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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 7 — Mar. 29, 2010
  • pp: 6863–6870
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High pressure effect on the ultrafast energy relaxation rate of LDS698 (C19H23N2O4Cl) in a solution

Bingguo Liu, Chunyuan He, Mingxing Jin, Qiaoqiao Wang, Sheng Hsien Lin, and Dajun Ding  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 7, pp. 6863-6870 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.006863


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Abstract

Effects of high pressure in a range of up to 1.7 GPa on ultrafast energy relaxation of LDS698 (C19H23N2O4Cl) molecules in solution have experimentally been illustrated by a method of femtosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. The rates of the intramolecular and intermolecular energy relaxations show quite different pressure dependences. The observed results are in good agreement with the theoretical interpretation based on the pressure influences on the molecular energy gaps, the intermolecular H-bond interaction, and the solution viscosity.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Vibrational energy relaxation of polyatomic molecules in solution under ambient condition has been widely investigated by using various ultrafast spectroscopic techniques [1

1. S. Woutersen and H. J. Bakker, “Resonant intermolecular transfer of vibrational energy in liquid water,” Nature 402(6761), 507–509 (1999). [CrossRef]

6

6. R. M. Stratt and M. Maroncelli, “Nonreactive dynamics in solution: the emerging molecular view of solvation dynamics and vibrational relaxation,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(31), 12981–12996 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. These studies demonstrate that the internal conversion (IC) and intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR), taking place in a time range of sub-picosecond, are the most important intramolecular relaxation processes [2

2. C. Chudoba, E. T. J. Nibbering, and T. Elsaesser, “Site-specific excited-state solute-solvent interactions probed by femtosecond vibrational spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(14), 3010–3013 (1998). [CrossRef]

4

4. S. H. Lin, “Rate of interconversion of electronic and vibrational energy,” J. Chem. Phys. 44(10), 3759–3767 (1966). [CrossRef]

], and the excited molecule can also be cooled through the intermolecular interaction, such as hydrogen bonding and collision, with a relative long time scale of several ps to a few ten ps [5

5. T. Kobayashi, M. Shiga, A. Murakami, and S. J. Nakamura, “Ab initio study of ultrafast photochemical reaction dynamics of phenol blue,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(20), 6405–6424 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. R. M. Stratt and M. Maroncelli, “Nonreactive dynamics in solution: the emerging molecular view of solvation dynamics and vibrational relaxation,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(31), 12981–12996 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. However, effects of high pressure on molecular vibrational energy relaxation is still ambiguous and only the temperature effect has been carried out experimentally [7

7. J. Y. Liu, W. H. Fan, K. L. Han, D. L. Xu, and N. Q. Lou, “Ultrafast dynamics of dye molecules in solution as a function of temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. A 107(12), 1914–1917 (2003). [CrossRef]

,8

8. J. Y. Liu, W. H. Fan, K. L. Han, W. Q. Deng, D. L. Xu, and N. Q. Lou, “Ultrafast vibrational and thermal relaxation of dye molecules in solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 107(50), 10857–10861 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. It has long been recognized that pressure can cause changes in molecular electronic and vibrational structures [9

9. K. Niss, B. Begen, B. Frick, J. Ollivier, A. Beraud, A. Sokolov, V. N. Novikov, and C. Alba-Simionesco, “Influence of pressure on the boson peak: stronger than elastic medium transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(5), 055502 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12

12. B. C. Hess, G. S. Kanner, Z. V. Vardeny, and G. L. Baker, “High-pressure effects on ultrafast-relaxation kinetics of excitons in polydiacetylene 4BCMU,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(18), 2364–2367 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], intermolecular interaction [13

13. N. Baden, O. Kajimoto, and K. Hara, “High-pressure studies on aggregation number of surfactant micelles using the fluorescence quenching method,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(34), 8621–8624 (2002). [CrossRef]

16

16. Y. Umebayashi, J. C. Jiang, Y. L. Shan, K. H. Lin, K. Fujii, S. Seki, S. I. Ishiguro, S. H. Lin, and H. C. Chang, “Structural change of ionic association in ionic liquid/water mixtures: a high-pressure infrared spectroscopic study,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(12), 124503 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and solution viscosity [17

17. D. Ducoulombier, H. Zhou, C. Boned, J. Peyrelasse, H. Saint-Guirons, and P. Xans, “Pressure (1-1000bar) and temperature (20-100oC) dependence of the viscosity of liquid hydrocarbons,” J. Phys. Chem. 90(8), 1692–1700 (1986). [CrossRef]

]. In principal, pressure can also affect the rates of molecular energy relaxation processes, like temperature, under extreme conditions. A theoretical calculation on the rate constants involving the pressure effects is also complex [18

18. S. H. Lin, “Effect of high pressure on molecular electronic spectra and electronic relaxation,” J. Chem. Phys. 59(8), 4458–4467 (1973). [CrossRef]

]. Laser spectroscopy has been recognized to be a powerful tool in high pressure studies [19

19. R. J. Hemley, P. M. Bell, and H. K. Mao, “Laser Techniques in High-Pressure Geophysics,” Science 237(4815), 605–612 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A purpose of the present paper is to report our investigations of the pressure tuning of optical properties and optical processes of organic molecules. Molecular absorption and radiationless transition will be chosen as examples. The mechanism of the pressure tuning of optical spectroscopies and photophysical processes will be briefly discussed. Experimentally, femtosecond (fs) time-resolved optical absorption of LDS698 (pyridine, C19H23N2O4Cl), a dye molecule, in methanol-ethanol solution has been measured under a pressure up to 1.7 GPa generated in a gem anvil cell (GAC). The observations have been interpreted in terms of the theoretical model developed and the results demonstrate clearly that pressure can significantly affect the molecular energy relaxation through changing the intramolecular energy gaps of molecular levels and the intermolecular interaction.

2. Experimental setup

The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The schematic diagram of the experimental setup. BS, beam splitter; TS, translation stage for optical delay; GP, Glan prism; L, focusing lens; F, filter for 788 nm passing through; PD, sensitive p-i-n Si photodiode; GAC, gem anvil cell.
. A sample of dye LDS698 (Exciton Chemical Company), dissolved in methanol-ethanol mixture (the ratio of volume, 4:1) with a concentration of 3×10-4 mol/L, is filled in a 1mm diameter culet GAC which generates a pressure up to 2 GPa with a tardy change of pressure in solution phase. The pressure is calibrated by a standard technique of ruby fluorescence. A regenerative amplified Ti:sapphire laser (Spectra-Physics) is used to generate a 90 fs, 788 nm linearly polarized laser pulse with 1 kHz repetition rate. The majority of the intensity from the fundamental output of the fs laser is doubled through a 0.5 mm-thick β-BaB2O4 (BBO) crystal to provide 394 nm pump beam for the electronic excitation from S0 to both the lower vibrational levels of S2 and higher vibrational levels of S1. The residual 788 nm laser beam acts as a probe beam for the transient absorption of S2→S3 and S1→S3, as shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 An illustration for the dynamic processes involved in the observed transient absorption of LDS698 molecules. IC is the internal conversion process and VR is the vibrational relaxation process.
. The time delay between the pump and probe beams is realized by a computer-controlled translation stage with 6.6 fs for each step. The intensity ratio of pump to probe beam is about 10:1. Before running the time-resolved experiment we carefully measure the transient absorption signals from the sample irradiated long time by the laser with different intensity and finally choose a lower pump intensity of 108 W/cm2 for avoiding photoinduced degradation of the sample. The detailed descriptions of the experimental setup are given in elsewhere [20

20. B. G. Liu, M. X. Jin, H. Liu, C. Y. He, D. W. Jiang, and D. Ding, “Femtosecond time-resolved measurement of LDS698 molecular processes under high pressure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241916 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

3. Experimental results and discussions

Transient absorption spectra of LDS698 under different pressures are shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The transient absorption spectra of LDS698 in solution at different pressures. The spectrum at ambient pressure was also taken from a 1 mm quartz cell for comparison.
. These spectra reflect the relaxation of the molecules from the photo excited potential surface S1 or S2. Under different pressures the absorption curves have the same trend in time evolution, showing a fast increasing within the first several hundred femtoseconds and a relative slow increasing in a time scale of about ten picoseconds. With increasing pressure, the magnitude of the absorption decreases gradually due to the pressure induced shift of the molecular levels [11

11. H. Li, B. Zhong, L. M. He, G. Q. Yang, Y. Li, S. Wu, and J. Liu, “High pressure effects on the luminescent properties and structure of coumarin 153,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(13), 2299–2301 (2002). [CrossRef]

,21

21. H. G. Drickamer, and C. W. Frank, “Electronic transitions and the high pressure chemistry and physics of solids” (Chapman-Hall, London, 1973).

], which has also been implied by the color change of the dye solution during uploading, that is, the color of the dye fades away with the pressure increasing because of the shift in its fluorescent transition S1→S0 from visible to infrared region. Following a general treatment in pump-probe experiment [20

20. B. G. Liu, M. X. Jin, H. Liu, C. Y. He, D. W. Jiang, and D. Ding, “Femtosecond time-resolved measurement of LDS698 molecular processes under high pressure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241916 (2008). [CrossRef]

,22

22. M. Dantus, M. J. Rosker, and A. H. Zewail, “Real-time femtosecond probing of transition-states in chemical-reactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 87(4), 2395–2397 (1987). [CrossRef]

], the transient absorption signal ΔI(τ) can be obtained by ΔI(τ)=S(t)R(tτ)dt, a convolution between a pump-probe correlation function R(t-τ) and an absorption decay function S(t), with τ the delay time between the pump and the probe pulses. The measured function S(t) at different pressure exhibits a biexponential decay behavior and thus is expressed as S(t)=a0+a1exp(t/τ1)+a2exp(t/τ2), in which a 0, a 1, a 2 are the parameters, τ 1, τ 2 are the time constants of the decay processes, which can be obtained from a fit of the measured curve for each pressure. The rates k1=1/τ1, k2=1/τ2 of two relaxation processes are determined from these time constants as given in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Semi-logarithmic plot of the rate constants k 1 of the intramolecular IC process of LDS698 solution versus pressure. The solid line is the result by a linear fitting, showing an exponential dependence of k 1 on P with a slope of 0.24. (b) Dependence of the rate constants k 2 of the vibrational energy relaxation process on pressure. The solid line is the fitting result by using Eq. (12) after considering intermolecular H-bond interaction and the viscosity of the solution.
and 4(b). For the fast process, the rate k 1 increases with pressure and can be assigned more likely to the IC (S2→S1) and IVR in S1 of the excited molecules. Another process is relative slow and its rate k 2 decreases with pressure. This process may involve some intermolecular energy relaxations, such as vibrational energy relaxation, in addition to IC (S1→S0). Under pressure the process IC (S2→S1) with a rate constant of k 1 plays a primary role. This is because the IC between these two electronic states is an ultrafast process due to the small energy gap between S2 and S1, according to the Kasha rule, taking place in sub-picosecond time scale. Even at ambient pressure in the range of early delay time the IVR in S1 is the dominating process, under pressure the intermolecular hydrogen bond interaction is enhanced, which might accelerate the IC (S2→S1) process. The lifetime of S1 depends on the vibrational level of the S1 state (see Fig. 2) in our case. At a high vibrational level of the S1 state, the single-vibronic level IC will compete with vibrational relaxation (VR) which usually takes place in picosecond range. At a lower level of the S1 state, the single-vibronic level IC rate of the S1 state is slower than VR; in this case vibrational equilibrium is established before the IC takes place and the S1 state lifetime is of the order of nanoseconds.

The measured k 1, as a function of pressure P, is given in Fig. 4(a). The best fitting can be achieved by a straight line with a slope of 0.24 in this semi-logarithmic plot, indicating an exponential dependence of k 1 on pressure P. Theoretically, using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation as a basis set, the absorption coefficient for the electronic transition ab can be expressed as
α(ω)=4π2ω3cvv'Pav|Ψbv'|μ|Ψav|2δ(ωbv',avω),
(1)
where μ devotes the dipole operator and ψbv′, ψav represent the vibronic wavefunctions. Notice that in the B-O approximation

|Ψbv'|μ|Ψav|2=|Φbbv'|μ|Φaav|2=|Φb|μ|Φa|2|bv'|av|2=|μba|2|bv'|av|2.
(2)

Here μba denotes the electronic transition moment and |bv'|av|2 represents the molecular Franck-Condon factor which in turn can be expressed in terms of the F-C factors of vibrational modes,

|bv'|av|2=i|Xbvi'|Xavi|2,
(3)

ωbv',av in Eq. (1)can be written as
ωbv',av=ωba+i[(vi'+12)ωi'(vi+12)ωi],
(4)
where ωba represents the electronic energy gap. In follows that

α(ω)=4π2ω3c|μba|2vv'Pavi|Xbvi'|Xavi|2δ(ωbv',avω).
(5)

And the transition probability of IC for the electronic transition ab can be expressed as [4

4. S. H. Lin, “Rate of interconversion of electronic and vibrational energy,” J. Chem. Phys. 44(10), 3759–3767 (1966). [CrossRef]

]
Wab=2πvv'Pav|ψbv'|H^'BO|ψav|2δ(Ebv'Eav),
(6)
where Pav is the Boltzmann weighting factor, Ĥ′BO is the perturbation Hamiltonian in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, Ebv′, Eav and ψbv′, ψav are the energies and wave-functions of the molecules in the initial and final states, and δ is the Dirac delta function. Using the same argument Eq.(6) can be written as
Wab=2πRba(i)vv'Pavi|Xbvi'|Xavi|2δ(Ebv'Eav),
(7)
where Rba(i) is the electronic matrix element of the ith promoting mode and be expressed as

Rba(i)=ωi2|Φa|2Qi|Φb|2,
(8)

Qi and ωi being the normal coordinate and vibrational frequency of the ith mode. In the low temperature range Wa→b reduces to
Wab=Rba(i)22πω¯ωab'exp[Sωab'ω¯(lnωab'Sω¯1)],
(9)
where ω′ab is the electronic energy gap, and S and ω¯ represent the Huang-Rhys factor and average vibrational frequency, respectively [23

23. S. H. Lin, C. H. Chang, K. K. Liang, R. Chang, Y. J. Shiu, J. M. Zhang, T. S. Yang, M. Hayashi, and F. C. Hsu, “Ultrafast dynamics and spectroscopy of bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 121, 1–88 (2002). [CrossRef]

].

Wab(P)Wab(0)=ωab'(0)ωab'(P)exp[Δωab'Pωab'(0)lnωab'(0)Sω¯],
(10)

This indicates that the relationship of ln[Wab(P)/Wab(0)] vs P is linear, i.e.

lnWab(P)Wab(0)=(Δωab'ω¯lnωab'(0)Sω¯+Δωab2ω¯)P.
(11)

From Eq. (11) we have shown that k 1 varies with P exponentially, just as obtained from the experimental measurement mentioned above in Fig. 4(a). The slope of lnk 1 vs P is Δωab'ω¯lnωab'(0)Sω¯Δωab2ω¯ theoretically. We can estimate Sω¯ from the absorption maximum of the S2 spectra and ω′ab(0) from the distance between the absorption maximum of the S2 band and that of the S1 band. In this way we obtainΔωab'/ω¯0.241, in good agreement with the value by fitting the experimental measurements. Here Δω′ab<0, this implies that ω′ab decreases with increasing pressure, that is to say, the gap between S1 and S2 decreases under pressure. And Δω′ab may be attributed to the pressure effect on vibronic coupling [10

10. D. J. Mitchell, G. B. Schuster, and H. G. Drickamer, “Effect of pressure on the fluorescence of 9-carbonyl substituted anthracenes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99(4), 1145–1148 (1977). [CrossRef]

] and/or the intermolecular solvent effect enhanced by pressure.

4. Conclusion

We conclude, from the fs time-resolved spectroscopic experiment and theoretical interpretation, that the pressure influence on two components of the molecular ultrafast energy relaxation is significant through changing the energy gaps of molecular levels, the intermolecular H-bond interaction and the solution viscosity. Therefore we have experimentally shown that pressure can be taken as an important factor to alter a chemical dynamic process. In addition, the technique of combined fs time-resolved spectral measurement with high pressure generation used here can be applied to study optical spectroscopies and photophysical processes of liquids and solids at high pressure for exploring the fundamental of various interactions and understanding the properties of matter under extreme conditions.

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 10534010, 10974069, and National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No. 2005CB724400.

References and links

1.

S. Woutersen and H. J. Bakker, “Resonant intermolecular transfer of vibrational energy in liquid water,” Nature 402(6761), 507–509 (1999). [CrossRef]

2.

C. Chudoba, E. T. J. Nibbering, and T. Elsaesser, “Site-specific excited-state solute-solvent interactions probed by femtosecond vibrational spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(14), 3010–3013 (1998). [CrossRef]

3.

J. Assmann, R. V. Benten, A. Charvat, and B. Abel, “Vibrational energy relaxation of selectively excited aromatic molecules in solution: The effect of a methyl rotor and its chemical substitution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 107(12), 1904–1913 (2003). [CrossRef]

4.

S. H. Lin, “Rate of interconversion of electronic and vibrational energy,” J. Chem. Phys. 44(10), 3759–3767 (1966). [CrossRef]

5.

T. Kobayashi, M. Shiga, A. Murakami, and S. J. Nakamura, “Ab initio study of ultrafast photochemical reaction dynamics of phenol blue,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(20), 6405–6424 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

R. M. Stratt and M. Maroncelli, “Nonreactive dynamics in solution: the emerging molecular view of solvation dynamics and vibrational relaxation,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(31), 12981–12996 (1996). [CrossRef]

7.

J. Y. Liu, W. H. Fan, K. L. Han, D. L. Xu, and N. Q. Lou, “Ultrafast dynamics of dye molecules in solution as a function of temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. A 107(12), 1914–1917 (2003). [CrossRef]

8.

J. Y. Liu, W. H. Fan, K. L. Han, W. Q. Deng, D. L. Xu, and N. Q. Lou, “Ultrafast vibrational and thermal relaxation of dye molecules in solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 107(50), 10857–10861 (2003). [CrossRef]

9.

K. Niss, B. Begen, B. Frick, J. Ollivier, A. Beraud, A. Sokolov, V. N. Novikov, and C. Alba-Simionesco, “Influence of pressure on the boson peak: stronger than elastic medium transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(5), 055502 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

D. J. Mitchell, G. B. Schuster, and H. G. Drickamer, “Effect of pressure on the fluorescence of 9-carbonyl substituted anthracenes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99(4), 1145–1148 (1977). [CrossRef]

11.

H. Li, B. Zhong, L. M. He, G. Q. Yang, Y. Li, S. Wu, and J. Liu, “High pressure effects on the luminescent properties and structure of coumarin 153,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(13), 2299–2301 (2002). [CrossRef]

12.

B. C. Hess, G. S. Kanner, Z. V. Vardeny, and G. L. Baker, “High-pressure effects on ultrafast-relaxation kinetics of excitons in polydiacetylene 4BCMU,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(18), 2364–2367 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

N. Baden, O. Kajimoto, and K. Hara, “High-pressure studies on aggregation number of surfactant micelles using the fluorescence quenching method,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(34), 8621–8624 (2002). [CrossRef]

14.

S. Bai and C. R. Yonker, “Pressure and temperature effects on the hydrogen-bond structures of liquid and supercritical fluid methanol,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(45), 8641–8647 (1998). [CrossRef]

15.

J. P. Schmidtke, J. S. Kim, J. Gierschner, C. Silva, and R. H. Friend, “Optical spectroscopy of a polyfluorene copolymer at high pressure: intra- and intermolecular interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 167401 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

Y. Umebayashi, J. C. Jiang, Y. L. Shan, K. H. Lin, K. Fujii, S. Seki, S. I. Ishiguro, S. H. Lin, and H. C. Chang, “Structural change of ionic association in ionic liquid/water mixtures: a high-pressure infrared spectroscopic study,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(12), 124503 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

D. Ducoulombier, H. Zhou, C. Boned, J. Peyrelasse, H. Saint-Guirons, and P. Xans, “Pressure (1-1000bar) and temperature (20-100oC) dependence of the viscosity of liquid hydrocarbons,” J. Phys. Chem. 90(8), 1692–1700 (1986). [CrossRef]

18.

S. H. Lin, “Effect of high pressure on molecular electronic spectra and electronic relaxation,” J. Chem. Phys. 59(8), 4458–4467 (1973). [CrossRef]

19.

R. J. Hemley, P. M. Bell, and H. K. Mao, “Laser Techniques in High-Pressure Geophysics,” Science 237(4815), 605–612 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

B. G. Liu, M. X. Jin, H. Liu, C. Y. He, D. W. Jiang, and D. Ding, “Femtosecond time-resolved measurement of LDS698 molecular processes under high pressure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241916 (2008). [CrossRef]

21.

H. G. Drickamer, and C. W. Frank, “Electronic transitions and the high pressure chemistry and physics of solids” (Chapman-Hall, London, 1973).

22.

M. Dantus, M. J. Rosker, and A. H. Zewail, “Real-time femtosecond probing of transition-states in chemical-reactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 87(4), 2395–2397 (1987). [CrossRef]

23.

S. H. Lin, C. H. Chang, K. K. Liang, R. Chang, Y. J. Shiu, J. M. Zhang, T. S. Yang, M. Hayashi, and F. C. Hsu, “Ultrafast dynamics and spectroscopy of bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 121, 1–88 (2002). [CrossRef]

24.

T. Förster, “Transfer mechanisms of electronic excitation,” Discuss. Faraday Soc. 27, 7–17 (1959).

25.

J. M. Brown, L. J. Slutsky, K. A. Nelson, and L. T. Cheng, “Velocity of sound and equations of state for methanol and ethanol in a diamond-anvil cell,” Science 241(4861), 65–67 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(300.6500) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, time-resolved
(320.7130) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast processes in condensed matter, including semiconductors

ToC Category:
Spectroscopy

History
Original Manuscript: December 16, 2009
Revised Manuscript: February 10, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: March 10, 2010
Published: March 18, 2010

Citation
Bingguo Liu, Chunyuan He, Mingxing Jin, Qiaoqiao Wang, Sheng Hsien Lin, and Dajun Ding, "High pressure effect on the ultrafast energy relaxation rate of LDS698 (C19H23N2O4Cl) in a solution," Opt. Express 18, 6863-6870 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-7-6863


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References

  1. S. Woutersen and H. J. Bakker, “Resonant intermolecular transfer of vibrational energy in liquid water,” Nature 402(6761), 507–509 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. C. Chudoba, E. T. J. Nibbering, and T. Elsaesser, “Site-specific excited-state solute-solvent interactions probed by femtosecond vibrational spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(14), 3010–3013 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Assmann, R. V. Benten, A. Charvat, and B. Abel, “Vibrational energy relaxation of selectively excited aromatic molecules in solution: The effect of a methyl rotor and its chemical substitution,” J. Phys. Chem. A 107(12), 1904–1913 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. S. H. Lin, “Rate of interconversion of electronic and vibrational energy,” J. Chem. Phys. 44(10), 3759–3767 (1966). [CrossRef]
  5. T. Kobayashi, M. Shiga, A. Murakami, and S. J. Nakamura, “Ab initio study of ultrafast photochemical reaction dynamics of phenol blue,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(20), 6405–6424 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. M. Stratt and M. Maroncelli, “Nonreactive dynamics in solution: the emerging molecular view of solvation dynamics and vibrational relaxation,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(31), 12981–12996 (1996). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Y. Liu, W. H. Fan, K. L. Han, D. L. Xu, and N. Q. Lou, “Ultrafast dynamics of dye molecules in solution as a function of temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. A 107(12), 1914–1917 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Y. Liu, W. H. Fan, K. L. Han, W. Q. Deng, D. L. Xu, and N. Q. Lou, “Ultrafast vibrational and thermal relaxation of dye molecules in solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 107(50), 10857–10861 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. K. Niss, B. Begen, B. Frick, J. Ollivier, A. Beraud, A. Sokolov, V. N. Novikov, and C. Alba-Simionesco, “Influence of pressure on the boson peak: stronger than elastic medium transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(5), 055502 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. J. Mitchell, G. B. Schuster, and H. G. Drickamer, “Effect of pressure on the fluorescence of 9-carbonyl substituted anthracenes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99(4), 1145–1148 (1977). [CrossRef]
  11. H. Li, B. Zhong, L. M. He, G. Q. Yang, Y. Li, S. Wu, and J. Liu, “High pressure effects on the luminescent properties and structure of coumarin 153,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(13), 2299–2301 (2002). [CrossRef]
  12. B. C. Hess, G. S. Kanner, Z. V. Vardeny, and G. L. Baker, “High-pressure effects on ultrafast-relaxation kinetics of excitons in polydiacetylene 4BCMU,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(18), 2364–2367 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Baden, O. Kajimoto, and K. Hara, “High-pressure studies on aggregation number of surfactant micelles using the fluorescence quenching method,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(34), 8621–8624 (2002). [CrossRef]
  14. S. Bai and C. R. Yonker, “Pressure and temperature effects on the hydrogen-bond structures of liquid and supercritical fluid methanol,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102(45), 8641–8647 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. J. P. Schmidtke, J. S. Kim, J. Gierschner, C. Silva, and R. H. Friend, “Optical spectroscopy of a polyfluorene copolymer at high pressure: intra- and intermolecular interactions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(16), 167401 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Umebayashi, J. C. Jiang, Y. L. Shan, K. H. Lin, K. Fujii, S. Seki, S. I. Ishiguro, S. H. Lin, and H. C. Chang, “Structural change of ionic association in ionic liquid/water mixtures: a high-pressure infrared spectroscopic study,” J. Chem. Phys. 130(12), 124503 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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