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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 8 — Apr. 12, 2010
  • pp: 7705–7713
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Composite nanoparticle nanoslit arrays: a novel platform for LSPR mediated subwavelength optical transmission

Matthew J. Kofke, David H. Waldeck, and Gilbert C. Walker  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 8, pp. 7705-7713 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.007705


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Abstract

Near infrared transmission of light through subwavelength slit arrays is shown to be significantly influenced by resonant metallic nanoparticles placed within the structure. Experimental and calculated transmission spectra show how the size, orientation of the nanoparticles, and the period of the nanoslit array influence the maximum transmission wavelength, the magnitude of the transmission, and width of the resonance. These findings suggest that the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of metallic nanoparticles and their subsequent near and far-field interactions can modulate the subwavelength transmission and bandwidth of nanoaperture array devices in optically thick metal films.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

The investigation of the optical response of subwavelength metallic nanoparticle [1

1. K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007). [CrossRef]

3

3. S. K. Ghosh and T. Pal, “Interparticle coupling effect on the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles: from theory to applications,” Chem. Rev. 107(11), 4797–4862 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and nanoaperture array [4

4. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998). [CrossRef]

] devices has yielded fundamental insights [5

5. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 6

6. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] into the interaction of visible and near-IR light with nanomaterials. Much of the attention has focused on the optical response to ordered arrays of noble metal nanoparticles. Fundamental studies [7

7. C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Kall, “Nanoparticle Optics: The Importance of Radiative Dipole Coupling in Two-Dimensional Nanoparticle Arrays†,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003). [CrossRef]

13

13. S. L. Zou and G. C. Schatz, “Narrow plasmonic/photonic extinction and scattering line shapes for one and two dimensional silver nanoparticle arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 121(24), 12606–12612 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] show that it is possible to fine tune the optical response of these systems by varying the coupling of localized surface plasmons through key geometrical properties such as nanoparticle size or spacing. In addition to fundamental studies, numerous reports demonstrate the application of such plasmonic nanostructures in areas such as near field imaging [14

14. M. Salerno, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “The optical near-field of gold nanoparticle chains,” Opt. Commun. 248(4-6), 543–549 (2005). [CrossRef]

], plasmonic waveguiding [15

15. S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], photovoltaics [16

16. V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 17

17. C. Hägglund, M. Zach, and B. Kasemo, “Enhanced charge carrier generation in dye sensitized solar cells by nanoparticle plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013113 (2008). [CrossRef]

], biosensing [18

18. A. J. Haes, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Detection of a biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease from synthetic and clinical samples using a nanoscale optical biosensor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(7), 2264–2271 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20

20. J. Ferreira, M. J. Santos, M. M. Rahman, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, D. Sinton, and E. M. Girotto, “Attomolar protein detection using in-hole surface plasmon resonance,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 436–437 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and as molecular rulers [8

8. P. K. Jain and M. A. El-Sayed, “Surface plasmon coupling and its universal size scaling in metal nanostructures of complex geometry: Elongated particle pairs and nanosphere trimers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(13), 4954–4960 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 10

10. C. Tabor, R. Murali, M. Mahmoud, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the Use of Plasmonic Nanoparticle Pairs As a Plasmon Ruler: The Dependence of the Near-Field Dipole Plasmon Coupling on Nanoparticle Size and Shape,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(10), 1946–1953 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 21

21. A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1651–1658 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24

24. M. E. Stewart, J. Yao, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Multispectral Thin Film Biosensing and Quantitative Imaging Using 3D Plasmonic Crystals,” Anal Chem (2009).

] among others. The electromagnetic field confinement and amplification, which arises from the excitation and interaction of localized surface plasmons with the environment, shows potential for application in numerous fields of study.

Analogous to nanoaperture arrays, nanoslit arrays are capable of transmitting light beyond the diffraction limit. However, the transmission process has proven to be less straightforward [25

25. S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J. L. Pelouard, “Strong discontinuities in the complex photonic band structure of transmission metallic gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 63(3), 033107 (2001). [CrossRef]

33

33. B. Wang and P. Lalanne, “How many surface plasmons are locally excited on the ridges of metallic lamellar gratings?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051115–051113 (2010). [CrossRef]

], because the nanoslit can support multiple modes of transmission. Typically nanoslit array devices have transmission profiles that reflect the complex nature of the transmission process. Because transmission of light polarized along the nanoslit direction is strongly attenuated, the transmission of nanoslit array devices is commonly measured with the incident light polarized perpendicular to the slit. Scattering by the nanoslit grating excites surface plasmons that contribute to the transmission of the array. Conversely, when the incident light field is polarized along the slit direction the transmission is weak because of the inability to excite surface plasmons by the grating and the inability to support waveguide modes for that polarization. Despite this complexity, nanoslit arrays have shown promise as high resolution biosensors [34

34. Y. S. Jung, Z. Sun, J. Wuenschell, H. K. Kim, P. Kaur, L. Wang, and D. Waldeck, “High-sensitivity surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy based on a metal nanoslit array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).

, 35

35. K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, “Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, - (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

This study shows that the placement of nanoparticle chains within the nanoslits of an array act to enhance their transmission significantly over that without nanoparticles. Moreover, it is shown that the maximum wavelength for the transmission may be understood by consideration of the resonant excitation of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) on the nanoparticles, and the diffractive coupling between the nanoparticles.

2. Methods

Composite nanoparticle nanoslit arrays (NPNS, Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) Diagram of the system under study: a 150nm gold film on quartz with nanoparticle chains nested within a subwavelength nanoslit. Single nanoslits are defined by a width w and fixed spacing P that represents the period of the array. The nanoparticle chains within the slit are defined by a length along the y-axis L and width along the x-axis d. The separation between individual nanoparticles within the chain is defined as s. b) SEM image of a FIB milled nanoparticle/nanoslit array. For the nanoslit: w = 240nm and P = 517nm, and for the nanoparticles: L = 290nm, d = 160nm, s = 210nm.
) were milled into 150nm Au films (with a 3nm Ti adhesion layer) on quartz with a focused ion beam system (Seiko SMI 3050SE). Series of arrays were fabricated with a nominally identical nanoslit geometry, namely a slit width w = 240nm and a length of 20μm. The zeroth order transmission spectra were collected with a microspectrophotometer (CRAIC QDI 2010) that was equipped with a 0.13NA 5x objective, a collimated illumination source (Fiber coupled 75W Xe Arc), and a Glan-Taylor polarizer placed directly below the substrate. The reference for the transmission spectra was a 20μm window milled into the same Au film as the arrays. All arrays were spaced at least 150μm apart in order to ensure that they do not couple with one another. Light was incident on the quartz side of the sample and polarized along the y-axis of the array, i.e., along the nanoslit axis.

For a quantitative comparison with the experimental data, composite nanoparticle nanoslit (NPNS) array transmission spectra were simulated by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method (Lumerical Solutions Inc). For the FDTD simulations the dielectric parameters for Au and Ti were taken from experimental data [36

36. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

] and fit within the software. The boundary conditions in the plane of the structures (i.e. the x and y direction) were chosen to be symmetric/anti-symmetric. The structure was illuminated from the quartz side, and the transmission was calculated at two different heights above the surface (z = 200nm and z = 3000nm) to ensure that the transmission data are consistent. All of the reported values are from a distance of 3000nm. The illumination source was modeled as a plane wave with polarization along the y-axis (slit direction).

3. Results and discussion

Figure 2
Fig. 2 a) Experimental and b) FDTD simulated near infrared transmission spectra of NPNS arrays for nanoparticle lengths 195nm to 410nm. The period of the arrays is fixed at 670nm with the spacing between nanoparticles fixed at 210nm. A comparison of λmax at the different nanoparticle lengths between a) and b) is shown in c).
shows the transmission spectra of five different NPNS arrays for which the length L of the nanoparticle within the nanoslit is varied from 195nm to 410nm. The nanoslit period is fixed at 670nm and the spacing between nanoparticles is fixed at 210nm. Panel a) shows experimental spectra; panel b) shows FDTD simulated spectra; and panel c) shows λmax vs. L for both the FDTD and experimental data. Figure 2a shows that a nanoparticle with L = 410nm has a transmission spectrum with a single, symmetric peak that has a well defined maximum at λmax = 1630nm. As L is decreased, λmax blue-shifts and the transmission at λmax is consistently above 25%. Each individual resonance is relatively broad, and has a FWHM of about 200nm, regardless of the size of the nanoparticle. The essential features of the experimental transmission spectra are reproduced by the FDTD simulated spectra shown in Fig. 2b. Namely, a single well defined transmission peak is present and the λmax of the transmission blue-shifts as L decreases. Comparison of the λmax for both the experimental and theoretical spectra, reveals good agreement between experiment and theory and demonstrates the monotonic relationship between L and λmax(Fig. 2c). Lastly, note that the transmission remains relatively fixed as L is decreased. While the total number of nanoparticles per slit increases as L is decreased, it is unlikely that this accounts for the reduced scattering of each individual nanoparticle. We speculate that this effect arises from the transmission increasing as the nanoparticle resonance approaches the diffraction edge, which, as will be shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) experimental and b) theoretical transmission spectra as well as c) λmax vs. period of the NPNS arrays with L = 305nm, d = 160nm and s = 210nm. The period of the array is varied from 800nm to 1300nm. Panel a/b display the transmission spectra for P = 800nm to 1300nm, while the plot of λmax vs. period is shown for P = 800nm to 1300nm. The period in c) was incremented in 50nm intervals for both experimental and 25nm for the FDTD. The dashed line represents the light line λ = n substrate • P.
, can significantly affect the total transmission. Future studies are aimed at better quantifying and understanding this observation.

The relationship between the scattering of nanoparticles and nanoparticle size has been extensively studied for single nanoparticles as well as linear chains and two dimensional arrays (both nanoparticles and nanoapertures) [3

3. S. K. Ghosh and T. Pal, “Interparticle coupling effect on the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles: from theory to applications,” Chem. Rev. 107(11), 4797–4862 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 9

9. G. C. Schatz, A. A. Lazarides, and K. L. Kelly, “Modeling the extinction spectra of metal nanoparticle chains and arrays,” Abstr Pap Am Chem S 224, U298–U298 (2002).

, 37

37. J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: Plasmon coupling in finite-sized two-dimensional arrays of cylindrical silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4091–4096 (2008). [CrossRef]

43

43. S. Wu, Q.- Wang, X.- Yin, J.- Li, D. Zhu, S.- Liu, and Y.-y. Zhu, “Enhanced optical transmission: Role of the localized surface plasmon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101113–101113 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The spectra reported here appear to be the first in which the transmission through subwavelength apertures in an optically thick metal film is controlled by the collective LSPR of noble metal nanoparticle chains nested within a nanoslit. Comparisons of these spectra with those of extinction measurements for both nanoparticle chains and arrays underscores their similarity and suggests that the phenomenology observed with the latter is largely reproduced by the subwavelength transmission through NPNS arrays. Given that the transmission is consistently above 25% for all NP sizes and that the total open area relative to the reference aperture is about 20%, implies that the device is transmitting light through subwavelength geometries with an efficiency of about unity. It has been shown previously [9

9. G. C. Schatz, A. A. Lazarides, and K. L. Kelly, “Modeling the extinction spectra of metal nanoparticle chains and arrays,” Abstr Pap Am Chem S 224, U298–U298 (2002).

, 44

44. K. L. Shuford, M. A. Ratner, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Finite-difference time-domain studies of light transmission through nanohole structures,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 11–18 (2006). [CrossRef]

] that the FDTD method is reliable for both studying the scattering of subwavelength nanoparticles and the transmission process within nanoaperture arrays, so that the agreement between the FDTD and the experimental spectra should not be surprising. The primary discrepancies between the FDTD and experimental data can be rationalized by the difference between the simulation geometry and imperfections in the FIB milled structure, as well as any experimental error in the measurement.

Transmission spectra for NPNS arrays in which the incident light is polarized along the x-axis of the array are shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 a) experimental and b) theoretical transmission spectra with the incident light polarized along the x-axis of the NPNS array for nanoparticle lengths of 195 to 410nm. The period is fixed at 965nm and the spacing between the nanoparticles is 210nm.
. For all nanoparticle lengths, the key feature of the transmission in both the FDTD and experimental spectra is a dip in the transmission at λ = 1410nm that corresponds to an Au/SiO2 Woods anomaly which is given as λwoods = n•P, where n is the refractive index of the dielectric (1.45 for SiO2) and P is the nanoslit period. In contrast to the transmission spectra in Fig. 2 for y-axis polarization, the features seen here are unremarkable. Since the widths of the nanoparticles are fixed at 160nm, no localized resonances are excited on the nanoparticle within the spectral range studied.

The change of λmax with period P is plotted in Fig. 4c for both experimental and FDTD data, and it illustrates the non-monotonic nature of the wavelength shift with P. From P = 800nm to P = 900nm, the λmax of the experimental spectra red-shifts from λmax = 1327nm to λmax = 1357nm while the FDTD spectra show a weak change of λmax and reasonable agreement with experiment. From P = 900nm to 965nm, both the experimental and FDTD spectra exhibit a strong red-shift that reaches a maximum at P = 965nm. A subsequent increase in the period causes a blue-shift that begins to level off at P = 1100nm whereupon λmax does not change significantly upon further increase in the period up to P = 1300nm. Yet, the λmax remains red-shifted relative to λmax for P = 800nm. In general, variations of λmax with the change in array period are modeled well by the FDTD calculation. The key feature, namely the pronounced red-shift as the period approaches 965nm, followed by a smaller blue-shift for subsequent increases beyond 965nm, appear to be captured in the FDTD simulations.

The observed dependence of the transmission magnitude, the width of the resonance, and the position of λmax on the period P suggests that the transmission through the nanoapertures is primarily caused by the LSPR excitation of the nanoparticles and their coupling effects in both the near and far field. Earlier studies have shown [37

37. J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: Plasmon coupling in finite-sized two-dimensional arrays of cylindrical silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4091–4096 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 39

39. E. M. Hicks, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, K. G. Spears, R. P. Van Duyne, L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Controlling plasmon line shapes through diffractive coupling in linear arrays of cylindrical nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1065–1070 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 41

41. A. Pinchuk and G. Schatz, “Collective surface plasmon resonance coupling in silver nanoshell arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 31–38 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 42

42. L. L. Zhao, K. L. Kelly, and G. C. Schatz, “The extinction spectra of silver nanoparticle arrays: Influence of array structure on plasmon resonance wavelength and width,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7343–7350 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 45

45. B. Auguie and W. L. Barnes, “Collective resonances in gold nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

47

47. A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, J. S. Im, G. P. Wiederrecht, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, and P. Royer, “Electromagnetic interactions in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(8), 3195–3198 (2005). [CrossRef]

]that the period of both two dimensional arrays and linear chains of noble metal nanoparticles exhibit spectral changes in the visible that are analogous to those observed here in the near-IR for NPNS arrays. It is believed that the non-monotonic shift of λmax for two dimensional arrays of nanoparticles, which was first predicted by Meier et al [48

48. M. Meier, A. Wokaun, and P. F. Liao, “Enhanced fields on rough surfaces: dipolar interactions among particles of sizes exceeding the Rayleigh limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2(6), 931–949 (1985). [CrossRef]

] and later experimentally verified and elaborated upon by Lamprect et al [49

49. B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], is caused by the interaction of lattice modes with light scattered by the nanoparticles as the primary resonance approaches and intersects the light line, λ = nsubstrate ·P(dashed line, Fig. 4c). For P = 800nm to 950nm, λmax > λlight and along the x-axis of the array the nanoparticles are spaced close enough that interactions between their dipole fields are important. The in-phase addition of the dipole fields results in a gradual red-shift which is observed as P is increased. From P = 950nm to 1000nm, λmax intersects λlight and a new diffractive order that radiates at a grazing angle and interacts with the scattered fields of individual nanoparticles emerges and corresponds to the point of maximum red-shift and minimum bandwidth. As the period increases towards P = 1300nm the array enters the regime where λmax < λlight, and the radiative damping of the scattered fields of each nanoparticle within the array increases, causing the increased broadening and the decrease in total transmission.

The dependence of the transmission spectra of NPNS arrays on the interparticle spacing is shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 a) Experimental and b) FDTD calculated transmission spectra of NPNS arrays in which w = 240nm, P = 650nm, L = 305nm, d = 160nm. The spacing between nanoparticles is varied from 30nm to 360nm for both the experimental and the FDTD data. c) Nanoparticle spacing as a function of Δλ/λo for both experimental and theoretical data. The solid line represents the exponential fit of the form with R2 = 0.99. For the experimental data A = 0.37 ± 0.02, τ = 0.20 ± 0.02 and for the FDTD data A = 0.39 ± 0.02, τ = 0.19 ± 0.01.
and reveals a distinct relationship between λmax and the nanoparticle spacing. Figure 5a shows how the experimental spectra change as the nanoparticle spacing changes from s = 30nm to 380nm. For this study the total number of nanoparticles was held constant, and as a consequence, the size of the nanoslit and thus its total open area decreases significantly for small values of s. To an extent, this decrease can account for the reduced transmission seen for s = 30nm. From s = 30nm to s = 70nm, the λmax shifts by 155nm from 1502nm to 1347nm. Subsequent increases in s result in further reductions of λmax; as s approaches 230nm, the shift in λmax becomes minimal. In addition to λmax, these data reveal that the width of the transmission peak depends on s, namely, it decreases about 150nm from s = 30nm to s = 380nm. The increase in peak width is probably caused by the decrease in LSPR lifetime which reflects the interaction and subsequent coupling between the nanoparticles as s is decreased. Other than the noticeable difference in transmission magnitude, which arises from the failure of FDTD calculations to account for the change in nanoslit length as the spacing is reduced while keeping the total number of nanoparticles constant, the FDTD simulated spectra show good agreement with the experimental spectra.

Numerous studies have characterized how the optical response of nanoparticles changes with distance between the individual nanoparticles [38

38. C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Kall, “Nanoparticle optics: The importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003). [CrossRef]

, 50

50. W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1-3), 137–141 (2003). [CrossRef]

], both in solution [23

23. Y. W. Jun, S. Sheikholeslami, D. R. Hostetter, C. Tajon, C. S. Craik, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Continuous imaging of plasmon rulers in live cells reveals early-stage caspase-3 activation at the single-molecule level,” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (2009).

] and affixed on substrates in ordered arrays, chains, and pairs. For electrostatic dipolar coupling between two nanoparticles one expects a d−3 dependence of the plasmon shift with the interparticle distance. Jain et al [22

22. P. K. Jain, W. Y. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: A plasmon ruler equation,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2080–2088 (2007). [CrossRef]

] showed that at short nanoparticle separations, an exponential function of the form can be used to approximate the dependence of the plasmon resonance coupling between the nanoparticles on the distance s, where is the fractional wavelength shift relative to an uncoupled nanoparticle, A is the amplitude of the decaying field, s is the center to center distance between nanoparticles, L is the length of an individual nanoparticle, and τ is a characteristic decay constant. Recently Funston et al [21

21. A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1651–1658 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] demonstrated that this model breaks down for situations in which s/L < 0.09. In the context of NPNS arrays (Fig. 5c), it is clear that the transmission resonance shift with the interparticle spacing can be fit by an exponential function, akin to the plasmonic ruler equation. A fit of the experimental data to this model gives values of τ = 0.2 and A = 0.37, which fall within the range expected for much smaller nanoparticles, indicating that the length of the dipole coupling between the nanoparticles is within the same regime as that of sub 100nm spherical Au nanoparticles. Note that these fitting parameters are sensitive to the minimum spacing achieved between the nanoparticles, which arises from the resolution limits of the focused ion beam system and was 30nm. Indeed, by taking the separation to be 15nm in the FDTD simulations and fitting those data, one finds fitting parameters of τ = 0.06 and A = 3.35(data not shown). These considerations suggest that not only does dipolar coupling influence the subwavelength transmission, but that in the regime where s/L < 0.5 the device exhibits remarkable sensitivity to the spacing between nanoparticles. This finding could have implications not only in tailoring the transmission resonances of plasmonic devices but in the rational design of plasmonic ruler based sensors.

4. Summary

In summary it was shown that focused ion beam fabricated nanoparticle chains within a subwavelength nanoslit array are capable of subwavelength transmission that is modulated through LSPR based interactions. It was found that by varying the size of the nanoparticle within the nanoslit the maximum transmission wavelengths could be tuned. The response of the NPNS arrays to changes in the period resulted in a non-monotonic shift of the position of λmax, which was correlated to a change in the nature of the nanoparticles coupling from an evanescent to far-field radiative mode of the grating. Lastly, the position of λmax showed a strong dependence upon the spacing between nanoparticles within the nanoslit. It was shown that λmax red-shifts significantly as the spacing between nanoparticles drops below 100nm, and the relative shift in λmax as the spacing changed for a fixed nanoparticle size could be fit to an exponential decay function in a manner analogous to the plasmon ruler equation. Given the great interest in localizing and controlling the propagation of light through a noble metal nanostructure, these findings have significant implications for the design and utilization of transmission based plasmonic devices in numerous areas of study.

Acknowledgements:

This work was funded by NASA (NNX09CB64C), NSF (CHE-0404579) and NSERC (BiopSys). The authors would like to thank Jianjun Wei for helpful discussions and Michael McDonald at the Peterson Institute for Nanoscience and Engineering for nanofabrication technical support

References and links

1.

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003). [CrossRef]

3.

S. K. Ghosh and T. Pal, “Interparticle coupling effect on the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles: from theory to applications,” Chem. Rev. 107(11), 4797–4862 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998). [CrossRef]

5.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Kall, “Nanoparticle Optics: The Importance of Radiative Dipole Coupling in Two-Dimensional Nanoparticle Arrays†,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003). [CrossRef]

8.

P. K. Jain and M. A. El-Sayed, “Surface plasmon coupling and its universal size scaling in metal nanostructures of complex geometry: Elongated particle pairs and nanosphere trimers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(13), 4954–4960 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

G. C. Schatz, A. A. Lazarides, and K. L. Kelly, “Modeling the extinction spectra of metal nanoparticle chains and arrays,” Abstr Pap Am Chem S 224, U298–U298 (2002).

10.

C. Tabor, R. Murali, M. Mahmoud, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the Use of Plasmonic Nanoparticle Pairs As a Plasmon Ruler: The Dependence of the Near-Field Dipole Plasmon Coupling on Nanoparticle Size and Shape,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(10), 1946–1953 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

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12.

S. L. Zou, N. Janel, and G. C. Schatz, “Silver nanoparticle array structures that produce remarkably narrow plasmon lineshapes,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(23), 10871–10875 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

S. L. Zou and G. C. Schatz, “Narrow plasmonic/photonic extinction and scattering line shapes for one and two dimensional silver nanoparticle arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 121(24), 12606–12612 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. Salerno, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “The optical near-field of gold nanoparticle chains,” Opt. Commun. 248(4-6), 543–549 (2005). [CrossRef]

15.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008). [CrossRef]

17.

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, and B. Kasemo, “Enhanced charge carrier generation in dye sensitized solar cells by nanoparticle plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013113 (2008). [CrossRef]

18.

A. J. Haes, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Detection of a biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease from synthetic and clinical samples using a nanoscale optical biosensor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(7), 2264–2271 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

W. P. Hall, J. N. Anker, Y. Lin, J. Modica, M. Mrksich, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A calcium-modulated plasmonic switch,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(18), 5836–5837 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

J. Ferreira, M. J. Santos, M. M. Rahman, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, D. Sinton, and E. M. Girotto, “Attomolar protein detection using in-hole surface plasmon resonance,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 436–437 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1651–1658 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

P. K. Jain, W. Y. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: A plasmon ruler equation,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2080–2088 (2007). [CrossRef]

23.

Y. W. Jun, S. Sheikholeslami, D. R. Hostetter, C. Tajon, C. S. Craik, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Continuous imaging of plasmon rulers in live cells reveals early-stage caspase-3 activation at the single-molecule level,” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (2009).

24.

M. E. Stewart, J. Yao, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Multispectral Thin Film Biosensing and Quantitative Imaging Using 3D Plasmonic Crystals,” Anal Chem (2009).

25.

S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J. L. Pelouard, “Strong discontinuities in the complex photonic band structure of transmission metallic gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 63(3), 033107 (2001). [CrossRef]

26.

Y. Takakura, “Optical resonance in a narrow slit in a thick metallic screen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5601–5603 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 057403 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

Y. S. Jung, J. Wuenschell, H. K. Kim, P. Kaur, and D. H. Waldeck, “Blue-shift of surface plasmon resonance in a metal nanoslit array structure,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16081–16091 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

Y. S. Jung, Y. Xi, J. Wuenschell, and H. K. Kim, “Near- to far-field imaging of phase evolution of light emanating from a metal nanoslit,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18881–18882 (2008). [CrossRef]

30.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

J. Wuenschell and H. K. Kim, “Excitation and propagation of surface plasmons in a metallic nanoslit structure,” IEEE T Nanotechnol 7(2), 229–236 (2008). [CrossRef]

32.

K. G. Lee and Q. H. Park, “Coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and light in metallic nanoslits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103902 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

B. Wang and P. Lalanne, “How many surface plasmons are locally excited on the ridges of metallic lamellar gratings?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051115–051113 (2010). [CrossRef]

34.

Y. S. Jung, Z. Sun, J. Wuenschell, H. K. Kim, P. Kaur, L. Wang, and D. Waldeck, “High-sensitivity surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy based on a metal nanoslit array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).

35.

K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, “Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, - (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

37.

J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: Plasmon coupling in finite-sized two-dimensional arrays of cylindrical silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4091–4096 (2008). [CrossRef]

38.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Kall, “Nanoparticle optics: The importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003). [CrossRef]

39.

E. M. Hicks, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, K. G. Spears, R. P. Van Duyne, L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Controlling plasmon line shapes through diffractive coupling in linear arrays of cylindrical nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1065–1070 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

40.

M. J. Kofke, D. H. Waldeck, Z. Fakhraai, S. Ip, and G. C. Walker, “The effect of periodicity on the extraordinary optical transmission of annular aperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023104 (2009). [CrossRef]

41.

A. Pinchuk and G. Schatz, “Collective surface plasmon resonance coupling in silver nanoshell arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 31–38 (2008). [CrossRef]

42.

L. L. Zhao, K. L. Kelly, and G. C. Schatz, “The extinction spectra of silver nanoparticle arrays: Influence of array structure on plasmon resonance wavelength and width,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7343–7350 (2003). [CrossRef]

43.

S. Wu, Q.- Wang, X.- Yin, J.- Li, D. Zhu, S.- Liu, and Y.-y. Zhu, “Enhanced optical transmission: Role of the localized surface plasmon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101113–101113 (2008). [CrossRef]

44.

K. L. Shuford, M. A. Ratner, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Finite-difference time-domain studies of light transmission through nanohole structures,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 11–18 (2006). [CrossRef]

45.

B. Auguie and W. L. Barnes, “Collective resonances in gold nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

46.

J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: Dipole coupling in two-dimensional arrays of L-shaped silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(28), 10368–10376 (2007). [CrossRef]

47.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, J. S. Im, G. P. Wiederrecht, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, and P. Royer, “Electromagnetic interactions in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(8), 3195–3198 (2005). [CrossRef]

48.

M. Meier, A. Wokaun, and P. F. Liao, “Enhanced fields on rough surfaces: dipolar interactions among particles of sizes exceeding the Rayleigh limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2(6), 931–949 (1985). [CrossRef]

49.

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

50.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1-3), 137–141 (2003). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

History
Original Manuscript: February 26, 2010
Revised Manuscript: March 23, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: March 24, 2010
Published: March 30, 2010

Citation
Matthew J. Kofke, David H. Waldeck, and Gilbert C. Walker, "Composite nanoparticle nanoslit arrays: a novel platform for LSPR mediated subwavelength optical transmission," Opt. Express 18, 7705-7713 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-8-7705


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References

  1. K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(3), 668–677 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. S. K. Ghosh and T. Pal, “Interparticle coupling effect on the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles: from theory to applications,” Chem. Rev. 107(11), 4797–4862 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Kall, “Nanoparticle Optics: The Importance of Radiative Dipole Coupling in Two-Dimensional Nanoparticle Arrays†,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. P. K. Jain and M. A. El-Sayed, “Surface plasmon coupling and its universal size scaling in metal nanostructures of complex geometry: Elongated particle pairs and nanosphere trimers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(13), 4954–4960 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. G. C. Schatz, A. A. Lazarides, and K. L. Kelly, “Modeling the extinction spectra of metal nanoparticle chains and arrays,” Abstr Pap Am Chem S 224, U298–U298 (2002).
  10. C. Tabor, R. Murali, M. Mahmoud, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the Use of Plasmonic Nanoparticle Pairs As a Plasmon Ruler: The Dependence of the Near-Field Dipole Plasmon Coupling on Nanoparticle Size and Shape,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113(10), 1946–1953 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. S. L. Zou, L. L. Hao, N. Janel, and G. C. Schatz, “Extinction spectra of nanoparticle arrays: The influence of size, shape, and interparticle spacing,” Abstr Pap Am Chem S 227, U266–U266 (2004).
  12. S. L. Zou, N. Janel, and G. C. Schatz, “Silver nanoparticle array structures that produce remarkably narrow plasmon lineshapes,” J. Chem. Phys. 120(23), 10871–10875 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. L. Zou and G. C. Schatz, “Narrow plasmonic/photonic extinction and scattering line shapes for one and two dimensional silver nanoparticle arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 121(24), 12606–12612 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Salerno, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “The optical near-field of gold nanoparticle chains,” Opt. Commun. 248(4-6), 543–549 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4391–4397 (2008). [CrossRef]
  17. C. Hägglund, M. Zach, and B. Kasemo, “Enhanced charge carrier generation in dye sensitized solar cells by nanoparticle plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013113 (2008). [CrossRef]
  18. A. J. Haes, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Detection of a biomarker for Alzheimer’s disease from synthetic and clinical samples using a nanoscale optical biosensor,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(7), 2264–2271 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. W. P. Hall, J. N. Anker, Y. Lin, J. Modica, M. Mrksich, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A calcium-modulated plasmonic switch,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(18), 5836–5837 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Ferreira, M. J. Santos, M. M. Rahman, A. G. Brolo, R. Gordon, D. Sinton, and E. M. Girotto, “Attomolar protein detection using in-hole surface plasmon resonance,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 436–437 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. M. Funston, C. Novo, T. J. Davis, and P. Mulvaney, “Plasmon coupling of gold nanorods at short distances and in different geometries,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1651–1658 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. K. Jain, W. Y. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “On the universal scaling behavior of the distance decay of plasmon coupling in metal nanoparticle pairs: A plasmon ruler equation,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 2080–2088 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. Y. W. Jun, S. Sheikholeslami, D. R. Hostetter, C. Tajon, C. S. Craik, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Continuous imaging of plasmon rulers in live cells reveals early-stage caspase-3 activation at the single-molecule level,” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (2009).
  24. M. E. Stewart, J. Yao, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, “Multispectral Thin Film Biosensing and Quantitative Imaging Using 3D Plasmonic Crystals,” Anal Chem (2009).
  25. S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Teissier, and J. L. Pelouard, “Strong discontinuities in the complex photonic band structure of transmission metallic gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 63(3), 033107 (2001). [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Takakura, “Optical resonance in a narrow slit in a thick metallic screen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5601–5603 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, “Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(5), 057403 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Y. S. Jung, J. Wuenschell, H. K. Kim, P. Kaur, and D. H. Waldeck, “Blue-shift of surface plasmon resonance in a metal nanoslit array structure,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16081–16091 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Y. S. Jung, Y. Xi, J. Wuenschell, and H. K. Kim, “Near- to far-field imaging of phase evolution of light emanating from a metal nanoslit,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18881–18882 (2008). [CrossRef]
  30. P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, and J. C. Rodier, “Theory of surface plasmon generation at nanoslit apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. Wuenschell and H. K. Kim, “Excitation and propagation of surface plasmons in a metallic nanoslit structure,” IEEE T Nanotechnol 7(2), 229–236 (2008). [CrossRef]
  32. K. G. Lee and Q. H. Park, “Coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and light in metallic nanoslits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103902 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. B. Wang and P. Lalanne, “How many surface plasmons are locally excited on the ridges of metallic lamellar gratings?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051115–051113 (2010). [CrossRef]
  34. Y. S. Jung, Z. Sun, J. Wuenschell, H. K. Kim, P. Kaur, L. Wang, and D. Waldeck, “High-sensitivity surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy based on a metal nanoslit array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).
  35. K. L. Lee, C. W. Lee, W. S. Wang, and P. K. Wei, “Sensitive biosensor array using surface plasmon resonance on metallic nanoslits,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, - (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]
  37. J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: Plasmon coupling in finite-sized two-dimensional arrays of cylindrical silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(11), 4091–4096 (2008). [CrossRef]
  38. C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, L. L. Zhao, R. P. Van Duyne, G. C. Schatz, L. Gunnarsson, J. Prikulis, B. Kasemo, and M. Kall, “Nanoparticle optics: The importance of radiative dipole coupling in two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7337–7342 (2003). [CrossRef]
  39. E. M. Hicks, S. Zou, G. C. Schatz, K. G. Spears, R. P. Van Duyne, L. Gunnarsson, T. Rindzevicius, B. Kasemo, and M. Käll, “Controlling plasmon line shapes through diffractive coupling in linear arrays of cylindrical nanoparticles fabricated by electron beam lithography,” Nano Lett. 5(6), 1065–1070 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. M. J. Kofke, D. H. Waldeck, Z. Fakhraai, S. Ip, and G. C. Walker, “The effect of periodicity on the extraordinary optical transmission of annular aperture arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 023104 (2009). [CrossRef]
  41. A. Pinchuk and G. Schatz, “Collective surface plasmon resonance coupling in silver nanoshell arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 93(1), 31–38 (2008). [CrossRef]
  42. L. L. Zhao, K. L. Kelly, and G. C. Schatz, “The extinction spectra of silver nanoparticle arrays: Influence of array structure on plasmon resonance wavelength and width,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(30), 7343–7350 (2003). [CrossRef]
  43. S. Wu, Q.- Wang, X.- Yin, J.- Li, D. Zhu, S.- Liu, and Y.-y. Zhu, “Enhanced optical transmission: Role of the localized surface plasmon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 101113–101113 (2008). [CrossRef]
  44. K. L. Shuford, M. A. Ratner, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, “Finite-difference time-domain studies of light transmission through nanohole structures,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 11–18 (2006). [CrossRef]
  45. B. Auguie and W. L. Barnes, “Collective resonances in gold nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. J. Sung, E. M. Hicks, R. P. Van Duyne, and K. G. Spears, “Nanoparticle spectroscopy: Dipole coupling in two-dimensional arrays of L-shaped silver nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(28), 10368–10376 (2007). [CrossRef]
  47. A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, J. S. Im, G. P. Wiederrecht, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, and P. Royer, “Electromagnetic interactions in plasmonic nanoparticle arrays,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(8), 3195–3198 (2005). [CrossRef]
  48. M. Meier, A. Wokaun, and P. F. Liao, “Enhanced fields on rough surfaces: dipolar interactions among particles of sizes exceeding the Rayleigh limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2(6), 931–949 (1985). [CrossRef]
  49. B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Metal nanoparticle gratings: influence of dipolar particle interaction on the plasmon resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(20), 4721–4724 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1-3), 137–141 (2003). [CrossRef]

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