zhao, Liangbi Su, Jun Yu, Peng Zhou, Huili Tang, Lihe Zheng, and Hongjun Li  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 4, pp. 3385-3391 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.003385


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Abstract

The absorption, excitation, and ultrabroadband near-infrared luminescence spectra of Bismuth were investigated in H2-annealed and γ-irradiated Bi:α-BaB2O4(α-BBO) single crystals, respectively. Energy-level diagrams of the near-infrared luminescent centers were fixed. The electronic transition energies of near-infrared active centers are basically consistent with the multiplets of free Bi+ ions. The minor difference of the energy-level diagrams of Bi+ ions in H2-annealed and γ-irradiated Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystals can be ascribed to the difference of the local lattice environments. The involved physical and chemical processes were discussed. The effect of Ar-, air-annealing and electron-irradiation on Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystal were also investigated.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

VBa''VBa+2e
(1)
Bi3++2eBi+
(2)

In Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystal, Bi3+ ions substituted for Ba2+ ions in the crystal lattice. In this work, the effect of thermal treating in various atmosphere(H2, Ar and air atmosphere) and irradiation with γ-irradiation or electron-irradiation on Bi:α-BaB2O4 single crystals were studied to identify the NIR luminescent center. The spectroscopic properties of γ-irradiated and H2-annealed samples were investigated and the energy-level structures were fixed.

2. Experiment

The Bismuth-doped α-BaB2O4 single crystals were grown by conventional Czochralski method in N2 atmosphere, the same as described in Ref [27

27. L. B. Su, J. Yu, P. Zhou, H. J. Li, L. H. Zheng, Y. Yang, F. Wu, H. P. Xia, and J. Xu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence in γ-irradiated Bi-doped alpha-BaB2O4 single crystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2504–2506 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Heat-annealing was carried out at 700 °C for 3 hours in H2, Ar and air atmosphere. Then the samples were cooled to room temperature with a slow rate of 20 °C/h. The electron-irradiation was carried out with dose of 140KGy at room temperature. The optical absorption spectra were recorded by a Jasco V-570 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer. The infrared luminescence spectra were obtained with a ZOLIX SBP300 spectrofluorometer with an InGaAs detector excited with 808 nm LD. The excitation and emission spectra, and the fluorescence decay curves in both visible and infrared regions were recorded by using a FLS920 compressor attachment. The measurements were performed at room temperature.

3. Results and discussion

The samples of Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystal were annealed up to 800 °C in air, Ar and H2 atmosphere, respectively. Only heat-annealing in H2 atmosphere succeeded in producing broadband NIR luminescence in Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystal, as shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 NIR emission spectra of H2-annealed and γ-irradiated Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystals under excitation of 808 nm LD.
, with center wavelength of 985 nm and FWHM of 187 nm under excitation of 808 nm LD. The decay time of the emission at 985 nm was measured to be 408 μs. For comparison, the central wavelength, FWHM, and lifetime of γ-irradiated Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystal were 1140 nm, 108 nm, and 526 μs, respectively.

The absorption, excitation, and NIR emission spectra of the γ-irradiated and H2-annealed Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystals are shown in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 Absorption, excitation, and emission spectra of (a) γ-irradiated Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystal and (b) H2-annealed Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystal. The excitation source is 808 nm LD.
and Fig. 2(b), respectively. The two broadband NIR emissions of the two crystals both possess three intense bands in their corresponding excitation spectra. And the counterparts of the three excitation bands can be distinguished in the corresponding absorption spectra. According to the excitation and emission spectra, the electronic energies of multiplets of the NIR luminescent centers in the γ-irradiated and H2-annealed Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystals can be derived, as listed in Table 1

Table 1. Energies of multiplets of Bi+ ions in α-BaB2O4 crystals and free Bi+ ions [29]

table-icon
View This Table
, along with those of free Bi+ ions. One can see that the energies of the electronic states of the NIR luminescent centers in the two crystals are basically consistent with those of multiplets of free Bi+ ions [22

22. A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and K. N. Boldyrev, “Near-infrared luminescence of RbPb2Cl5:Bi crystals,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2182–2184 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,29

29. J. E. Sansonetti and W. C. Martin, “Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 34(4), 1559–2257 (2005). [CrossRef]

], from the ground state of 3P0 to the third excited state 1D2. The minor difference among them should be contributed by the crystal fields. Higher excited states couldn’t appear in the absorption or excitation spectra due to the limit of the bandgap of α-BaB2O4 crystal.

According to the electronic energies listed in Table 1, the schematic energy-level diagrams of Bi+ in H2-annealed and γ-irradiated Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystals can be fixed, as shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic energy-level diagrams of Bi+ in the Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystals after H2-annealed and γ-irradiated.
. The distinct differences among the electronic energies of Bi+ ions in H2-annealed and γ-irradiated Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystals should be due to the different physical and chemical mechanisms for creation of Bi+ ions. Under γ-irradiation, the electrons should be easily released from the defect centers of VBa” and would freely drift in the lattice, where VBa” is the vacancy of Ba2+ with two negative charges, resulted from charge compensating for two Bi3+ substituting two Ba2+. Then, Bi3+ ions could capture free electrons and turn into Bi2+, further Bi+, expressed as VBa”→VBa + 2e and Bi3+ + 2e→ Bi+. So, the whole process of γ-irradiation is a physical one. However, under the reducing effect of H2-annealing, Bi+ ions should be directly produced from Bi2+ ions accompanied with the creation of O2- vacancies (VO 2-). So, the chemical reaction was taken place in the process of H2-annealing. Therefore, the different local lattice environments of Bi+, associated with VBa or VO 2- by irradiation or annealing, respectively, resulted in the difference of the energy-level splitting of Bi+.

Furthermore, Bi+ ions in H2-annealed Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystals have higher thermal stability than those of the γ-irradiated. The NIR luminescence of the latter was thoroughly bleached after annealing at about 500 °C in N2 atmosphere, as reported in Ref [25

25. J. Ruan, L. B. Su, J. R. Qiu, D. P. Chen, and J. Xu, “Bi-doped BaF2 crystal for broadband near-infrared light source,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5163–5169 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This indicates that the trapped electrons in Bi+ ions in α-BaB2O4 crystal induced by γ-irradiation can be released by thermal activation, which would be recaptured by VBa centers. However, for the H2-annealed crystal, VO 2- acts as the stabilizer of Bi+ in the lattice of α-BaB2O4.

To testify the explanation of Bi+ center as the nature of NIR luminescence, Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystal was irradiated with electron beam. Different from γ-irradiation which excites free-electrons from the vacancies in the crystal lattice, the electron beam directly provides electrons for Bi3+ center and reduces Bi3+ to low-valence. According to the electron absorption rule [30

30. International Atomic Energy Agency, “Absorbed dose determination in photon and electron beams, an international code of practice,” 2nd ed. Vienna: IAEA, Technical Reports Series No.277.56–57. (1997).

], the 7 mm-thick Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystal can be irradiated with 140 KGy electron beam at room temperature without any dose loss. The sample remained colorless after electron irradiated. Absorption spectra before and after electron irradiated were shown in Fig .4, the new-born 680 nm absorption band, which corresponded to the excitation band at 685 nm in γ-irradiated sample, should be attributed to Bi+ ions. In Ref [26

26. L. B. Su, P. Zhou, J. Yu, H. J. Li, L. H. Zheng, F. Wu, Y. Yang, Q. H. Yang, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and near-infrared broadband luminescence of Bi-doped SrB4O7 glasses and crystalline materials,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13554–13560 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], Bi:SrB4O7(2.0% mol and 5.0% mol Bismuth-doped) glasses also exhibited a ~680 nm absorption band.

Fig. 4 Absorption spectra of electron-irradiated Bi:α- BaB2O4 crystal (solid line) and as-grown Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystal (dash line).

The electron irradiated Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystal exhibited a NIR emission with central wavelength of 1131 nm and the FWHM of 98 nm, as shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Near-infrared emission spectra of electron-irradiated Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystals under excitation of 808 nm LD
. The same experiment was performed on a thinner sample with the thickness of 1mm. However, no NIR emission was observed even with irradiation dose of 280 KGy. The absence of NIR luminescence indicates that the thin sample is incapable to capture electrons which can easily pass through the crystal.

4. Concluison

In conclusion, γ-irradiated, electron-irradiated and H2-annealing are effective methods to produce NIR luminescence in Bi:α-BaB2O4 crystal. The minor difference among the energy-level diagrams of the NIR luminescent centers in γ-irradiated and H2-annealed samples should be ascribed to the crystal fields. γ-irradiation, electron-irradiation and H2-annealing produce free electrons in crystal lattice to reduce Bi3+ ions to low-valence. The electronic transition energies of NIR active centers were basically consistent with the multiplets of free Bi+ ions.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under the number of 60778036 and 60938001, Shanghai National Natural Science Foundation under the number of 08ZR1421700, and Hundred Talents Project of the Chinese Academy of Science. The authors are grateful to Xiaoming Fang and Prof. Xinnian Li for their help in performance of electron irradiation.

References and links

1.

A. A. Kaminskii, “Modern developments in the physics of crystalline laser materials,” Phys. Status Solidi 200(2), 215–296 (2003) (a). [CrossRef]

2.

L. F. Mollenauer, N. D. Vieira, and L. Szeto, “Optical properties of the Tl0(1) center in KCl,” Phys. Rev. B 27(9), 5332–5346 (1983). [CrossRef]

3.

M. Fockele, F. Lohse, J.-M. Spaeth, and R. H. Barturam, “Identification and optical properties of axial lead centres in alkaline-earth fluorides,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1(1), 13–26 (1989). [CrossRef]

4.

L. F. Mollenauer, N. D. Vieira, and L. Szeto, “Mode locking by synchronous pumping using a gain medium with microsecond decay times,” Opt. Lett. 7(9), 414–416 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, “Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution,” Nature 410(6824), 65–68 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, “Infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 3B), 279–281 (2001). [CrossRef]

10.

H. P. Xia and X. J. Wang, “Near infrared broadband emission from Bi5+-doped Al2O3–GeO2–X (X=Na2O, BaO, Y2O3) glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051917 (2006). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Ren, J. Qiu, D. Chen, C. Wang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Infrared luminescence properties of bismuth-doped barium silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 22(7), 1954–1958 (2007). [CrossRef]

12.

X. G. Meng, J. R. Qiu, M. Y. Peng, D. P. Chen, Q. Z. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, and C. S. Zhu, “Near infrared broadband emission of Bismuth-doped aluminophosphate glass,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1628–1634 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of Bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041908 (2008). [CrossRef]

14.

S. F. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. C. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. H. Hao, and J. R. Qiu, “Multifunctional Bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(9), 1407–1413 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

M. Yu. Sharonov, A. B. Bykov, V. Petricevic, and R. R. Alfano, “Spectroscopic study of optical centers formed in Bi-, Pb-, Sb-, Sn-, Te-, and In-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2131–2133 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, S. Morimoto, and S. Khonthon, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from a colorless Bismuth-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261110 (2007). [CrossRef]

17.

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Superbroadband 1310 nm emission from Bismuth and Tantalum codoped germanium oxide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2433–2435 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur'yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1083–1084 (2005). [CrossRef]

19.

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber Bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007). [CrossRef]

20.

V. O. Sokolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. M. Dianov, “Origin of broadband near-infrared luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1488–1490 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

E. F. Kustov, L. I. Bulatov, V. V. Dvoyrin, and V. M. Mashinsky, “Molecular orbital model of optical centers in Bismuth-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1549–1551 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and K. N. Boldyrev, “Near-infrared luminescence of RbPb2Cl5:Bi crystals,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2182–2184 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

V. O. Sokolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. M. Dianov, “Centers of broadband near-IR luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(9), 095410 (2009). [CrossRef]

24.

H. T. Sun, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, A. Hosokawa, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Superbroadband near-IR nano-optical source based on bismuth-doped high-silica nanocrystalline zeolites,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1219–1221 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

J. Ruan, L. B. Su, J. R. Qiu, D. P. Chen, and J. Xu, “Bi-doped BaF2 crystal for broadband near-infrared light source,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5163–5169 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

L. B. Su, P. Zhou, J. Yu, H. J. Li, L. H. Zheng, F. Wu, Y. Yang, Q. H. Yang, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and near-infrared broadband luminescence of Bi-doped SrB4O7 glasses and crystalline materials,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13554–13560 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

L. B. Su, J. Yu, P. Zhou, H. J. Li, L. H. Zheng, Y. Yang, F. Wu, H. P. Xia, and J. Xu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence in γ-irradiated Bi-doped alpha-BaB2O4 single crystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2504–2506 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

H. T. Sun, T. Hasegawa, M. Fujii, F. Shimaoka, Z. H. Bai, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Significantly enhanced superbroadband near infrared emission in bismuth/aluminum doped high-silica zeolite derived nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6239–6244 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

J. E. Sansonetti and W. C. Martin, “Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 34(4), 1559–2257 (2005). [CrossRef]

30.

International Atomic Energy Agency, “Absorbed dose determination in photon and electron beams, an international code of practice,” 2nd ed. Vienna: IAEA, Technical Reports Series No.277.56–57. (1997).

OCIS Codes
(160.2540) Materials : Fluorescent and luminescent materials
(300.6280) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, fluorescence and luminescence

ToC Category:
Materials

History
Original Manuscript: December 8, 2009
Revised Manuscript: January 3, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: January 5, 2010
Published: February 2, 2010

Citation
Jun Xu, Hengyu Zhao, Liangbi Su, Jun Yu, Peng Zhou, Huili Tang, Lihe Zheng, and Hongjun Li, "Study on the effect of heat-annealing and irradiation on spectroscopic properties of Bi:α-BaB2O4 single crystal," Opt. Express 18, 3385-3391 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-4-3385


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References

  1. A. A. Kaminskii, “Modern developments in the physics of crystalline laser materials,” Phys. Status Solidi 200(2), 215–296 (2003) (a). [CrossRef]
  2. L. F. Mollenauer, N. D. Vieira, and L. Szeto, “Optical properties of the Tl0(1) center in KCl,” Phys. Rev. B 27(9), 5332–5346 (1983). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Fockele, F. Lohse, J.-M. Spaeth, and R. H. Barturam, “Identification and optical properties of axial lead centres in alkaline-earth fluorides,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1(1), 13–26 (1989). [CrossRef]
  4. L. F. Mollenauer, N. D. Vieira, and L. Szeto, “Mode locking by synchronous pumping using a gain medium with microsecond decay times,” Opt. Lett. 7(9), 414–416 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414(6860), 182–184 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Rousse, C. Rischel, S. Fourmaux, I. Uschmann, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, Ph. Balcou, E. Förster, J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, J. C. Gauthier, and D. Hulin, “Non-thermal melting in semiconductors measured at femtosecond resolution,” Nature 410(6824), 65–68 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, “Infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(Part 2, No. 3B), 279–281 (2001). [CrossRef]
  10. H. P. Xia and X. J. Wang, “Near infrared broadband emission from Bi5+-doped Al2O3–GeO2–X (X=Na2O, BaO, Y2O3) glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051917 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. J. Ren, J. Qiu, D. Chen, C. Wang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Infrared luminescence properties of bismuth-doped barium silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 22(7), 1954–1958 (2007). [CrossRef]
  12. X. G. Meng, J. R. Qiu, M. Y. Peng, D. P. Chen, Q. Z. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, and C. S. Zhu, “Near infrared broadband emission of Bismuth-doped aluminophosphate glass,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1628–1634 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of Bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041908 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. S. F. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. C. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. H. Hao, and J. R. Qiu, “Multifunctional Bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(9), 1407–1413 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Yu. Sharonov, A. B. Bykov, V. Petricevic, and R. R. Alfano, “Spectroscopic study of optical centers formed in Bi-, Pb-, Sb-, Sn-, Te-, and In-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Lett. 33(18), 2131–2133 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, S. Morimoto, and S. Khonthon, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from a colorless Bismuth-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261110 (2007). [CrossRef]
  17. M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Superbroadband 1310 nm emission from Bismuth and Tantalum codoped germanium oxide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2433–2435 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur'yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1083–1084 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber Bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007). [CrossRef]
  20. V. O. Sokolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. M. Dianov, “Origin of broadband near-infrared luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1488–1490 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. E. F. Kustov, L. I. Bulatov, V. V. Dvoyrin, and V. M. Mashinsky, “Molecular orbital model of optical centers in Bismuth-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1549–1551 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. G. Okhrimchuk, L. N. Butvina, E. M. Dianov, N. V. Lichkova, V. N. Zagorodnev, and K. N. Boldyrev, “Near-infrared luminescence of RbPb2Cl5:Bi crystals,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2182–2184 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. V. O. Sokolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. M. Dianov, “Centers of broadband near-IR luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(9), 095410 (2009). [CrossRef]
  24. H. T. Sun, Y. Miwa, F. Shimaoka, M. Fujii, A. Hosokawa, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Superbroadband near-IR nano-optical source based on bismuth-doped high-silica nanocrystalline zeolites,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1219–1221 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. Ruan, L. B. Su, J. R. Qiu, D. P. Chen, and J. Xu, “Bi-doped BaF2 crystal for broadband near-infrared light source,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5163–5169 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. L. B. Su, P. Zhou, J. Yu, H. J. Li, L. H. Zheng, F. Wu, Y. Yang, Q. H. Yang, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and near-infrared broadband luminescence of Bi-doped SrB4O7 glasses and crystalline materials,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13554–13560 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. L. B. Su, J. Yu, P. Zhou, H. J. Li, L. H. Zheng, Y. Yang, F. Wu, H. P. Xia, and J. Xu, “Broadband near-infrared luminescence in γ-irradiated Bi-doped alpha-BaB2O4 single crystals,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2504–2506 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. T. Sun, T. Hasegawa, M. Fujii, F. Shimaoka, Z. H. Bai, M. Mizuhata, S. Hayashi, and S. Deki, “Significantly enhanced superbroadband near infrared emission in bismuth/aluminum doped high-silica zeolite derived nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6239–6244 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. E. Sansonetti and W. C. Martin, “Handbook of Basic Atomic Spectroscopic Data,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 34(4), 1559–2257 (2005). [CrossRef]
  30. International Atomic Energy Agency, “Absorbed dose determination in photon and electron beams, an international code of practice,” 2nd ed. Vienna: IAEA, Technical Reports Series No.277.56–57. (1997).

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