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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 7 — Mar. 29, 2010
  • pp: 7150–7156
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Self-phase-modulation based all-optical regeneration of PDM signals using a single section of highly-nonlinear fiber

A.-L. Yi, L.-S. Yan, B. Luo, W. Pan, J. Ye, and J. Leuthold  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 7, pp. 7150-7156 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.007150


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Abstract

We demonstrate simultaneous self-phase-modulation-based 2R regeneration of 2 × 10.65-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) signals using a single section of highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). Mitigation of inter-channel nonlinearities is achieved through a bidirectional configuration, rejecting of backward Stimulated Brillouin Scattering noise is obtained by signal re-polarizing before the offset filter and putting the center wavelength of filter at the short wavelength side of the signal. The power penalty improvement up to 2.0 dB for two PDM signals at 10−9 BER is achieved.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

All-optical signal regeneration is an effective approach to eliminate accumulated signal impairments in high performance optical communication systems without the need of optical/electronic/optical (O/E/O) conversion, data-rate dependent signal processing in the electric domain [1

1. P. V. Mamyshev, “All-optical data regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect,” 1998 European Conference on Optical Communications, 475 (1998).

5

5. K. Croussore, I. Kim, C. Kim, Y. Han, and G. Li, “Phase-and-amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using a phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2085–2094 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Over the past decade, numerous all-optical schemes have been demonstrated and theoretically studied, including the mechanism based on self-phase modulation (SPM) -induced spectral broadening and subsequent offset bandpass filtering [1

1. P. V. Mamyshev, “All-optical data regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect,” 1998 European Conference on Optical Communications, 475 (1998).

]. This method has been widely investigated both experimentally and theoretically [6

6. M. Matsuura and N. Kishi, “Wideband wavelength-flexible all-optical signal regeneration using gain-band tunable Raman amplification and self-phase-modulation-based spectral filtering,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2420–2422 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15

15. M. Matsumoto, “Efficient all-optical 2R regeneration using self-phase modulation in bidirectional fiber configuration,” Opt. Express 14(23), 11018–11023 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] for its ease of implementation, design flexibility with respect to tailoring the dispersive and nonlinear properties of the fiber, potential to operate at high bit-rates (40 Gb/s and above) owing to the sub-ps response time of the Kerr effect, and potential to support multi-wavelength operation. Especially multi-wavelength regenerators have been realized by all-fiberized dispersion-managed schemes [16

16. L. A. Provost, C. Finot, P. Petropoulos, K. Mukasa, and D. J. Richardson, “Design scaling rules for 2R-optical self-phase modulation-based regenerators,” Opt. Express 15(8), 5100–5113 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,17

17. F. Parmigiani, P. Vorreau, L. Provost, K. Mukasa, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “2R Regeneration of two 130 Gbit/s Channels within a Single Fiber,” in Proceedings OFC 2009, paper JThA56, (2009).

] or short pieces of highly-dispersive highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) separated by periodic group-delay devices (PGDDs) [18

18. M. Vasilyev and T. I. Lakoba, “All-optical multichannel 2R regeneration in a fiber-based device,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1458–1460 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The counter-propagating scheme is also demonstrated as an effective technique for reducing channel crosstalk in a two-channel SPM-based regeneration system [10

10. L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, C. Finot, K. Mukasa, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Analysis of a two-channel 2R all-optical regenerator based on a counter-propagating configuration,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2264–2275 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,11

11. L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Investigation of simultaneous 2R regeneration of two 40-Gb/s channels in a single optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 270–272 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

As polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) technique is becoming a promising candidate for high-speed optical communication systems in terms of doubling the system capacity and spectral efficiency directly [19

19. M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 881–883 (2001). [CrossRef]

], all optical signal processor capable of processing such signals will be highly desired, such as all-optical wavelength converter, all-optical regenerator. Recently several schemes of PDM signal wavelength conversion have been proposed and demonstrated [20

20. J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, and G.-K. Chang, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion for 4x112Gbit/s polarization multiplexing RZ-QPSK signals,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21161–21169 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22

22. J. Lu, L. Chen, Z. Dong, Z. Cao, and S. Wen, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion based on orthogonal pump four-wave mixing for polarization multiplexing signal in high-nonlinear fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(24), 5767–5774 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. For example, high-quality and polarization independent PDM-DPSK signals wavelength conversion is achieved by exploiting of phase-preserving four-wave-mixing (FWM) [20

20. J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, and G.-K. Chang, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion for 4x112Gbit/s polarization multiplexing RZ-QPSK signals,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21161–21169 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,21

21. P. Martelli, P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Parolari, R. Siano, V. Pusino, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, M. Martinelli, and V. Degiorgio, “All-optical wavelength conversion of a 100-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed signal,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17758–17763 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or using orthogonal pump FWM [22

22. J. Lu, L. Chen, Z. Dong, Z. Cao, and S. Wen, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion based on orthogonal pump four-wave mixing for polarization multiplexing signal in high-nonlinear fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(24), 5767–5774 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. On the other hand, limited schemes of all-optical regeneration in PDM systems are available so far, especially simultaneous regeneration of two polarization states using a single module.

In this paper, we apply the counter-propagating scheme into PDM systems so that the regenerator can work for two orthogonal polarization states simultaneously. Compared to the case with two wavelength channels, there are two different issues for the PDM case: (i) the contribution of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) noise, as well as SBS-induced amplified noise, is more severe for two data channels on a single wavelength; (ii) the same optical filter should be applied for the broadened spectrum, as well as the detuning position. In our scheme, mitigation of inter-channel nonlinearities is achieved through the bidirectional configuration, and rejecting of backward SBS noise is obtained by signal re-polarization before the offset filter and putting the center wavelength of filter at the short wavelength side of the signal. In addition, compared to most short-pulse based demonstrations, we demonstrate this approach in a typical 2 × 10.65-Gb/s PDM RZ-OOK transmission link. The receiver sensitivities at 10−9 BER are improved 2.0 dB and 1.8 dB for two orthogonal PDM signals respectively.

2. Configuration and principle

The proposed regenerator for PDM signals is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the proposed all-optical regenerator for PDM signals. HP-EDFA: high-power EDFA; OBPF: optical bandpass filter; PC: polarization controller; HNLF: highly nonlinear fiber; PBS: polarization beam splitter; PBC: polarization beam combiner
. The degraded PDM pulse streams first transmit through a high power optical amplifier (an optical bandpass filter –OBPF1 is inserted after the amplifier to reject the ASE noise). Then the PDM signals are demultiplexed using a polarization beam splitter (PBS) and propagate bidirectionally in a single section of highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) for SPM-based spectrum broadening. The optical circulators can guide two PDM signals out and two signals recombine through a polarization beam combiner (PBC). One polarization controller (PC2 or PC3) has to be used for each channel to align with the PBC port. The second OBPF2 is used to filter the broadened spectrum and reshape signals for both polarization states.

The impairments due to inter-channel nonlinearities between two channels, such as cross-phase-modulation (XPM), FWM and SBS, can be mitigated through bidirectional propagation in the HNLF with orthogonal states of polarization [10

10. L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, C. Finot, K. Mukasa, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Analysis of a two-channel 2R all-optical regenerator based on a counter-propagating configuration,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2264–2275 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and inter-channel backward SBS noise can be mostly rejected by inserting a polarizer (i.e. one port of the PBC in the setup) before the offset filter (i.e. the OBPF2 after the PBC), for the states of polarization of most SBS spontaneous photons are identical to the pump, especially when the pump power is high enough [23

23. M. O. van Deventer and A. J. Boot, “Polarization properties of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(4), 585–590 (1994). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, we adjust the center wavelength of offset filter at the downside of the signal carrier’s to further mitigate the SBS effect on the regenerated signal, as the wavelength of spontaneous photons is larger than the pump’s. Two issues should be mentioned about such configuration: (i) similar to most PDM transmission systems that use optical demultiplexing, dynamic polarization control is required for three polarization controllers shown in the setup [24

24. M. Martinelli, P. Martelli, and S. M. Pietralunga, “Polarization stabilization in optical communications systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(11), 4172–4183 (2006). [CrossRef]

,25

25. A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb/s WDM transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 79–84 (2008). [CrossRef]

], which is quite challenging in terms of the control algorithm for practical applications though; (ii) the proposed scheme works merely for the OOK signals due to its SPM nature, while other nonlinear based approaches have been demonstrated for advanced modulation formats (e.g. DPSK) [5

5. K. Croussore, I. Kim, C. Kim, Y. Han, and G. Li, “Phase-and-amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using a phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2085–2094 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,26

26. M. Matsumoto and Y. Morioka, “Fiber-based all-optical regeneration of DPSK signals degraded by transmission in a fiber,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6913–6919 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

3. Experimental setup and results

The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup. ECL: external cavity (tunable) laser; MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator; SMF: single mode fiber; VOA: variable optical attenuator; BERT: bit-error-rate tester; Pol: Polarizer
. It consists of a 10.65-Gb/s RZ-OOK signal transmitter, a polarization division multiplexing block, the bidirectional configuration regenerator, and a receiver. In the transmitter, the light from an external cavity tunable laser (ECL) oscillating at ~1555.26nm is modulated at 10.65-Gb/s by two cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZM) with 231-1 pseudorandom bit sequences (PRBS) to generate RZ-OOK signal. Then the 2 × 10.65-Gb/s RZ-OOK PDM signals are obtained using a coupler, two polarization controllers (PC), a variable optical attenuator(VOA), 1-km single mode fiber (SMF) and a PBC. 1-km SMF and the VOA are used to decorrelate the data stream and balance the optical power of two channels, respectively. The regenerator is composed of a high-power EDFA, an ASE rejection filter with 3-dB bandwidth of 0.6 nm (OBPF1), 1-km HNLF, a PBS, a polarizer, and a tunable OBPF2 with 3-dB bandwidth of 0.4 nm. The zero dispersion wavelength, dispersion slope, and nonlinear coefficient of the highly nonlinear fiber are 1556 nm, 0.02 ps/nm2/km, and 30 (W·km)−1, respectively.

In our experiment, the signal is degraded by adjusting the bias of two MZMs and adding ASE noise through the preamplifier. The degraded PDM signals are boosted to an optimized value of ~27.5dBm (~24.5dBm for each channel) before polarization demultiplexing. The two demultiplexed signals, with orthogonal sates of polarization, propagate bidirectionally in the HNLF for SPM spectral broadening. The polarization controller and polarizer at port 3 of each circulator act as a polarization filter, which can eliminate most SBS noise from the spectrally broadened signal. The OBPF2 is detuned −0.3 nm from the center wavelength, acting as a reshaping and decision element to slice the broadened spectrum and obtain the regenerated signals while keeping them with the same wavelength.

The actual performance of the regenerator is evaluated by eye-diagram-based optical signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR) and bit-error-rate (BER) measurements for two orthogonal channels (the channel with 1-km decorrelating SMF reference as CHp and the other channel referenced as CHv). The eye-diagram-based OSNR measurement using 86100C high-speed oscilloscope is performed at the input average optical power ~-5.17dBm. 1.48 and 1.38 dB OSNR penalty improvements are obtained for CHv and CHp respectively, as shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured OSNR and corresponding eye diagrams at average optical power −5.17 dBm into 86100C optical head 86116C: results of the CHv channel for the (a) degraded signal and (b) regenerated signal; results of the CHp channel for the (c) degraded signal and (d) regenerated signal.
. BER measurement results and corresponding eye diagrams are shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured BER results and corresponding eye diagrams of degraded and regenerated signals for the two PDM channels
. The power penalty improvement compared to the degraded input signals at the reference BER of 10−9 is 2.0 and 1.8 dB for channel CHv and CHp, respectively. The performance difference between the two regenerated channels may be due to the extra dispersion introduced by the 1-km decorrelating SMF for the CHv channel.

Note that the measured BER for regenerated signals may not be as good as the real data or ideal situation (e.g typical performance improvement is ~4dB for single-channel SPM-based regenerators). This might be due to two facts: (i) the bandwidth of our electronic amplifiers in the receiver side is limited to ~26-28 GHz (the pulse width of the regenerated signals is compressed to be ~25ps); (ii) the contribution of residual channel crosstalk caused by nonlinear polarization rotation and imperfect filtering of SBS or other noises.

4. Conclusion

We demonstrated a SPM-based all-optical regeneration scheme that can work for 2 × 10.65-Gb/s RZ-OOK PDM signals simultaneously without the need of separate regeneration of each channel (i.e. two regenerators with individual high power EDFA and HNLF).

In our scheme, the inter-channel nonlinearities between two channels are minimized through bidirectional propagation in a single HNLF for two orthogonally polarized signals, the backward SBS noise in the bidirectional configuration is mostly reduced by a polarizer followed by the offset filter.

Acknowledgement

The research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 60972003), Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-08-0821), Ministry of Education, China, the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry, and the State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, China.

References and links

1.

P. V. Mamyshev, “All-optical data regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect,” 1998 European Conference on Optical Communications, 475 (1998).

2.

M. Jinno and M. Abe, “All-optical regenerator based on nonlinear fiber Sagnac interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 28(14), 1350–1352 (1992). [CrossRef]

3.

Y. Su, G. Raybon, R. J. Essiambre, and T.-H. Her, “All-optical 2R regeneration of 40-Gb/s signal impaired by intrachannel four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 350–352 (2003). [CrossRef]

4.

N. Yoshikane, I. Morita, and N. Edagawa, “Improvement of dispersion tolerance by SPM-based all-optical reshaping in receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 111–113 (2003). [CrossRef]

5.

K. Croussore, I. Kim, C. Kim, Y. Han, and G. Li, “Phase-and-amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using a phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2085–2094 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

M. Matsuura and N. Kishi, “Wideband wavelength-flexible all-optical signal regeneration using gain-band tunable Raman amplification and self-phase-modulation-based spectral filtering,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2420–2422 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

M. Matsumoto and O. Leclerc, “Analysis of 2R optical regenerator utilizing self-phase-modulation in highly nonlinear fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(12), 576–577 (2002). [CrossRef]

8.

T.-H. Her, G. Raybon, and C. Headley, “Optimization of pulse regeneration at 40 Gb/s based on spectral filtering of self-phase modulation in fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 200–202 (2004). [CrossRef]

9.

A. G. Striegler and B. Schmauss, “Analysis and optimization of SPM-based 2R signal regeneration at 40 gb/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(7), 2835–2843 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, C. Finot, K. Mukasa, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Analysis of a two-channel 2R all-optical regenerator based on a counter-propagating configuration,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2264–2275 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Investigation of simultaneous 2R regeneration of two 40-Gb/s channels in a single optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 270–272 (2008). [CrossRef]

12.

C. Kouloumentas, P. Vorreau, L. Provost, P. Petropoulos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and I. Tomkos, “All-fiberized dispersion-managed multichannel regeneration at 43 Gb/s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(22), 1854–1856 (2008). [CrossRef]

13.

N. S. M. Shah and M. Matsumoto, “2R regeneration of time-interleaved multiwavelength signals based on higher order four-wave mixing in a fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 27–29 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, and K. Kikuchi, “Output performance investigation of self-phase-modulation-based 2R regenerator using bismuth oxide nonlinear fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(12), 1296–1298 (2006). [CrossRef]

15.

M. Matsumoto, “Efficient all-optical 2R regeneration using self-phase modulation in bidirectional fiber configuration,” Opt. Express 14(23), 11018–11023 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

L. A. Provost, C. Finot, P. Petropoulos, K. Mukasa, and D. J. Richardson, “Design scaling rules for 2R-optical self-phase modulation-based regenerators,” Opt. Express 15(8), 5100–5113 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

F. Parmigiani, P. Vorreau, L. Provost, K. Mukasa, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “2R Regeneration of two 130 Gbit/s Channels within a Single Fiber,” in Proceedings OFC 2009, paper JThA56, (2009).

18.

M. Vasilyev and T. I. Lakoba, “All-optical multichannel 2R regeneration in a fiber-based device,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1458–1460 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 881–883 (2001). [CrossRef]

20.

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, and G.-K. Chang, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion for 4x112Gbit/s polarization multiplexing RZ-QPSK signals,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21161–21169 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

P. Martelli, P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Parolari, R. Siano, V. Pusino, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, M. Martinelli, and V. Degiorgio, “All-optical wavelength conversion of a 100-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed signal,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17758–17763 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

J. Lu, L. Chen, Z. Dong, Z. Cao, and S. Wen, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion based on orthogonal pump four-wave mixing for polarization multiplexing signal in high-nonlinear fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(24), 5767–5774 (2009). [CrossRef]

23.

M. O. van Deventer and A. J. Boot, “Polarization properties of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(4), 585–590 (1994). [CrossRef]

24.

M. Martinelli, P. Martelli, and S. M. Pietralunga, “Polarization stabilization in optical communications systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(11), 4172–4183 (2006). [CrossRef]

25.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. C. Centanni, E. C. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb/s WDM transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 79–84 (2008). [CrossRef]

26.

M. Matsumoto and Y. Morioka, “Fiber-based all-optical regeneration of DPSK signals degraded by transmission in a fiber,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6913–6919 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.2630) Fiber optics and optical communications : Frequency modulation
(060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: January 26, 2010
Revised Manuscript: March 9, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: March 17, 2010
Published: March 23, 2010

Citation
A.-L. Yi, L.-S. Yan, B. Luo, W. Pan, J. Ye, and J. Leuthold, "Self-phase-modulation based all-optical regeneration of PDM signals using a single section of highly-nonlinear fiber," Opt. Express 18, 7150-7156 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-7-7150


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References

  1. P. V. Mamyshev, “All-optical data regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect,” 1998 European Conference on Optical Communications, 475 (1998).
  2. M. Jinno and M. Abe, “All-optical regenerator based on nonlinear fiber Sagnac interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 28(14), 1350–1352 (1992). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Su, G. Raybon, R. J. Essiambre, and T.-H. Her, “All-optical 2R regeneration of 40-Gb/s signal impaired by intrachannel four-wave mixing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 350–352 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. N. Yoshikane, I. Morita, and N. Edagawa, “Improvement of dispersion tolerance by SPM-based all-optical reshaping in receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(1), 111–113 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. K. Croussore, I. Kim, C. Kim, Y. Han, and G. Li, “Phase-and-amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using a phase-sensitive amplifier,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2085–2094 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Matsuura and N. Kishi, “Wideband wavelength-flexible all-optical signal regeneration using gain-band tunable Raman amplification and self-phase-modulation-based spectral filtering,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2420–2422 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Matsumoto and O. Leclerc, “Analysis of 2R optical regenerator utilizing self-phase-modulation in highly nonlinear fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(12), 576–577 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. T.-H. Her, G. Raybon, and C. Headley, “Optimization of pulse regeneration at 40 Gb/s based on spectral filtering of self-phase modulation in fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 200–202 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. A. G. Striegler and B. Schmauss, “Analysis and optimization of SPM-based 2R signal regeneration at 40 gb/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(7), 2835–2843 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, C. Finot, K. Mukasa, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Analysis of a two-channel 2R all-optical regenerator based on a counter-propagating configuration,” Opt. Express 16(3), 2264–2275 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Provost, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Investigation of simultaneous 2R regeneration of two 40-Gb/s channels in a single optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 270–272 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. C. Kouloumentas, P. Vorreau, L. Provost, P. Petropoulos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, and I. Tomkos, “All-fiberized dispersion-managed multichannel regeneration at 43 Gb/s,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(22), 1854–1856 (2008). [CrossRef]
  13. N. S. M. Shah and M. Matsumoto, “2R regeneration of time-interleaved multiwavelength signals based on higher order four-wave mixing in a fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 27–29 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. J. H. Lee, T. Nagashima, T. Hasegawa, S. Ohara, N. Sugimoto, Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, and K. Kikuchi, “Output performance investigation of self-phase-modulation-based 2R regenerator using bismuth oxide nonlinear fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(12), 1296–1298 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Matsumoto, “Efficient all-optical 2R regeneration using self-phase modulation in bidirectional fiber configuration,” Opt. Express 14(23), 11018–11023 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. A. Provost, C. Finot, P. Petropoulos, K. Mukasa, and D. J. Richardson, “Design scaling rules for 2R-optical self-phase modulation-based regenerators,” Opt. Express 15(8), 5100–5113 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. F. Parmigiani, P. Vorreau, L. Provost, K. Mukasa, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “2R Regeneration of two 130 Gbit/s Channels within a Single Fiber,” in Proceedings OFC 2009, paper JThA56, (2009).
  18. M. Vasilyev and T. I. Lakoba, “All-optical multichannel 2R regeneration in a fiber-based device,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1458–1460 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, and A. E. Willner, “Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(8), 881–883 (2001). [CrossRef]
  20. J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, and G.-K. Chang, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion for 4x112Gbit/s polarization multiplexing RZ-QPSK signals,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21161–21169 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. P. Martelli, P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Parolari, R. Siano, V. Pusino, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, M. Martinelli, and V. Degiorgio, “All-optical wavelength conversion of a 100-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed signal,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17758–17763 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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