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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 7 — Mar. 29, 2010
  • pp: 6447–6454
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Diffusional enhancement of volume gratings as an optimized strategy for holographic memory in PQ-PMMA photopolymer

Hongpeng Liu, Dan Yu, Xuecong Li, Suhua Luo, Yongyuan Jiang, and Xiudong Sun  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 7, pp. 6447-6454 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.006447


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Abstract

The dark enhancements of diffraction efficiency in single and multiple gratings are investigated theoretically and experimentally in phenanthrenequinone doped poly-(methyl methacrylate) materials. It is demonstrated a possibility to improve holographic characteristics of the material via the enhancement. Nearly 17-fold increment of diffraction efficiency is observed after exposure. The dependences of PQ’s concentration on the rate and increment of dark enhancement are achieved quantitatively. And the enhancement in multiplexing is presented as a simple and efficient method to improve response of the material and homogeneity of diffraction efficiency. PQ’s diffusion and enhancement process of refractive index modulation are simulated by a diffusion model for describing enhancement dynamics qualitatively and quantitatively. This study provides a significant foundation for the application of dark enhancement in holographic storage.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

In recent years the interest in photopolymer material as one of promising candidates for holographic memory has increased [1

1. A. Pu and D. Psaltis, “High-density recording ini photopolymer-based holographic three-dimensional disks,” Appl. Opt. 35(14), 2389–2398 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3

3. E. Fernández, C. García, I. Pascual, M. Ortuño, S. Gallego, and A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a thick polyvinyl alcohol-acrylamide photopolymer for data storage using a combination of angular and peristrophic holographic multiplexing,” Appl. Opt. 45(29), 7661–7666 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Among these materials, phenanthrenequinone (PQ) doped poly-(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) photopolymers have attracted much attention due to their neglectable shrinkage and good stability [4

4. G. J. Steckman, I. Solomatine, G. Zhou, and D. Psaltis, “Characterization of phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) for holographic memory,” Opt. Lett. 23(16), 1310–1312 (1998). [CrossRef]

8

8. J. Mumbru, I. Solomatine, D. Psaltis, S. H. Lin, K. Y. Hsu, W. Z. Chen, and W. T. Whang, “Comparison of the recording dynamics of phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) materials,” Opt. Commun. 194(1-3), 103–108 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. The main disadvantage of this material is low response [9

9. A. V. Veniaminov and Yu. N. Sedunov, “Diffusion of Phenanthrenequinone in Poly(methyl methacrylate): Holographic Measurements,” Polymer Sci. Ser. A. 38, 56–63 (1996).

13

13. Y. Luo, P. J. Gelsinger, J. K. Barton, G. Barbastathis, and R. K. Kostuk, “Optimization of multiplexed holographic gratings in PQ-PMMA for spectral-spatial imaging filters,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 566–568 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To enhance the response and obtain high diffraction efficiency, the general methods are increasing the photosensitizer concentration and incident irradiance. However there are some drawbacks as follows. In preparation of material, the PQ’s concentration, whatever, is limited by its saturated dissolvability, which only is 0.7wt% at room temperature [5

5. S. H. Lin, K. Y. Hsu, W. Z. Chen, and W. T. Whang, “Phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer bulk for volume holographic data storage,” Opt. Lett. 25(7), 451–453 (2000). [CrossRef]

,6]. The investigation for increasing the PQ’s concentration is difficult and scarce. In experiments, the high consecutive irradiance would bring an amplification of holographic scattering noise [14

14. H. Liu, D. Yu, Y. Jiang, and X. Sun, “Characteristics of holographic scattering and its application in determining kinetic parameters in PQ-PMMA photopolymer,” Appl. Phys. B 95(3), 513–518 (2009). [CrossRef]

] and evident dropping in diffraction efficiency due to overmodulation [5

5. S. H. Lin, K. Y. Hsu, W. Z. Chen, and W. T. Whang, “Phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer bulk for volume holographic data storage,” Opt. Lett. 25(7), 451–453 (2000). [CrossRef]

].

Dark enhancement of holographic gratings is one of alternative way to overcome these limitations. After short recording exposure, enhancement of diffraction efficiency is observed in the photopolymer [10

10. A. V. Veniaminov and E. Bartsch, “Diffusional enhancement of holograms: phenanthrenequinone in polycarbonate,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(4), 387–392 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. It is attributed to the diffusion of primary PQ molecules from dark regions into bright regions, which results in the enhancement of modulation depth. However the applicability of dark enhancement for improving holographic characteristics of materials not attracted much attention. So far, the quantitative analysis aimed at the dark diffusional enhancement has seldom been studied, especially the influence of dark enhancement on multiplexing. In this paper the dark enhancement of holographic gratings in PQ-PMMA photopolymer was investigated theoretically and experimentally in single and multiple gratings. The quantitative dependence of PQ’s concentration on the enhancement brings about a probability for improving the diffraction efficiency and response of materials. Finally the dark enhancement dynamics are simulated using the diffusion model for qualitative and quantitative description.

2. Photochemical mechanism and diffusion model

3. Materials

In our experiments, the samples were consisted of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) host matrix and phenanthrenequinone (PQ) photosensitizer. However only up to 0.7wt% of PQ could be dissolved in a solvent methyl methacrylate (MMA) at room temperature [6–11

11. L. P. Krul, V. Matusevich, D. Hoff, R. Kowarschik, Y. I. Matusevich, G. V. Butovskaya, and E. A. Murashko, “Modified polymethylmethacrylate as a base for thermostable optical recording media,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8543–8549 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To increase the PQ’s concentration, a simple and efficient strategy is introduced. The thermal initiator 2, 2-azobis (2-methlpropionitrile) (AIBN) and PQ molecules were dissolved in a solvent MMA. If the mixture was purified at room temperature, the corresponding upper limit of PQ’ concentration could not be changed. In this step the mixture was purified at 60°C not room temperature about 2 hours until it turned to a uniform solution and poured into a glass mold. By using the process, approximately 1.0wt% PQ molecules were solved into the materials. The solution was then initiated at 80°C for 20min and solidified at 60°C for 120h. After the thermal polymerization, the sample with PQ’s concentration 0.1M and the thickness of 2mm was prepared.

4. Dark enhancement of diffraction efficiency in single gratings

Dark enhancement may be provided a simple and efficient method to obtain high and steady diffraction efficiency in single grating. Comparing with consecutive exposure, short exposure can prevent the amplification of holographic scattering and reduce the consumption of photosensitizer components in the exposure spot. Moreover, the dark enhancement takes place inside the materials and can achieve automatically. The rate and increment of dark enhancement are significant parameters for describing the diffusion kinetics quantitatively. Consequently building the quantitative relationship between PQ’s concentration and both parameters is necessary for investigating the dark enhancement.

To get an evident dark enhancement of diffraction efficiency, a series of transmission gratings were recorded at 532nm using 100 mW/cm2, which were repeated for several exposures flux, namely 3.7 × 103, 7.3 × 103, 1.1 × 104, 1.5 × 104, and 2.4 × 104 mJ/cm2, respectively. The experimental results are shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Temporal evolution of diffraction efficiency at various exposures, t = 0 corresponds to the exposure turn-off. The symbols are experimental data and the solid lines are fitting curves by exponential function.
. The maximum increment is at the 2.4 × 104 mJ/cm2, and nearly 17-fold increment of diffraction efficiency is observed. The experimental results are in good agreement with the predicted values using exponential function. It is implied that the diffusion of PQ molecules is a key parameter to determine the dark enhancement dynamics. It is obvious that the polymerization does not stop instantly when illumination is turned off [16

16. V. Moreau, Y. Renotte, and Y. Lion, “Characterization of dupont photopolymer: determination of kinetic parameters in a diffusion model,” Appl. Opt. 41(17), 3427–3435 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,23

23. V. L. Colvin, R. G. Larson, A. L. Harris, and M. L. Schilling, “Quantitative model of volume hologram formation in photopolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 5913–5923 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. However comparing with the time of 6000s for dark enhancement, the lifetime of active radicals generally is short, which leads to the diffusion of radicals can be neglected after exposure. Therefore, the PQ’s diffusion dominates the all dark enhancement of volume grating.

5. Dark enhancement of multiplexing gratings

Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Dark enhancement of diffraction efficiency in multiplexing gratings. (b) Cumulative grating strengths as a function of exposure. The symbols are experimental data, and the solid line is linear fitting.
shows dark enhancement in multiplexing gratings. Cumulative grating strengths are calculated for analyzing the response region of the materials, as shown in Fig. 3(b). After recording several gratings with constant exposure 1.1 × 104 mJ/cm2, the response of material reaches the saturation. However, the dependence of cumulative grating strength on the cumulative exposure returns to linear region when the enhancement reaches a steady state. It is implied that the response region of materials is far from the saturation because of the dark enhancement. The further holographic recording from taking place in the exposure spot can be achieved.

Figure 4
Fig. 4 Homogeneity improvement of diffraction efficiency in multiplexing by dark enhancement.
shows that the homogeneity improvement of diffraction efficiency by dark enhancement. Because the increment of weak gratings is larger than the strong gratings during dark enhancement in multiplexing, we record the gratings in the linear response region of materials with constant exposure 1.1 × 104 mJ/cm2. The larger enhancements of weak gratings reduce the difference of diffraction efficiency between several gratings. Therefore the more uniform diffraction efficiency can be obtained only by using constant exposure method. It is implied that in linear region of materials, we can utilize this simple method to achieve uniform diffraction efficiency in multiplexing and avoid using complex calculated technique [24

24. J. T. Sheridan, F. T. O’Neill, and J. V. Kelly, “Holographic data storage: optimized scheduling using the nonlocal polymerization-driven diffusion model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(8), 1443–1451 (2004). [CrossRef]

] and experimental procedures [25

25. K. Y. Hsu, S. H. Lin, Y. N. Hsiao, and W. T. Whang, “Experimental characterization of phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer for volume holographic storage,” Opt. Eng. 42(5), 1390–1396 (2003). [CrossRef]

] of schedule exposure in the photopolymers.

6. Numerical simulation

To illustrate the dynamics of dark enhancement, we solved the Eq. (9) by taking into account the initial conditions (t = te) and the given boundary. When the sample was illuminated by the modulated light for t = te, the distribution of PQ molecules and polymers could approximately be described as
U(x,te)=U02(1+VcosKx)exp(fkdte)exp(α0d),
(14)
P(x,te)=U0U(x,te),
(15)
where α0 = 0.2mm−1 is the sample absorption, d is the thickness of sample. We assumed that the concentration of PQ molecules keep up a constant around the exposure spot. Thus the boundary condition could be expressed as U(0, te) = U(NΛ, te) = U 0, N was the number of fringe.

Figure 5
Fig. 5 (a),(b) Spatial-temporal dynamics of PQ’s concentration, and (c),(d) corresponding refractive index modulation after recording exposure.
shows the spatial-temporal dynamics of PQ’s concentration and refractive index modulation after recording exposure. In order to illustrate the boundary of the grating, only a fraction of fringe periods was described. In Fig. 5(a) and (b), at initial time the spatial profile of PQ’s concentration is clear-cut. At steady state the distribution of concentration will be an uniform constant. It is interesting that the change of PQ’s concentration at the boundary of grating is larger than other position, because the molecules concentration approximately keep up a constant around the exposure spot, and a lot of PQ molecules are supplied into the grating. In Fig. 5(c) and (d) the change of refractive index modulation is remarkable in this process. The distribution of refractive index modulation profile in depth is approximately equivalent due to high transmittance 80% at 532nm and 2mm thickness [14

14. H. Liu, D. Yu, Y. Jiang, and X. Sun, “Characteristics of holographic scattering and its application in determining kinetic parameters in PQ-PMMA photopolymer,” Appl. Phys. B 95(3), 513–518 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore the efficient thickness of sample approximately is closed to the physical thickness.

7. Conclusions

A detailed study of diffusional enhancements in holographic gratings in PQ-PMMA photopolymer is presented. The enhancement provided an efficient method to obtain high and steady diffraction efficiency and prevent the amplification of holographic scattering under consecutive exposure. The quantitative rate and increment bring a significant probability for applicability of enhancement. Dark enhancement in multiplexed gratings is introduced to optimize the response of the photopolymer and enhance its applicability. This process brings an alternative way to improve the homogeneity of diffraction efficiency and simplify the complex exposure schedule. The detailed PQ’s diffusion process and growth of refractive index modulation are indicated by solving the diffusion model. It is provided a significant strategy for qualitative and quantitative description about enhancement dynamics for the first time. This study can contribute to understanding of the photochemical process in the photopolymer and provide a significant foundation for applicability of dark enhancement in holographic data storage. The study for reducing the diffusion time and fixed the enhanced diffraction efficiency is still under way.

Acknowledgements

The research has been financially supported by the Fundamental Research Foundation of Commission of Science Technology and Industry for National Defense of China (Grant No. 2320060089).

References and links

1.

A. Pu and D. Psaltis, “High-density recording ini photopolymer-based holographic three-dimensional disks,” Appl. Opt. 35(14), 2389–2398 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

L. Dhar, K. Curtis, M. Tackitt, M. L. Schilling, S. Campbell, W. Wilson, A. Hill, C. Boyd, N. Levinos, and A. Harris, “Holographic storage of multiple high-capacity digital data pages in thick photopolymer systems,” Opt. Lett. 23(21), 1710–1712 (1998). [CrossRef]

3.

E. Fernández, C. García, I. Pascual, M. Ortuño, S. Gallego, and A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a thick polyvinyl alcohol-acrylamide photopolymer for data storage using a combination of angular and peristrophic holographic multiplexing,” Appl. Opt. 45(29), 7661–7666 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

G. J. Steckman, I. Solomatine, G. Zhou, and D. Psaltis, “Characterization of phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) for holographic memory,” Opt. Lett. 23(16), 1310–1312 (1998). [CrossRef]

5.

S. H. Lin, K. Y. Hsu, W. Z. Chen, and W. T. Whang, “Phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer bulk for volume holographic data storage,” Opt. Lett. 25(7), 451–453 (2000). [CrossRef]

6.

Y-N. Hsiao, W. T. Whang, and S. H. Lin, “Analyses on physical mechanism of holographic recording in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) hybrid materials,” Opt. Eng. 43(9), 1993–2002 (2004). [CrossRef]

7.

U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. I. Stankevich, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Holographic volume gratings in a glass-like polymer material,” Appl. Phys. B 82(2), 299–302 (2006). [CrossRef]

8.

J. Mumbru, I. Solomatine, D. Psaltis, S. H. Lin, K. Y. Hsu, W. Z. Chen, and W. T. Whang, “Comparison of the recording dynamics of phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) materials,” Opt. Commun. 194(1-3), 103–108 (2001). [CrossRef]

9.

A. V. Veniaminov and Yu. N. Sedunov, “Diffusion of Phenanthrenequinone in Poly(methyl methacrylate): Holographic Measurements,” Polymer Sci. Ser. A. 38, 56–63 (1996).

10.

A. V. Veniaminov and E. Bartsch, “Diffusional enhancement of holograms: phenanthrenequinone in polycarbonate,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(4), 387–392 (2002). [CrossRef]

11.

L. P. Krul, V. Matusevich, D. Hoff, R. Kowarschik, Y. I. Matusevich, G. V. Butovskaya, and E. A. Murashko, “Modified polymethylmethacrylate as a base for thermostable optical recording media,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8543–8549 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

V. Matusevich, A. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, Y. I. Matusevich, and L. P. Krul, “Holographic volume absorption grating in glass-like polymer recording material,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1552–1558 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

Y. Luo, P. J. Gelsinger, J. K. Barton, G. Barbastathis, and R. K. Kostuk, “Optimization of multiplexed holographic gratings in PQ-PMMA for spectral-spatial imaging filters,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 566–568 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

H. Liu, D. Yu, Y. Jiang, and X. Sun, “Characteristics of holographic scattering and its application in determining kinetic parameters in PQ-PMMA photopolymer,” Appl. Phys. B 95(3), 513–518 (2009). [CrossRef]

15.

J. V. Kelly, F. T. O’Neill, J. T. Sheridan, C. Neipp, S. Gallego, and M. Ortuno, “Holographic photopolymer materials: nonlocal polymerization-driven diffusion under nonideal kinetic conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(2), 407–416 (2005). [CrossRef]

16.

V. Moreau, Y. Renotte, and Y. Lion, “Characterization of dupont photopolymer: determination of kinetic parameters in a diffusion model,” Appl. Opt. 41(17), 3427–3435 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

S. Gallego, A. Márquez, S. Marini, E. Fernández, M. Ortuño, and I. Pascual, “In dark analysis of PVA/AA materials at very low spatial frequencies: phase modulation evolution and diffusion estimation,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18279–18291 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

T. Babeva, I. Naydenova, D. Mackey, S. Martin, and V. Toal, “Two-way diffusion model for short-exposure holographic grating formation in acrylamide-based photopolymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(2), 197–203 (2010). [CrossRef]

19.

J. T. Sheridan and J. R. Lawrence, “Nonlocal-response diffusion model of holographic recording in photopolymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(6), 1108–1114 (2000). [CrossRef]

20.

C. Neipp, A. Beléndez, J. T. Sheridan, J. V. Kelly, F. T. O’Neill, S. Gallego, M. Ortuño, and I. Pascual, “Non-local polymerization driven diffusion based model: general dependence of the polymerization rate to the exposure intensity,” Opt. Express 17, 18279–18291 (2009).

21.

M. R. Gleeson and J. T. Sheridan, “Nonlocal photopolymerization kinetics including multiple termination mechanisms and dark reactions. Part I. Modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), 1736–1745 (2009). [CrossRef]

22.

M. R. Gleeson, S. Liu, R. R. McLeod, and J. T. Sheridan, “Nonlocal photopolymerization kinetics including multiple termination mechanisms and dark reactions. Part II. Modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1746–1754 (2009). [CrossRef]

23.

V. L. Colvin, R. G. Larson, A. L. Harris, and M. L. Schilling, “Quantitative model of volume hologram formation in photopolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 5913–5923 (1997). [CrossRef]

24.

J. T. Sheridan, F. T. O’Neill, and J. V. Kelly, “Holographic data storage: optimized scheduling using the nonlocal polymerization-driven diffusion model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(8), 1443–1451 (2004). [CrossRef]

25.

K. Y. Hsu, S. H. Lin, Y. N. Hsiao, and W. T. Whang, “Experimental characterization of phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer for volume holographic storage,” Opt. Eng. 42(5), 1390–1396 (2003). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings
(090.0090) Holography : Holography
(090.2900) Holography : Optical storage materials

ToC Category:
Holography

History
Original Manuscript: December 14, 2009
Revised Manuscript: February 12, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: March 4, 2010
Published: March 15, 2010

Citation
Hongpeng Liu, Dan Yu, Xuecong Li, Suhua Luo, Yongyuan Jiang, and Xiudong Sun, "Diffusional enhancement of volume gratings as an optimized strategy for holographic memory in PQ-PMMA photopolymer," Opt. Express 18, 6447-6454 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-7-6447


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References

  1. A. Pu and D. Psaltis, “High-density recording ini photopolymer-based holographic three-dimensional disks,” Appl. Opt. 35(14), 2389–2398 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Dhar, K. Curtis, M. Tackitt, M. L. Schilling, S. Campbell, W. Wilson, A. Hill, C. Boyd, N. Levinos, and A. Harris, “Holographic storage of multiple high-capacity digital data pages in thick photopolymer systems,” Opt. Lett. 23(21), 1710–1712 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. E. Fernández, C. García, I. Pascual, M. Ortuño, S. Gallego, and A. Beléndez, “Optimization of a thick polyvinyl alcohol-acrylamide photopolymer for data storage using a combination of angular and peristrophic holographic multiplexing,” Appl. Opt. 45(29), 7661–7666 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. J. Steckman, I. Solomatine, G. Zhou, and D. Psaltis, “Characterization of phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) for holographic memory,” Opt. Lett. 23(16), 1310–1312 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. S. H. Lin, K. Y. Hsu, W. Z. Chen, and W. T. Whang, “Phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer bulk for volume holographic data storage,” Opt. Lett. 25(7), 451–453 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. 6Y-N. Hsiao, W. T. Whang, and S. H. Lin, “Analyses on physical mechanism of holographic recording in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) hybrid materials,” Opt. Eng. 43(9), 1993–2002 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. U. V. Mahilny, D. N. Marmysh, A. I. Stankevich, A. L. Tolstik, V. Matusevich, and R. Kowarschik, “Holographic volume gratings in a glass-like polymer material,” Appl. Phys. B 82(2), 299–302 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Mumbru, I. Solomatine, D. Psaltis, S. H. Lin, K. Y. Hsu, W. Z. Chen, and W. T. Whang, “Comparison of the recording dynamics of phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) materials,” Opt. Commun. 194(1-3), 103–108 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. A. V. Veniaminov and Yu. N. Sedunov, “Diffusion of Phenanthrenequinone in Poly(methyl methacrylate): Holographic Measurements,” Polymer Sci. Ser. A. 38, 56–63 (1996).
  10. A. V. Veniaminov and E. Bartsch, “Diffusional enhancement of holograms: phenanthrenequinone in polycarbonate,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(4), 387–392 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. L. P. Krul, V. Matusevich, D. Hoff, R. Kowarschik, Y. I. Matusevich, G. V. Butovskaya, and E. A. Murashko, “Modified polymethylmethacrylate as a base for thermostable optical recording media,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8543–8549 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. V. Matusevich, A. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, Y. I. Matusevich, and L. P. Krul, “Holographic volume absorption grating in glass-like polymer recording material,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1552–1558 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Luo, P. J. Gelsinger, J. K. Barton, G. Barbastathis, and R. K. Kostuk, “Optimization of multiplexed holographic gratings in PQ-PMMA for spectral-spatial imaging filters,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 566–568 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Liu, D. Yu, Y. Jiang, and X. Sun, “Characteristics of holographic scattering and its application in determining kinetic parameters in PQ-PMMA photopolymer,” Appl. Phys. B 95(3), 513–518 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. J. V. Kelly, F. T. O’Neill, J. T. Sheridan, C. Neipp, S. Gallego, and M. Ortuno, “Holographic photopolymer materials: nonlocal polymerization-driven diffusion under nonideal kinetic conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(2), 407–416 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. V. Moreau, Y. Renotte, and Y. Lion, “Characterization of dupont photopolymer: determination of kinetic parameters in a diffusion model,” Appl. Opt. 41(17), 3427–3435 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Gallego, A. Márquez, S. Marini, E. Fernández, M. Ortuño, and I. Pascual, “In dark analysis of PVA/AA materials at very low spatial frequencies: phase modulation evolution and diffusion estimation,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18279–18291 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Babeva, I. Naydenova, D. Mackey, S. Martin, and V. Toal, “Two-way diffusion model for short-exposure holographic grating formation in acrylamide-based photopolymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(2), 197–203 (2010). [CrossRef]
  19. J. T. Sheridan and J. R. Lawrence, “Nonlocal-response diffusion model of holographic recording in photopolymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(6), 1108–1114 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. C. Neipp, A. Beléndez, J. T. Sheridan, J. V. Kelly, F. T. O’Neill, S. Gallego, M. Ortuño, and I. Pascual, “Non-local polymerization driven diffusion based model: general dependence of the polymerization rate to the exposure intensity,” Opt. Express 17, 18279–18291 (2009).
  21. M. R. Gleeson and J. T. Sheridan, “Nonlocal photopolymerization kinetics including multiple termination mechanisms and dark reactions. Part I. Modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), 1736–1745 (2009). [CrossRef]
  22. M. R. Gleeson, S. Liu, R. R. McLeod, and J. T. Sheridan, “Nonlocal photopolymerization kinetics including multiple termination mechanisms and dark reactions. Part II. Modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1746–1754 (2009). [CrossRef]
  23. V. L. Colvin, R. G. Larson, A. L. Harris, and M. L. Schilling, “Quantitative model of volume hologram formation in photopolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(9), 5913–5923 (1997). [CrossRef]
  24. J. T. Sheridan, F. T. O’Neill, and J. V. Kelly, “Holographic data storage: optimized scheduling using the nonlocal polymerization-driven diffusion model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(8), 1443–1451 (2004). [CrossRef]
  25. K. Y. Hsu, S. H. Lin, Y. N. Hsiao, and W. T. Whang, “Experimental characterization of phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer for volume holographic storage,” Opt. Eng. 42(5), 1390–1396 (2003). [CrossRef]

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