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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 5 — Mar. 1, 2010
  • pp: 5320–5327
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Reduction of phase-induced intensity noise in a fiber-based coherent Doppler lidar using polarization control

Peter John Rodrigo and Christian Pedersen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 5, pp. 5320-5327 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.005320


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Abstract

Optimization of signal-to-noise ratio is an important aspect in the design of optical heterodyne detection systems such as a coherent Doppler lidar (CDL). In a CDL, optimal performance is achieved when the noise in the detector signal is dominated by local oscillator shot-noise. Most modern CDL systems are built using rugged and cost-efficient fiber optic components. Unfortunately, leakage signals such as residual reflections inherent within fiber components (e.g. circulator) can introduce phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) to the Doppler spectrum in a CDL. Such excess noise may be a few orders of magnitude above the shot-noise level within the relevant CDL frequency bandwidth – corrupting the measurement of typically weak backscattered signals. In this study, observation of PIIN in a fiber-based CDL with a master-oscillator power-amplifier tapered semiconductor laser source is reported. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate what we believe is a newly proposed method using a simple polarization scheme to reduce PIIN by more than an order of magnitude.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Relying on the coherent superposition of light waves from atmospheric backscatter and a reference beam or local oscillator (LO), coherent Doppler lidars (CDLs) offer an accurate optical means for measuring wind velocity and wind statistics. The development of CDLs began shortly after the invention of the laser. Most wind lidar systems then were based on solid-state and CO2 lasers and relied on free-space optics [1

1. R. T. Menzies and R. M. Hardesty, “Coherent Doppler Lidar for Measurements of Wind Fields,” Proc. IEEE 77(3), 449–462 (1989). [CrossRef]

,2

2. R. M. Huffaker and R. M. Hardesty, “Remote sensing of the atmospheric wind velocities using solid-state and CO2 coherent laser systems,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 181–204 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. At present, commercially sold CDLs [35] conventionally employ fiber-lasers (FLs) emitting at eye-safe wavelengths (1540-1575 nm) and benefit from the use of reliable fiber optic components widely used in the telecommunications industry. The emergence of modern CDLs has revived the interest in the use of these systems for wind energy applications. This is expected to increase further as more compact and inexpensive wind lidar systems become available.

Recently, our group has demonstrated the feasibility of using a master-oscillator (tapered) power-amplifier semiconductor laser (MOPA-SL) as a light source for a compact coherent Doppler lidar system [6

6. R. S. Hansen and C. Pedersen, “All semiconductor laser Doppler anemometer at 1.55 microm,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18288–18295 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. P. J. Rodrigo, and C. Pedersen, “Doppler wind lidar using a MOPA semiconductor laser at stable single-frequency operation,” In: Technical Digest. 19th International Congress on Photonics in Europe, CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2009.

] for remote wind speed measurements. A single-unit MOPA-SL is found to be a good alternative to the commonly employed tandem of a fiber-laser and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) in a CDL system. The advantages gained from an “all-semiconductor solution” by using a MOPA-SL as the light source include compactness, reduced cost, and better wall-plug efficiency. Furthermore, MOPA-SLs do not suffer from the inherently large intensity noise in the low-frequency regime of a few MHz normally present in FL sources. This is due to the fact that the relaxation oscillation frequency of MOPA-SLs is typically a few GHz [8

8. G. C. Dente and M. L. Tilton, “Modeling Multiple-Longitudinal-Mode Dynamics in Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 325–335 (1998). [CrossRef]

] as opposed to around ~1 MHz in FLs [9

9. C. Spiegelberg, J. Geng, Y. Hu, Y. Kaneda, S. Jiang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Low-Noise Narrow-Linewidth Fiber Laser at 1550 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 57–62 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. The peak of the relaxation oscillation in FL can be as high as ~40 dB above shot-noise, which results in significantly elevated noise floor in frequencies extending to a few MHz. As a consequence, FL-based CDL has a reduced sensitivity when measuring low wind speeds, especially during clear atmospheric conditions. To circumvent the unwanted effects of low-frequency (relaxation oscillation) noise, FL-based CDL systems would have to employ additional fiber optic components to separate the path of the LO from the signal beam, and introduce a frequency offset (e.g. using an acousto-optic modulator) between the two signals [10

10. S. Kameyama, T. Ando, K. Asaka, Y. Hirano, and S. Wadaka, “Compact all-fiber pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind sensing,” Appl. Opt. 46(11), 1953–1962 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Aside from requiring additional components, this solution also entails the use of a faster detector and a signal processor with higher sampling rate to avoid aliasing.

In the intensity noise spectra shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Comparison of intensity noise spectra. The lowest (blue curve) is the noise spectrum of the detection unit; Model HCA-S preamplified InGaAs photoreceiver, Femto GmbH (i.e. no laser light incident on the photodetector). The middle (green curve) is obtained when ~1 mW of optical power from the MOPA-SL is incident onto the detector. The topmost (red curve) is for the case when ~1 mW beam from a fiber-laser (common lidar source) is detected. The cutoff frequencies for the high-pass and low-pass filters of the detection unit are ~100 kHz and ~25 MHz, respectively.
, one finds that a fiber-coupled MOPA-SL (Model 7115-0000, QPC Lasers) has the attractive characteristic of exhibiting near-shot-noise limited performance over a distributed feedback (DFB) fiber-laser within a typical bandwidth (e.g. 0-25 MHz) relevant for CDL operation. Note that at lower frequencies <10 MHz (which in a CDL corresponds to line-of-sight (LOS) wind speeds <7.8 m/s for wavelength λ = 1550 nm), the noise floor difference can reach a significant amount of 35 dB close to the FL relaxation oscillation frequency of ~0.4 MHz. This can directly translate to several orders of magnitude improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) when measuring low wind speeds using a MOPA-SL based CDL against its FL-based counterpart. Low LOS speeds also occur when the angle of the CDL transmit beam with respect to the wind direction approaches 90°. The measurement of wind direction – normally performed by scanning the transmit beam such that the CDL takes several LOS measurements at different angles – can gain better accuracy or sensitivity as the CDL’s ability to measure low LOS speed is improved using a MOPA-SL.

The intensity noise measurements in Fig. 1 are taken for ~1 mW output power from each of the two lasers. This is the typical LO power used in a CDL to achieve optimal SNR [11

11. J. F. Holmes and B. J. Rask, “Optimum optical local-oscillator power levels for coherent detection with photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 34(6), 927–933 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The data in Fig. 1 suggest that the need for a frequency offset between the LO and the signal beam may be avoided in a CDL with MOPA-SL as source. Due to the low and relatively flat noise floor, high SNR even when sensing low wind speeds are possible. Thus, previously observed inaccuracies (when compared with conventional anemometers) of FL-EDFA-tandem based CDLs without a frequency offset for measuring low wind speeds [12

12. D. W. Jaynes, J. F. Manwell, J. G. McGowan, W. M. Stein, and A. L. Rogers, “MTC Final Progress Report: LIDAR,” Renewable Energy Research Laboratory, July 19 (2007).

] can be potentially circumvented by replacing the light source with a MOPA-SL.

2. Characteristics of a fiber-coupled MOPA-SL

We also assessed the performance of the fiber-coupled MOPA-SL by measuring the cw power from the output end of its ~1-m long single mode fiber (SMF) pigtail as a function of drive currents. The monolithically integrated master oscillator (MO) and tapered amplifier (TA) sections of the laser are independently driven by current controllers (PRO8000-4, Thorlabs, Inc., which also includes temperature controllers). At 20 °C, the laser can be driven by a maximum of 700 mA MO current, IMO, and a maximum of 4.0 A amplifier current, ITA.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 L-I curves of a fiber-coupled MOPA-SL, which compares the output power of the beam emitted from the output end of the fiber pigtail as a function of amplifier current ITA for master oscillator currents IMO = 500 mA (black squares), IMO = 600 mA (red circles), and IMO = 700 mA (green triangles). The laser set temperature was kept at 20 °C.
shows the characteristic L-I (i.e. optical power versus ITA) curves of the SMF-pigtailed MOPA-SL for three different IMO values. The plot shows that a high output power reaching ~650 mW can typically be achieved for the TEM00 output of the laser.

A non-linear dependence of power with ITA is also evident, which indicates that the fixed optics (inside the laser package) that couples the originally astigmatic beam from the MOPA laser emitter to the SMF has been optimally aligned to achieve high coupling efficiency at maximum operating drive currents. The degree of astigmatism of laser emitters with tapered geometry, such as the MOPA-SL used here, is known to depend on the laser drive currents [13

13. S. O’Brien, D. F. Welch, R. A. Parke, D. Mehuys, K. Dzurko, R. J. Lang, R. Waarts, and D. Scifres, “Operating Characteristics of a High-Power Monolithically Integrated Flared Amplifier Master Oscillator Power Amplifier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(6), 2052–2057 (1993). [CrossRef]

]. Thus a decrease in ITA effectively results in a nonlinear decrease in output power at the fiber end due to reduction in both beam power from the emitter and fiber coupling efficiency.

Although it can supply ample beam power for a CDL, high-power SLs with tapered or flared geometry possess spectral characteristics characterized by regimes of single-frequency operation, dynamic instabilities and multimode operation [8

8. G. C. Dente and M. L. Tilton, “Modeling Multiple-Longitudinal-Mode Dynamics in Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 325–335 (1998). [CrossRef]

,14

14. A. Egan, C. Z. Ning, J. V. Moloney, R. A. Indik, M. W. Wright, D. J. Bossert, and J. G. McInerney, “Dynamic Instabilities in Master Oscillator Power Amplifier Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(1), 166–170 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. The MOPA-SL we used in this work is no exception as these various types of spectral behavior were experimentally observed here. Nevertheless, we found several pockets of stability wherein single longitudinal mode is maintained even at high output powers for a continuous laser operation of several days [7

7. P. J. Rodrigo, and C. Pedersen, “Doppler wind lidar using a MOPA semiconductor laser at stable single-frequency operation,” In: Technical Digest. 19th International Congress on Photonics in Europe, CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2009.

]. For CDL applications, it is important that a stable single-frequency operation is achieved to obtain the lowest possible relative intensity noise (RIN) such as the shot-noise-limited performance of the MOPA-SL shown in Fig. 1 (green curve) over the entire CDL measurement bandwidth. In our experiments, we observed that laser drive current settings corresponding to multimode operation and dynamic instabilities result in increased and unstable RIN levels that degrade the SNR and overall performance of the CDL.

3. Fiber-based CDL with a MOPA-SL as a light source

Using the fiber-coupled MOPA-SL described above, we constructed a simple fiber-based CDL setup from a relatively few off-the-shelf components as shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup. The fiber-based lidar consists of the fiber-coupled MOPA-SL, a circulator, an inline polarization controller (PC), and a preamplified InGaAs PIN photodetector (PD). The FC/PC tip of the circulator’s port-2 is AR-coated (<0.25%). The PD current is converted to a proportional voltage signal, which is sent to a digital signal processor (DSP) – Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) unit that calculates the signal power spectrum. Each fiber segment of the circulator is about 1 m in length. Normally focused to a probe volume in air during CDL operation, the beam collected by a lens (diameter = 75 mm; focal length = 200 mm) is focused ~8 m away to a diffusely reflecting disk rotating at a constant angular speed.
. The laser is set to provide a cw output power of 520 mW at λ = 1550 nm (drive currents IMO = 0.7 A and ITA = 3.54 A; TEC set temperature T = 20 °C). At this particular setting, the laser operates in a stable single-frequency operation. It is easily connected to the input port-1 of a standard three-port fiber optic circulator (6015-3-APC; Thorlabs, Inc.) through FC/APC connectors. Most of the laser power takes the route from port-1 to port-2 while a tiny fraction of light from port-1 leaks into port-3 (>50 dB directivity according to specification or a few microwatts of leakage). Approximately 0.34 mW of LO power reaches the detector due to the light reflected from the fiber-to-air interface of the antireflection (AR) -coated (<0.25%) FC/PC connector of port-2 and travelled in reverse (i.e. from port-2 to port-3). This LO reaches the active-area of the photodetector (HCA-S InGaAs PIN photodiode with pre-amplifier, Femto GmbH) connected to circulator port-3 and should ideally possess the noise spectrum obtained in Fig. 1 (green curve), apart from a scaling factor (Note: measurements in Fig. 1 are for ~1.0 mW of power delivered in the forward direction to the detector when the MOPA-SL and the detector are connected through a series of fiber attenuators and a fiber optic isolator). However, the detector at port-3 that should only receive the reflection-tapped LO and the backreflected signal from the probed volume (i.e. a rotating disk is used in our experiment), also receives some unwanted signals such as the inherent leakage from circulator port-1 to port-3 (Fig. 3).

The effect of the interferometric beating of such stray signals with the dominant LO introduces excess intensity noise resulting in an overall noise floor much greater than the intrinsic LO shot-noise level. One way of physically interpreting this increase in noise level is to consider that an “effective LO” has been formed by the phasor sum of the “raw LO” and the leakage signal(s) [15

15. C. J. Karlsson, F. Å. A. Olsson, D. Letalick, and M. Harris, “All-fiber multifunction continuous-wave coherent laser radar at 1.55 μm for range, speed, vibration, and wind measurements,” Appl. Opt. 39(21), 3716–3726 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. The instantaneous magnitude of the “effective LO” fluctuates about a mean value due to the inherent fluctuations in phase (i.e. laser phase noise). The corresponding “effective intensity fluctuation” increases the total noise level above the shot-noise of the solitary raw LO. In the literature, this type of excess noise has been referred to as phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) (also known as beat or interference noise).

4. Polarization-based suppression of phase-induced intensity noise

Power spectral analysis of the signal received by the detector at port-3 in our system revealed that a considerable level of PIIN is also present in a MOPA-SL based CDL. A comparison of the Doppler spectra (whose baselines represent the overall noise levels) for two contrasting situations is shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of the levels of phase-to-intensity excess noise (Media 1) for two different LO polarization states. The inline polarization controller at port-2 (see Fig. 3) is adjusted so that the LO polarization state is nearly parallel (red curve) or nearly orthogonal (white curve) to that of the principal leakage signal from port-1 to port-3. In the latter case, optimal suppression of PIIN is achieved – enhancing the SNR of the Doppler signal peak at ~12 MHz, which corresponds to ~9.3 m/s LOS-projected tangential speed of the point on the disk where the transmit beam is focused. The received power due to backreflection is in the order of ~0.1 nW.
. A 15-second video clip (Media 1) associated with Fig. 4 is also provided to compare the temporally varying nature of the noise levels for two different cases of polarization control (PC) settings. Changes in noise levels are due to temperature dependence of relative optical path delays of the signals in the fiber.

The LO generated from the backreflection at the tip of port-2 and the main signal (reflection from the target) propagate along the same fiber segment of port-2. In the round-trip of the transmit beam between the transmit-receive lens and target used in the experiment, negligible depolarization is observed. It is well known that the degree of depolarization by hard targets depends on the surface type/material and for a painted sandblasted metal surface such as the rotating disk we used the depolarization is known to be negligible [17

17. U. P. Oppenheim and Y. Feiner, “Polarization of the reflectivity of paints and other rough surfaces in the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 34(10), 1664–1671 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Under this experimental condition, the LO and the main signal have similar polarization states at the detector plane regardless of the PC setting. As the PC is adjusted so that the polarization states of the LO and the leakage signal are almost on opposite sides of the Poincaré sphere, the PIIN correspondingly decreases and reaches a maximum degree of suppression as shown in Fig. 4 (white curve), at which point the much lower average noise level is maintained just slightly above shot-noise. To our knowledge, the demonstrated polarization-based scheme to achieve significant PIIN reduction has not been reported in the literature. Although we still observe sporadic increases in the noise level (up to ~15 dB) in the low-frequency regime (<4 MHz) at the best PC setting, the major reduction of the excess broadband noise is certainly expected to improve the SNR and operational performance of our MOPA-SL based lidar system. Similar to the observations noted in Ref. 15

15. C. J. Karlsson, F. Å. A. Olsson, D. Letalick, and M. Harris, “All-fiber multifunction continuous-wave coherent laser radar at 1.55 μm for range, speed, vibration, and wind measurements,” Appl. Opt. 39(21), 3716–3726 (2000). [CrossRef]

, some possible reasons for the low-frequency noise are other sources of stray light. As a scope of future study, a detailed understanding of the nature of the low-frequency noise needs to be addressed so that suppression schemes (e.g. frequency modulation of the laser [15

15. C. J. Karlsson, F. Å. A. Olsson, D. Letalick, and M. Harris, “All-fiber multifunction continuous-wave coherent laser radar at 1.55 μm for range, speed, vibration, and wind measurements,” Appl. Opt. 39(21), 3716–3726 (2000). [CrossRef]

]) for this noise component could be investigated.

The dependence of the excess noise to polarization state differences between LO and residual signals, although straightforward, has not been thoroughly discussed in the literature. Previously proposed models generally treated the level of PIIN to be dependent only on scalar quantities [15

15. C. J. Karlsson, F. Å. A. Olsson, D. Letalick, and M. Harris, “All-fiber multifunction continuous-wave coherent laser radar at 1.55 μm for range, speed, vibration, and wind measurements,” Appl. Opt. 39(21), 3716–3726 (2000). [CrossRef]

,16

16. M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, and C. J. Karlsson, “The role of laser coherence length in continuous-wave coherent laser radar,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567–1581 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. It was shown that for delay times τd between LO and a stray signal much shorter than the laser coherence time τc (in our CDL, τd11 ns and τc1.6 μs), the PIIN contribution to the spectra in the typical CDL frequency region may be approximated as a constant noise offset SPIIN to the shot-noise level [15

15. C. J. Karlsson, F. Å. A. Olsson, D. Letalick, and M. Harris, “All-fiber multifunction continuous-wave coherent laser radar at 1.55 μm for range, speed, vibration, and wind measurements,” Appl. Opt. 39(21), 3716–3726 (2000). [CrossRef]

,16

16. M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, and C. J. Karlsson, “The role of laser coherence length in continuous-wave coherent laser radar,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567–1581 (1998). [CrossRef]

], such as
SPIINPLOPR(τd2τc),
(1)
where PLO and PR<<PLO are the powers of the LO and the residual signal, respectively. One assumption that was made in arriving at Eq. (1) is that the polarization states of the LO and the parasitic signal at the detection plane are identical, i.e. e^LO=e^R. If one takes into account the more general case where e^LOe^R, Eq. (1) can be rewritten as
SPIINPLOPR(e^LOe^R)2(τd2τc),
(2)
where the additional factor (e^LOe^R)2, which involves the scalar product of the two generally elliptic polarization states, is some value between 0 to 1. Equation (2) suggests that if we can make the polarization states of the LO and the stray light orthogonal, the excess noise can be fully suppressed. This is the basic principle behind the noise suppression scheme experimentally demonstrated for the first time in the results of Fig. 4. Although the PIIN suppression was not complete (i.e. residual noise is still present especially at low frequencies), a reduction of the excess noise level by more than an order of magnitude is said to be considerable and valuable particularly in situations where the main Doppler signal is very weak (e.g. backscattered light from aerosols of low concentration or received power in the order of 10−11 or 10−12 watts).

We believe that our proposed polarization technique can work in conjunction with the other approaches [15

15. C. J. Karlsson, F. Å. A. Olsson, D. Letalick, and M. Harris, “All-fiber multifunction continuous-wave coherent laser radar at 1.55 μm for range, speed, vibration, and wind measurements,” Appl. Opt. 39(21), 3716–3726 (2000). [CrossRef]

,16

16. M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, and C. J. Karlsson, “The role of laser coherence length in continuous-wave coherent laser radar,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567–1581 (1998). [CrossRef]

] that will reduce PIIN as seen from Eq. (1) and Eq. (2). If the linewidth of the laser is fixed, PIIN can be reduced by (a) shortening of port-2 fiber segment to decrease τd and (b) decreasing PR by using circulators with extremely weak port-1 to port-3 leakage or crosstalk. The addition of polarization as a third control parameter for the reduction of PIIN can potentially relax the requirements for the other parameters (e.g. there may be physical or design constraints as to how much the fiber segments can be shortened). Furthermore, the future use of an electrically driven polarization controller with feedback mechanism will also be beneficial as ambient temperature fluctuations over time may cause variations in the (SMF) fiber’s birefringence, which affects the polarization states of the LO and residual signals. We are also currently investigating the implementation of the proposed technique using polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber based components that can potentially improve the CDL’s thermal stability.

4. Summary

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge Petter Lindelöw and Christophe Peucheret for the DFB fiber-laser loan unit. We also thank OPDI Technologies A/S for the financial support.

References and links

1.

R. T. Menzies and R. M. Hardesty, “Coherent Doppler Lidar for Measurements of Wind Fields,” Proc. IEEE 77(3), 449–462 (1989). [CrossRef]

2.

R. M. Huffaker and R. M. Hardesty, “Remote sensing of the atmospheric wind velocities using solid-state and CO2 coherent laser systems,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 181–204 (1996). [CrossRef]

3.

http://www.naturalpower.com/zephir-laser-anemometer

4.

http://www.lidarwindtechnologies.com/

5.

http://www.catchthewindinc.com/products/vindicator

6.

R. S. Hansen and C. Pedersen, “All semiconductor laser Doppler anemometer at 1.55 microm,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18288–18295 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

P. J. Rodrigo, and C. Pedersen, “Doppler wind lidar using a MOPA semiconductor laser at stable single-frequency operation,” In: Technical Digest. 19th International Congress on Photonics in Europe, CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2009.

8.

G. C. Dente and M. L. Tilton, “Modeling Multiple-Longitudinal-Mode Dynamics in Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 325–335 (1998). [CrossRef]

9.

C. Spiegelberg, J. Geng, Y. Hu, Y. Kaneda, S. Jiang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Low-Noise Narrow-Linewidth Fiber Laser at 1550 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 57–62 (2004). [CrossRef]

10.

S. Kameyama, T. Ando, K. Asaka, Y. Hirano, and S. Wadaka, “Compact all-fiber pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind sensing,” Appl. Opt. 46(11), 1953–1962 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

J. F. Holmes and B. J. Rask, “Optimum optical local-oscillator power levels for coherent detection with photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 34(6), 927–933 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

D. W. Jaynes, J. F. Manwell, J. G. McGowan, W. M. Stein, and A. L. Rogers, “MTC Final Progress Report: LIDAR,” Renewable Energy Research Laboratory, July 19 (2007).

13.

S. O’Brien, D. F. Welch, R. A. Parke, D. Mehuys, K. Dzurko, R. J. Lang, R. Waarts, and D. Scifres, “Operating Characteristics of a High-Power Monolithically Integrated Flared Amplifier Master Oscillator Power Amplifier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(6), 2052–2057 (1993). [CrossRef]

14.

A. Egan, C. Z. Ning, J. V. Moloney, R. A. Indik, M. W. Wright, D. J. Bossert, and J. G. McInerney, “Dynamic Instabilities in Master Oscillator Power Amplifier Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(1), 166–170 (1998). [CrossRef]

15.

C. J. Karlsson, F. Å. A. Olsson, D. Letalick, and M. Harris, “All-fiber multifunction continuous-wave coherent laser radar at 1.55 μm for range, speed, vibration, and wind measurements,” Appl. Opt. 39(21), 3716–3726 (2000). [CrossRef]

16.

M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, and C. J. Karlsson, “The role of laser coherence length in continuous-wave coherent laser radar,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567–1581 (1998). [CrossRef]

17.

U. P. Oppenheim and Y. Feiner, “Polarization of the reflectivity of paints and other rough surfaces in the infrared,” Appl. Opt. 34(10), 1664–1671 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(010.3640) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Lidar
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers

ToC Category:
Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 15, 2010
Revised Manuscript: February 25, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: February 25, 2010
Published: February 26, 2010

Citation
Peter John Rodrigo and Christian Pedersen, "Reduction of phase-induced intensity noise in a fiber-based coherent Doppler lidar using polarization control," Opt. Express 18, 5320-5327 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5320


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References

  1. R. T. Menzies and R. M. Hardesty, “Coherent Doppler Lidar for Measurements of Wind Fields,” Proc. IEEE 77(3), 449–462 (1989). [CrossRef]
  2. R. M. Huffaker and R. M. Hardesty, “Remote sensing of the atmospheric wind velocities using solid-state and CO2 coherent laser systems,” Proc. IEEE 84(2), 181–204 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. http://www.naturalpower.com/zephir-laser-anemometer
  4. http://www.lidarwindtechnologies.com/
  5. http://www.catchthewindinc.com/products/vindicator
  6. R. S. Hansen and C. Pedersen, “All semiconductor laser Doppler anemometer at 1.55 microm,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18288–18295 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. J. Rodrigo, and C. Pedersen, “Doppler wind lidar using a MOPA semiconductor laser at stable single-frequency operation,” In: Technical Digest. 19th International Congress on Photonics in Europe, CLEO/Europe-EQEC 2009.
  8. G. C. Dente and M. L. Tilton, “Modeling Multiple-Longitudinal-Mode Dynamics in Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(2), 325–335 (1998). [CrossRef]
  9. C. Spiegelberg, J. Geng, Y. Hu, Y. Kaneda, S. Jiang, and N. Peyghambarian, “Low-Noise Narrow-Linewidth Fiber Laser at 1550 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 57–62 (2004). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Kameyama, T. Ando, K. Asaka, Y. Hirano, and S. Wadaka, “Compact all-fiber pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind sensing,” Appl. Opt. 46(11), 1953–1962 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. F. Holmes and B. J. Rask, “Optimum optical local-oscillator power levels for coherent detection with photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 34(6), 927–933 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. W. Jaynes, J. F. Manwell, J. G. McGowan, W. M. Stein, and A. L. Rogers, “MTC Final Progress Report: LIDAR,” Renewable Energy Research Laboratory, July 19 (2007).
  13. S. O’Brien, D. F. Welch, R. A. Parke, D. Mehuys, K. Dzurko, R. J. Lang, R. Waarts, and D. Scifres, “Operating Characteristics of a High-Power Monolithically Integrated Flared Amplifier Master Oscillator Power Amplifier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(6), 2052–2057 (1993). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Egan, C. Z. Ning, J. V. Moloney, R. A. Indik, M. W. Wright, D. J. Bossert, and J. G. McInerney, “Dynamic Instabilities in Master Oscillator Power Amplifier Semiconductor Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(1), 166–170 (1998). [CrossRef]
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