## A design method of a fiber-based mode multi/demultiplexer for mode-division multiplexing

Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 5, pp. 4709-4716 (2010)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.004709

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### Abstract

In the mode-division multiplexing (MDM) optical transmission system, a mode multi/demultiplexer is an important key device for excitation, multiplication, and separation of light signals which have distinct modes. In this report, we propose a fiber-type mode multi/demultiplexer based on selective phase matching between different cores/modes. Design method and device characteristics of 1×4 mode multi/demultiplexer are investigated through finite element analysis. In order to expand operating wavelength range, we reveal the structural parameters that satisfy phase matching conditions over wide wavelength range. Our numerical results demonstrate that the mode multi/demultiplexer with broadband, polarization-insensitive operation can be realized by applying the proposed fiber structure.

© 2010 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, and Y. Kokubun, “Heterogeneous multi-core fibers: Proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express **6**(2), 98–103 (2009). [CrossRef]

2. Y. Kokubun and M. Koshiba, “Novel multi-core fibers for mode division multiplexing: Proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express **6**(8), 522–528 (2009). [CrossRef]

2. Y. Kokubun and M. Koshiba, “Novel multi-core fibers for mode division multiplexing: Proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express **6**(8), 522–528 (2009). [CrossRef]

4. R. W. C. Vance and J. D. Love, “Asymmetric adiabatic multiprong for mode-multiplexed systems,” Electron. Lett. **29**(24), 2134–2136 (1993). [CrossRef]

7. M. Greenberg and M. Orenstein, “Simultaneous dual mode add/drop multiplexers for optical interconnects buses,” Opt. Commun. **266**(2), 527–531 (2006). [CrossRef]

## 2. Device design

*a*= 5 μm, and the back ground material is silica with refractive index of 1.45 [2

2. Y. Kokubun and M. Koshiba, “Novel multi-core fibers for mode division multiplexing: Proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express **6**(8), 522–528 (2009). [CrossRef]

**6**(8), 522–528 (2009). [CrossRef]

*d*

_{0~3}, the refractive indices

*n*

_{0~3}, and the core intervals

*D*

_{0~3}are different from each other. The core number 0~3 represents the mode number of each coupled mode.

*D*

_{0~3}to make the coupling length of four modes to be same.

8. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. **38**(7), 927–933 (2002). [CrossRef]

*d*

_{0~3}= 2 μm, 3 μm, 5 μm, as a function of

*n*

_{0~3}. The dashed lines inside the graph indicate the effective indices of the four coupled modes in coupled core group at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. We can see the crossing points in the effective index curves. These crossing points correspond to the structural parameters that meet phase matching conditions. Therefore the fundamental mode in core 0~3 can be coupled with desired coupled mode by tuning structural parameters. Figure 3 shows structural parameter conditions for achieving selective phase matching. From Fig. 3, we can estimate the structural parameters to achieve mode multi/demultiplexing function according to the value of the refractive index or the core diameter. For example, if the core diameter is to be enlarged, its refractive index has to be set small.

*i*denotes the core number (mode number). These parameters are obtained by examining the effective index dependence on the wavelength for different structural parameters. Figure 4 shows the wavelength dependence of the effective index of four coupled modes in coupled core group and the fundamental mode in core 0~3. The structural parameters of core 0~3 are set as in Table 1. Although the lower order mode has larger polarization dependence compared with the higher order mode, the dispersion relations in each coupled mode (

*x*and

*y*polarization modes) and each fundamental mode of core 0~3 are almost the same, namely phase matching condition is satisfied over wide wavelength range. Therefore it is predicted that the fiber with structural parameters shown in Table 1 operates as a polarization-insensitive mode multi/demultiplexer over wide wavelength range.

*L*of the each coupled mode as a function of

_{c}*D*

_{0~3}, with the structural parameters in Table 1. There is little polarization dependence of coupling length, and it is possible to make coupling length of four modes approximately same if the core intervals are appropriately adjusted. The selection of the core interval determines coupling length and operating wavelength range. If we decrease the core interval, the coupling length decreases and operating wavelength range will be broadened due to the increase of the coupling efficiency. Here, we choose the core intervals as shown in Table 1 to obtain a relatively wide operating wavelength range (~100 nm). At these parameters, the length of the device becomes about 0.7 cm.

## 3. Device characteristics

9. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method with perfectly matched layers for anisotropic optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. **19**(3), 405–413 (2001). [CrossRef]

*z*= (0,

*L*/3, 2

_{c}*L*/3,

_{c}*L*) at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. As shown in the figure, the fundamental coupled mode is launched to the central coupled core group. The input lightwave transfers from the coupled core group to core 0 at the propagation distance

_{c}*z*=

*L*, and there is little lightwave transferring to other cores. Figure 7 shows the electric field distributions when the initial condition in Fig. 6 is reversed. We can see that the input lightwave launched into core 0 excites the fundamental coupled mode in the coupled core group at the propagation distance

_{c}*z*=

*L*. These results are validating the multiplexing and demultiplexing operations. Figure 8 shows the wavelength dependence of the normalized power at the fiber output end (

_{c}*L*= 0.7 cm) in core 0~3. The input coupled modes are launched to coupled core group, respectively. It is found that both of the polarization modes have similar demultiplexing properties for all coupled modes. We also see that the wavelength range with the normalized output power higher than 90% has exceeded 100 nm. The cross talk between each core is smaller than −26.53 dB at a wavelength of 1.55 μm, as shown in Table 2 . The reason why such a characteristic is attained is that the structural parameters are designed to meet phase matching conditions over wide wavelength range as shown in Fig. 4. If we increase the core diameters

*d*

_{0~3}more than those in Table 1 referring to Fig. 3, the slope of the dispersion relation shown in Fig. 4 becomes gradual. On the other hand, if we decrease the core diameter

*d*

_{0~3}, the slope of the dispersion relation becomes steep. In these cases, operating wavelength range narrows because the phase matching condition is fulfilled only at the neighborhood of a wavelength that the effective index intersects. This means that it is also possible to design the mode multi/demultiplexer with narrowband operation by tuning structural parameters.

*d*

_{0~3}. Here the operating wavelength is 1.55 μm and Δ

*d*

_{0~3}is the variation from the value of Table 1. As the value of Δ

*d*

_{0~3}increases, because of phase mismatching, the coupling efficiency decreases and cross talk is deteriorated. The lower order mode with large core diameter is more tolerant to Δ

*d*

_{0~3}, because in the large diameter core variation of the effective index with Δ

*d*

_{0~3}becomes gradual, and so the phase mismatching is suppressed. The tolerance of Δ

*d*

_{0~3}that maintains the cross talk smaller than −20 dB is about ± 0.5% for all coupled modes. We also investigated the tolerance for the refractive indices of the surrounding cores. It was found that the cross talk of smaller than −20 dB for most coupled modes was kept if the variation of the refractive indices was up to ± 0.0001. From these results, the tolerance to structural parameters is not so large. Accurate fabrication is required for good device characteristics. One way for improving the structural tolerance is to minimize the cross talk by reducing leakage of the lightwave to undesired core. If we chose higher relative refractive index difference as coupled core group, the light confinement is enhanced and transferring to undesired core will be reduced. The investigation of such a configuration is a future work.

## 4. Conclusion

## References and links

1. | M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, and Y. Kokubun, “Heterogeneous multi-core fibers: Proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express |

2. | Y. Kokubun and M. Koshiba, “Novel multi-core fibers for mode division multiplexing: Proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express |

3. | T. Morioka, “New generation optical infrastructure technologies: “EXAT initiative” towards 2020 and beyond,” Opto Electronics and Communications Conference (2009), FT4. |

4. | R. W. C. Vance and J. D. Love, “Asymmetric adiabatic multiprong for mode-multiplexed systems,” Electron. Lett. |

5. | Y. Kawaguchi and K. Tsutsumi, “Mode multiplexing and demultiplexing devices using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. |

6. | E. Narevicius, “Method and apparatus for optical mode division multiplexing and demultiplexing,” U.S. Patent Appl. 20050254750, Nov. 2005. |

7. | M. Greenberg and M. Orenstein, “Simultaneous dual mode add/drop multiplexers for optical interconnects buses,” Opt. Commun. |

8. | K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. |

9. | K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method with perfectly matched layers for anisotropic optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

**OCIS Codes**

(060.1810) Fiber optics and optical communications : Buffers, couplers, routers, switches, and multiplexers

(060.2270) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber characterization

(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication

**ToC Category:**

Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

**History**

Original Manuscript: January 7, 2010

Manuscript Accepted: February 1, 2010

Published: February 22, 2010

**Citation**

Fumiya Saitoh, Kunimasa Saitoh, and Masanori Koshiba, "A design method of a fiber-based mode multi/demultiplexer for mode-division multiplexing," Opt. Express **18**, 4709-4716 (2010)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-4709

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### References

- M. Koshiba, K. Saitoh, and Y. Kokubun, “Heterogeneous multi-core fibers: Proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(2), 98–103 (2009). [CrossRef]
- Y. Kokubun and M. Koshiba, “Novel multi-core fibers for mode division multiplexing: Proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(8), 522–528 (2009). [CrossRef]
- T. Morioka, “New generation optical infrastructure technologies: “EXAT initiative” towards 2020 and beyond,” Opto Electronics and Communications Conference (2009), FT4.
- R. W. C. Vance and J. D. Love, “Asymmetric adiabatic multiprong for mode-multiplexed systems,” Electron. Lett. 29(24), 2134–2136 (1993). [CrossRef]
- Y. Kawaguchi and K. Tsutsumi, “Mode multiplexing and demultiplexing devices using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1701–1702 (2002). [CrossRef]
- E. Narevicius, “Method and apparatus for optical mode division multiplexing and demultiplexing,” U.S. Patent Appl. 20050254750, Nov. 2005.
- M. Greenberg and M. Orenstein, “Simultaneous dual mode add/drop multiplexers for optical interconnects buses,” Opt. Commun. 266(2), 527–531 (2006). [CrossRef]
- K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 927–933 (2002). [CrossRef]
- K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method with perfectly matched layers for anisotropic optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(3), 405–413 (2001). [CrossRef]

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