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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 8 — Apr. 12, 2010
  • pp: 8229–8238
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Electrically tunable Yb-doped fiber laser based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device

Christina B. Olausson, Lara Scolari, Lei Wei, Danny Noordegraaf, Johannes Weirich, Thomas T. Alkeskjold, Kim P. Hansen, and Anders Bjarklev  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 8, pp. 8229-8238 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.008229


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Abstract

We demonstrate electrical tunability of a fiber laser using a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber. Tuning of the laser is achieved by combining the wavelength filtering effect of a tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device with an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. We fabricate an all-spliced laser cavity based on the liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber mounted on a silicon assembly, a pump/signal combiner with single-mode signal feed-through and an ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber. The laser cavity produces a single-mode output and is tuned in the range 1040-1065 nm by applying an electric field to the silicon assembly.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

A typical photonic crystal fiber (PCF) obtains its waveguide properties from an arrangement of airholes in a silica cladding surrounding a solid core [1

1. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The airholes lower the average refractive index of the cladding, allowing the fiber to guide by modified total internal reflection (TIR). Furthermore, a microstructured cladding can allow for waveguidance by the photonic bandgap (PBG) effect where light is confined within a low-index core by means of coherent reflections from the surrounding periodic structure [2

2. N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, P. E. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, “Application of an ARROW model for designing tunable photonic devices,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1540–1550 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1540. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The design structure of PCFs offers the unique possibility of infiltrating the airholes of a TIR guiding PCF with a high-index liquid material and thereby give rise to guidance by the photonic bandgap (PBG) effect. Among high-index liquid materials, liquid crystals (LCs) exhibit large electro-optic and thermo-optic effects due to high birefringence (Δn ~ 0.8) [3

3. S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, “Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 11A), 7634–7638 (2004). [CrossRef]

] and large dielectric anisotropy (Δε ~ 70) [4

4. S. T. Wu, Q. T. Zhang, and S. Marder, “High dielectric dopants for low voltage liquid crystal operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 10B), L1254–L1256 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. These effects can be exploited to control the bandgap properties of the fiber in order to fabricate all-in-fiber devices employing either thermal, electrical or optical tunability [5

5. B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices,” Opt. Express 9(13), 698–713 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-9-13-698. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7

7. R. T. Bise, R. S. Windeler, K. S. Kranz, C. Kerbage, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Trevor, “Tunable photonic band gap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit,2002. OFC 2002, pp. 466–468.

]. A number of such liquid crystal photonic bandgap (LCPBG) devices have been demonstrated [8

8. T. T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, and J. Broeng, “Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2589–2596 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-20-2589. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19

19. L. Wei, W. Xue, Y. Chen, T. T. Alkeskjold, and A. Bjarklev, “Optically fed microwave true-time delay based on a compact liquid-crystal photonic-bandgap-fiber device,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2757–2759 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Combining the wavelength filtering effect of PBG confinement with an ytterbium-doped core has previously been used in solid-core PBG fiber lasers and amplifiers. The bandgap efficiently suppresses the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) at the conventional ytterbium gain wavelengths around 1030nm and enables both short [20

20. V. Pureur, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Douay, and Y. Jaouen, “Ytterbium-doped solid core photonic bandgap fiber for laser operation around 980 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061113 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and long wavelength operation [21

21. A. Shirakawa, H. Maruyama, K. Ueda, C. B. Olausson, J. K. Lyngsø, and J. Broeng, “High-power Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1150-1200 nm,” Opt. Express 17(2), 447–454 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-2-447. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this work we merge the PBG fiber laser concept with the tunability offered by LCs to create an all-spliced fiber laser with electrical tunability in the range 1040-1065 nm. The presence of a bandgap in the laser cavity will inhibit lasing at certain wavelengths, thus by applying an electric field to an intra-cavity LCPBG fiber the bandgap position can be shifted, resulting in laser tunability. This is to our knowledge the first LC based electrically tunable fiber laser. The device holds potential as a low cost tunable seed source for ytterbium fiber amplifiers.

2. Liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber

The fiber used in the experiment is a large-mode-area PCF (LMA-13) with a hole diameter of 4.3 μm, an inter-hole distance of 8.5 μm and a cladding diameter of 125 μm. The 13 μm core is surrounded by five rings of airholes arranged in a triangular lattice. The LC is infiltrated by capillary forces without application of external forces in order to minimize deformations of the LC alignment. The LC infiltrated section of the fiber is 13 mm long. A SEM image of the fiber end facet is shown in Fig. 1(b). The surrounding structure is the silicon assembly.

3. Electrically controlled LCPBG fiber device

When the LCPBG fiber is placed between electrodes the spectral position of the bandgaps in the LC filled section of the fiber can be electrically tuned. Applying a 1 kHz sine wave in bipolar mode across the fiber causes the refractive index in the transverse plane to increase thus shifting the bandgap towards longer wavelengths as shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Transmission spectrum of the LCPBG device as a function of applied voltage. The frequency of the applied electric field is 1 kHz.
. The short wavelength bandgap edge is situated around the typical ytterbium gain wavelengths 1030-1080 nm, which makes the device well suited for an ytterbium-doped fiber laser. This position of the short wavelength edge of the bandgap allows for filtering of short wavelength ASE which is the main limitation in ytterbium-doped fiber lasers. When the voltage is increased, the bandgap edge and the laser wavelength will move towards longer wavelengths. The main loss mechanism is coupling loss between the TIR mode of the unfilled fiber and the PBG mode of the filled fiber. At voltages above 160 Vrms the transmission becomes lossy as the PBG mode becomes less confined in the silica core.

Packaging of the LCPBG fiber device is critical in order to achieve a compact and easy-to-use device. The LC infiltrated section of the LMA-13 is placed in a v-groove fabricated on silicon substrate and the end facet is placed just outside the chip in order to enable coupling of light as shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Illustration of the silicon assembly for the LCPBG device.
. A pair of Au electrodes is deposited on the sidewalls of the groove, and the electrode patterning is achieved by using thick photoresist coating and two-step exposure [22

22. L. Wei, E. Khomtchenko, T. T. Alkeskjold, and A. Bjarklev, “Photolithography of thick photoresist coating for electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber devices,” Electron. Lett. 45(6), 326–327 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The electrodes are electrically isolated from the silicon substrate by a 2 μm SiO2 layer and a thin titanium layer is used as an adhesion layer between the electrodes and the isolation layer. A top lid containing a v-groove with the other pair of electrodes is placed on top of the fiber, forming two sets of electrodes, which fix the fiber at four orthogonal corners relative to the fiber core. In order to ensure a good contact between the LCPBG fiber and the electrodes, SU-8 fiber fixing structures are built up on the electrodes [23]. The height of each SU-8 structure is 84 μm and the distance between two neighboring structures is 126 μm, taking the small variation of the fiber outer diameter into account. The assembly is sealed with epoxy.

4. All-spliced laser cavity with single-mode combiner

The all-spliced fiber assembly is comprised of the LCPBG fiber device, an ytterbium-doped airclad PCF, a pump diode and a 6+1:1 pump/signal combiner for airclad fibers with polarization-maintaining (PM) single-mode signal feed-through. The combiner is designed for 0.15 NA pump diodes, and in order to utilize the high NA supported by airclad fibers, it features a special taper element [24

24. D. Noordegraaf, M. D. Nielsen, P. M. Skovgaard, S. Agger, K. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, H. R. Simonsen, and J. Lægsgaard, “Pump Combiner for Air-Clad Fiber with PM Single-Mode Signal Feed-through,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CThGG6.

].

The LCPBG fiber device is spliced to the single-mode signal feed-through of the combiner while the delivery fiber of the combiner is spliced to a PM ytterbium-doped airclad PCF. The laser cavity is formed by a lens and silver mirror after the LCPBG fiber device and the cleaved end facet of the ytterbium-doped PCF. The ytterbium-doped PCF has a pump cladding diameter of 105 μm, a mode field diameter of 12 μm and is cleaved at a 0° angle to allow for approximately 4% reflectivity. With a pump absorption of ~3 dB/m and a length of 4 m it is optimized for 976 nm pumping. The residual pump is filtered by a long wave pass filter at the output of the laser cavity while the laser signal spectrum is recorded by an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). An illustration of the all-spliced laser cavity is shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 All-spliced laser cavity setup from the left: cavity mirror, LCPBG fiber mounted on a silicon assembly, pump/signal combiner with single-mode signal feed-through, ytterbium-doped PCF, long wave pass filter, and OSA.
. Besides ease-of-use and compactness, an additional incentive to use the pump/signal combiner rather than pumping through a dichroic mirror is that cladding pumping directly through the LC filled section might affect the behavior of the LC.

5. Tunability of the LCPBG fiber laser

Bandgap tunability of the all-spliced fiber assembly is investigated by applying a voltage of up to 200 Vrms to the LCPBG device. Figure 5
Fig. 5 Transmission spectrum of the all-spliced fiber assembly. The short wavelength bandgap edge is shifted towards longer wavelengths when a voltage is applied. Above 160 Vrms the losses in the bandgap become high.
shows the transmission spectra of the assembly for different voltage settings. Below 100 Vrms the bandgap is unchanged, from 100 to 160 Vrms the short wavelength edge of the bandgap is shifted towards longer wavelengths by approximately 25 nm. Above 160 Vrms the losses in the bandgap increase dramatically. The total loss in the cavity due to the LC insertion, the combiner and splices is measured to approximately 6 dB and is mainly due to mode-matching errors at the interface between the LMA fiber and the PM signal feed-through fiber and due to coupling losses between the TIR mode and the PBG mode of the LMA fiber. Considering the high losses in the bandgap above 160 Vrms, the laser cavity is only expected to be tunable at lower voltage setting. A near field image of the single-mode output from the laser cavity is shown Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Near field image of the single-mode output from the laser cavity.
.

In PBG fiber lasers, lasing will occur at the wavelengths that experience the least loss due to the bandgap combined with the highest gain due to their emission cross section. These wavelengths are close to the short wavelength edge of the bandgap. Fiber lasers based on active PBG fibers typically have distributed spectral filtering along the whole length of the fiber in order to reduce ASE, whereas in the LCPBG device the LC infiltrated section is only 13 mm long. Hence, ASE will inevitably build up in the ytterbium-doped fiber, resulting in parasitic lasing which will limit the tunability and power scalability of the LCPBG fiber laser. Figure 7(a-c)
Fig. 7 Laser transmission spectra compared to bandgap transmission spectra for two different voltage settings, (a) 0 Vrms, (b) 150 Vrms, and (c) 160 Vrms. The plots show how the cavity is lasing close to the short wavelength bandgap edge. Parasitic lasing outside the bandgap will limit the power and tunability of the laser at high voltages.
shows the laser transmission spectra compared to the bandgap transmission spectra for three different voltage setting, 0 Vrms, 150 Vrms, and 160 Vrms. For low voltages the ASE peak is well inside the bandgap and therefore tuning of the bandgap edge does not affect the lasing wavelength significantly. For higher voltages the ASE peak is outside the bandgap, while the laser wavelength is tuned inside the bandgap. For voltages of 160 Vrms and higher, the loss inside the bandgap becomes too high leading to parasitic lasing outside the bandgap. Had a frequency above 15 kHz been applied instead, the bandgap edge would have moved towards shorter wavelengths, the ASE peak around 1040 nm would have remained inside the bandgap and tuning of the laser would have been impossible.

Figure 8
Fig. 8 The laser wavelength is shifted towards longer wavelengths. At 160 Vrms parasitic lasing sets in at shorter wavelengths. A total shift of 25 nm is observed.
shows the narrow laser spectra of the cavity for different voltage settings. The laser wavelength is shifted towards longer wavelengths by approximately 25 nm. The pump power is increased between each measurement to keep lasing just above threshold and as a consequence ASE builds up in the cavity when the pump power is increased. The ASE build-up causes parasitic lasing at shorter wavelengths for voltages around 160 Vrms and higher, eventually limiting both the power and the tuning range of the laser. The laser wavelength is plotted as a function of applied voltage in Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The laser wavelength plotted as a function of applied voltage. Tuning starts above 130 Vrms. The wavelength is constant at 1040 nm below 130 Vrms.
. The wavelength is constant at 1040 nm below 130 Vrms and tunable up to 1065 nm at 155 Vrms.

We have shown that the lasing wavelength is determined by the position of the bandgap edge of the LCPBG device, which in turn is influenced by the refractive index structure in the LC. Since the LC is splay aligned the modes in the capillaries see a spatially varying anisotropic refractive index structure which changed when an external electric field is applied. The change in effective index is determined by the orientation of the LCs and this reorientation depends quadratically on the applied electric field [25

25. J. Weirich, J. Laegsgaard, L. Scolari, L. Wei, T. T. Alkeskjold, and A. Bjarklev, “Biased liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4442–4453 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-6-4442. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,26

26. J. Weirich, J. Laegsgaard, L. Wei, T. T. Alkeskjold, T. X. Wu, S. Wu, and A. Bjarklev, “Liquid crystal parameter analysis for tunable photonic bandgap fiber devices,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4074–4087 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-4074. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Figure 10
Fig. 10 Simulated change of effective index of the capillary mode responsible for the short wavelength bandgap edge. The dependence of the effective index shift on the applied external field is found to be quadratic.
shows the simulated change of effective index of the capillary mode responsible for the short wavelength bandgap edge. Also here we find a quadratic dependence of the effective index shift on the applied external electric field. Thus, as expected the tuning in Fig. 9 is not linear.

The laser cavity produced an output of ~30 mW with the efficiency of the laser strongly limited by losses in the cavity. With optimization of cavity optics, fiber cleave angles, LC device, and mode-matching between fibers, losses can be reduced and potentially allow for the production of an easily tunable, single-mode output signal, which can be used to seed a fiber amplifier. The present cavity yields up to 25 dB of ASE suppression, however an improved cavity with reflectors in both ends is expected to improve the ASE suppression significantly. The polarization-maintaining properties of the device are expected to be good.

6. Conclusion

We have fabricated an all-spliced fiber laser cavity with a single-mode output, which is electrically tunable from 1040 nm to 1065 nm. The device is based on an LCPBG fiber mounted on a silicon assembly, a pump/signal combiner and an ytterbium-doped PCF. The LCPBG fiber device induces a bandgap in the cavity, which is tuned by an electric field and used to shift the laser wavelength by 25 nm. This is to our knowledge the first LC based electrically tunable fiber laser. With improvements to the system, the device holds potential as a low cost, compact and easy-to-use tunable seed source for fiber amplifiers. Improvements can by obtained by reducing the cavity losses or by reducing the number of components and interfaces in the cavity, e.g. by infiltrating LC directly in an ytterbium-doped PCF.

References and links

1.

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, P. E. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, “Application of an ARROW model for designing tunable photonic devices,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1540–1550 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1540. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, “Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 11A), 7634–7638 (2004). [CrossRef]

4.

S. T. Wu, Q. T. Zhang, and S. Marder, “High dielectric dopants for low voltage liquid crystal operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 10B), L1254–L1256 (1998). [CrossRef]

5.

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices,” Opt. Express 9(13), 698–713 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-9-13-698. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, P. Mach, M. Dolinski, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 204(1-6), 179–184 (2002). [CrossRef]

7.

R. T. Bise, R. S. Windeler, K. S. Kranz, C. Kerbage, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Trevor, “Tunable photonic band gap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit,2002. OFC 2002, pp. 466–468.

8.

T. T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, and J. Broeng, “Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2589–2596 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-20-2589. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 819–821 (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

L. Scolari, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, A. Anawati, M. Nielsen, and P. Bassi, “Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7483–7496 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-19-7483. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

F. Du, Y. Q. Lu, and S. T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2181–2183 (2004). [CrossRef]

12.

T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, A. Anawati, J. Broeng, J. Li, and S. T. Wu, “All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5857–5871 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-24-5857. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

L. Scolari, T. T. Alkeskjold, and A. Bjarklev, “Tunable Gaussian filter based on tapered liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre,” Electron. Lett. 42(22), 1270–1271 (2006). [CrossRef]

14.

D. Noordegraaf, L. Scolari, J. Lægsgaard, L. Rindorf, and T. T. Alkeskjold, “Electrically and mechanically induced long period gratings in liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 15(13), 7901–7912 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-13-7901. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

M. N. Petersen, L. Scolari, T. Tokle, T. T. Alkeskjold, S. Gauza, S.-T. Wu, and A. Bjarklev, “Noise filtering in a multi-channel system using a tunable liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 16(24), 20067–20072 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-20067. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wojcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3061–3069 (2007). [CrossRef]

17.

T. R. Woliński, A. Czapla, S. Ertman, M. Tefelska, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and R. Dabrowski, “Tunable highly birefringent solid-core photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39(12-13), 1021–1032 (2007). [CrossRef]

18.

D. C. Zografopoulos, E. E. Kriezis, and T. D. Tsiboukis, “Tunable highly birefringent bandgap-guiding liquid crystal microstructured fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(9), 3427–3432 (2006). [CrossRef]

19.

L. Wei, W. Xue, Y. Chen, T. T. Alkeskjold, and A. Bjarklev, “Optically fed microwave true-time delay based on a compact liquid-crystal photonic-bandgap-fiber device,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2757–2759 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

V. Pureur, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Douay, and Y. Jaouen, “Ytterbium-doped solid core photonic bandgap fiber for laser operation around 980 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061113 (2008). [CrossRef]

21.

A. Shirakawa, H. Maruyama, K. Ueda, C. B. Olausson, J. K. Lyngsø, and J. Broeng, “High-power Yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1150-1200 nm,” Opt. Express 17(2), 447–454 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-2-447. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

L. Wei, E. Khomtchenko, T. T. Alkeskjold, and A. Bjarklev, “Photolithography of thick photoresist coating for electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber devices,” Electron. Lett. 45(6), 326–327 (2009). [CrossRef]

23.

L. Wei, T. T. Alkeskjold, and A. Bjarklev, “Compact design of an electrically tunable and rotatable polarizer based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(21), 1633–1635 (2009). [CrossRef]

24.

D. Noordegraaf, M. D. Nielsen, P. M. Skovgaard, S. Agger, K. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, C. Jakobsen, H. R. Simonsen, and J. Lægsgaard, “Pump Combiner for Air-Clad Fiber with PM Single-Mode Signal Feed-through,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CThGG6.

25.

J. Weirich, J. Laegsgaard, L. Scolari, L. Wei, T. T. Alkeskjold, and A. Bjarklev, “Biased liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4442–4453 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-6-4442. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

J. Weirich, J. Laegsgaard, L. Wei, T. T. Alkeskjold, T. X. Wu, S. Wu, and A. Bjarklev, “Liquid crystal parameter analysis for tunable photonic bandgap fiber devices,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4074–4087 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-4074. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(230.3720) Optical devices : Liquid-crystal devices
(060.5295) Fiber optics and optical communications : Photonic crystal fibers
(060.3510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Lasers, fiber

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: December 21, 2009
Revised Manuscript: March 11, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: March 16, 2010
Published: April 5, 2010

Citation
Christina B. Olausson, Lara Scolari, Lei Wei, Danny Noordegraaf, Johannes Weirich, Thomas T. Alkeskjold, Kim P. Hansen, and Anders Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable Yb-doped fiber laser based on a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber device," Opt. Express 18, 8229-8238 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-8-8229


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References

  1. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, P. E. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, and C. M. de Sterke, “Application of an ARROW model for designing tunable photonic devices,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1540–1550 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1540 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Gauza, C. H. Wen, S. T. Wu, N. Janarthanan, and C. S. Hsu, “Super high birefringence isothiocyanato biphenyl-bistolane liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 11A), 7634–7638 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. S. T. Wu, Q. T. Zhang, and S. Marder, “High dielectric dopants for low voltage liquid crystal operation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 10B), L1254–L1256 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, and A. Hale, “Microstructured optical fiber devices,” Opt. Express 9(13), 698–713 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-9-13-698 . [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, P. Mach, M. Dolinski, and J. A. Rogers, “Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber,” Opt. Commun. 204(1-6), 179–184 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. R. T. Bise, R. S. Windeler, K. S. Kranz, C. Kerbage, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Trevor, “Tunable photonic band gap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit,2002. OFC 2002, pp. 466–468.
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