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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 8 — Apr. 12, 2010
  • pp: 8705–8712
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Programmable photonic crystal nanobeam cavities

Ian W. Frank, Parag B. Deotare, Murray W. McCutcheon, and Marko Lončar  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 8, pp. 8705-8712 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.008705


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Abstract

We present dynamically reconfigurable photonic crystal nanobeam cavities, operating at ~1550 nm, that can be continuously and reversibly tuned over a 9.5 nm wavelength range. The devices are formed by two coupled nanobeam cavities, and the tuning is achieved by varying the lateral gap between the nanobeams. An electrostatic force, obtained by applying bias voltages directly to the nanobeams, is used to control the spacing between the nanobeams, which in turn results in tuning of the cavity resonance. The observed tuning trends were confirmed through simulations that modeled the electrostatic actuation as well as the optical resonances in our reconfigurable geometries.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Wavelength-scale, high Q-factor photonic crystal cavities [1

1. B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005). [CrossRef]

,2

2. P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009). [CrossRef]

] have emerged as a platform of choice for on-chip manipulation of optical signals, with applications ranging from low-power optical signal processing [3

3. T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151112 (2005). [CrossRef]

] and cavity quantum electrodynamics [4

4. K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,5

5. D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vucković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature 450(7171), 857–861 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to biochemical sensing. Many of these applications, however, are limited by fabrication tolerances and the inability to precisely control the resonant wavelength of fabricated structures. Various techniques for post-fabrication wavelength trimming [6

6. X. Yang, C. J. Chen, C. A. Husko, and C. W. Wong, “Digital resonance tuning of high-Q/Vm silicon photonic crystal nanocavities by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161115 (2007). [CrossRef]

,7

7. A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and dynamical wavelength control – using, for example, thermal effects [8

8. J. Pan, Y. Huo, K. Yamanaka, S. Sandhu, L. Scaccabarozzi, R. Timp, M. L. Povinelli, S. Fan, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, “Aligning microcavity resonances in silicon photonic-crystal slabs using laser-pumped thermal tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103114 (2008). [CrossRef]

10

10. I. Fushman, E. Waks, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical tuning of photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091118 (2007). [CrossRef]

], free carrier injection [11

11. M. W. McCutcheon, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, G. W. Rieger, and J. F. Young, “Emission spectrum of electromagnetic energy stored in a dynamically perturbed optical microcavity,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11472–11480 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], low temperature gas condensation [12

12. S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005). [CrossRef]

], and immersion in fluids [13

13. B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 360–362 (2004). [CrossRef]

] – have been explored. However, these methods are often limited by small tuning ranges, high power consumption, and the inability to tune continuously or reversibly. In this paper, by combining nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) and nanophotonics, we demonstrate reconfigurable photonic crystal nanobeam cavities that can be continuously and dynamically tuned using electrostatic forces. A tuning of ~10 nm has been demonstrated with less than 6 V of external bias and negligible steady-state power consumption.

Recently, it has been theoretically predicted [14

14. C. Sauvan, G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. P. Hugonin, “Modal-reflectivity enhancement by geometry tuning in Photonic Crystal microcavities,” Opt. Express 13(1), 245–255 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16

16. M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, “Ultrahigh-Q nanocavity with 1D photonic gap,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11095–11102 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and experimentally verified [2

2. P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009). [CrossRef]

,17

17. A. R. Md Zain, N. P. Johnson, M. Sorel, and R. M. De la Rue, “Ultra high quality factor one dimensional photonic crystal/photonic wire micro-cavities in silicon-on-insulator (SOI),” Opt. Express 16(16), 12084–12089 (2008). [CrossRef]

19

19. P. Velha, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, J. C. Rodier, P. Lalanne, and D. Peyrade, “Ultra-high q/v fabry-perot microcavity on soi substrate,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16090–16096 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] that photonic crystal nanobeam cavities (PhCNB) can have ultra-high quality factors, on-par with those demonstrated in conventional photonic crystal cavities based on a two- dimensional lattice of holes. PhCNB cavities can be viewed as a doubly clamped nanobeam, the simplest NEMS device, perforated with a one-dimensional lattice of holes, a textbook example of an optical grating. By introducing an appropriate chirp in the grating, ultra-high Q factors and small mode volume optical resonators can be realized [2

2. P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

When two PhCNB cavities are placed in each other’s near field, as shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. a, SEM image of a representative fabricated structure. The suspended silicon is in contact with gold electrodes seen at the edge of the image and is supported by islands of SiO2 (scalebar = 1 μm). b, SEM image showing the deflection of the nanobeams due to electrostatic actuation. c, Finite element simulations showing nanobeams deflected due to an applied potential. The insets depict the Ey component of the optical supermodes of the coupled cavities. d, Simulation data: the red curve shows the lateral separation of a pair of nanobeams, measured at the center of the structure, as a potential is applied across them, while the blue curve shows the force generated due to the applied voltage.
, their resonant modes couple, resulting in two supermodes with resonant frequencies that are highly dependent on the spacing between the nanobeams [20

20. P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “Coupled photonic crystal nanobeam Cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031102 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. This can be attributed to two major factors. Firstly, the coupling between the two resonators increases with the reduction in the lateral separation between the nanobeams, which results in a greater splitting between the two supermodes. Secondly, as the nanobeams are drawn closer together, the higher order effect of the coupling-induced frequency shift [21

21. M. A. Popovic, C. Manolatou, and M. R. Watts, “Coupling-induced resonance frequency shifts in coupled dielectric multi-cavity filters,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1208–1222 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] becomes significant (especially for separations < 100 nm) causing red shifting in both of the supermodes. The net effect of these two factors is that the even supermode experiences a considerable red shift as the separation is reduced, while the wavelength of the odd supermode stays relatively constant (the two effects cancel out) [20

20. P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “Coupled photonic crystal nanobeam Cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031102 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

The strong dependence of the wavelength of the even supermode on the separation between the two nanobeams renders coupled-PhCNB cavities highly suited for applications in motion and mass sensing. In addition, the strong optical fields that exist in the air region between the coupled-PhCNB cavities make these devices excellent candidates for biochemical sensing applications. Finally, by simultaneously taking advantage of both the optical and mechanical degrees of freedom of such these cavities, a plethora of exciting optomechanical phenomena can be realized [18

18. M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,22

22. M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Simulations

3. Fabrication and experiments

The resonantly scattered signal was collected by the same objective lens, split using a non-polarizing beam-splitter, analyzed using a linear polarizer which was cross polarized with respect to the input beam, and finally detected using an InGaAs photo-detector. This method enhances the ratio between the resonantly scattered signal and the non-resonant background reflection, without loading the cavity. Due to the inherent symmetry of the excitation field, the resonant modes of the two cavities are more naturally driven in phase, which facilitates the measurement of the even supermodes of the coupled cavities. However, by taking advantage of a gradient in the excitation fields (by offsetting the excitation beam), we were also able to probe the odd supermodes.

4. Results and discussion

In our best devices, we were able to shift the resonant wavelength of the even supermode up to 9.6 nm when less than 6 V of external bias voltage was applied [Fig. 3(a)]. This wide tuning range is nearly 80 times larger than the linewidth of the cavity resonance in the present design, and this ratio can be further improved by increasing the Q-factor of the fabricated cavities. Figure 3(a) also shows the sensitivity plot for the measured cavity, defined as the change in the resonant wavelength for a given voltage change.

By operating the system at a bias of ~6 V, sensitivities as large as 50 nm/V can be measured. In other words, in this regime, as little as a 5 mV change in the bias voltage would result in a wavelength change larger than the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM ~0.1 nm) of the cavity resonance. This is advantageous for the realization of applications such as low-power optical switches and reconfigurable filters/routers. The high sensitivity of our devices can be attributed to two factors: (i) the dependence of the wavelength shift on the change in separation is intrinsically nonlinear [20

20. P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “Coupled photonic crystal nanobeam Cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031102 (2009). [CrossRef]

], and much larger shifts are obtained as the nanobeam separation becomes smaller, as in the case of higher voltages; (ii) the electrostatic force experienced by the nanobeams is quadratic with the applied bias voltage as well as inversely-proportional to the nanobeam separation. At this point it is worth clarifying that the stiffness’ of the nano-beams are heavily dependent their geometries. This means that by making the beams thinner or longer the sensitivity (dλ/dV) can be increased significantly. However, the tuning mechanism would not have changed. Additionally there is a limit to this weakening of the beams because they need to be able to support their own weight and survive the fabrication process. It is important to emphasize that in the steady state, when the system is reconfigured and the nanobeams are deflected to their final position, our system is not drawing any power from the bias source. This is of great practical interest for the realization of reconfigurable devices and systems, as mentioned above. The high sensitivities and high Q-factors of coupled-PhCNB cavities are also suitable for precision motion measurements in NEMS devices, since a strong modulation of the optical signal can be achieved, even for tiny displacements of the nanobeams.

By utilizing an electrical feed-through port on a scanning electron microscope (SEM), we were able to observe the real-time deflection of the devices due to the applied bias voltage. Figure 3(b) shows SEM images of the two nanobeams with increasing voltages applied across them. The images are shown for nanobeams with a large initial separation (Vbias = 0) of 100 nm, in order to render the motion of the nanobeams more distinctly. The bending of the nanobeams at the center of the structure can easily be observed, and matches well with our theoretical predictions [Fig. 1(c)]. After the pull-in voltage [27

27. C. Liu, Foundations of MEMS (Prentice Hall, 2005).

] is exceeded, the two beams can become permanently stuck together due to van der Waals interactions. Finally, we note that the difference in steady-state performance of our structures when operated in vacuum (inside the SEM chamber) and in the atmospheric conditions (resonant scattering setup) is negligible, as in either case the structure is operated well below the breakdown voltage.

An inherent limitation of the speed of this tuning method is the RC time constant (resistance × capacitance) of the parallel nanobeams. The resistance offered by the silicon nanobeams is on the order of 1013 Ω (the resistivity of the SOI device layer is rated at 103 Ω•cm), and the capacitance is on the order of 10−17 F, resulting in RC time constants in the 100-microsecond range. Experimentally, however, we observed slower device response (~second) which can be attributed to parasitic capacitances (e.g. between large metal contacts and substrate) and resistances (e.g. due to lateral contact between metal and Si). This response time could be readily improved by improving the way in which contact is made. More importantly, the performance of the system could be even further improved by utilizing alternative actuation methods [28

28. Q. P. Unterreithmeier, E. M. Weig, and J. P. Kotthaus, “Universal transduction scheme for nanomechanical systems based on dielectric forces,” Nature 458(7241), 1001–1004 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] that do not depend on the RC time constant of the coupled nanobeams. In that case, the response time would be limited by the mechanical response. These methods will be pursued in our future experiments and hold great promise for exciting applications that require fast mechanical response.

5. Conclusion

In summary, we have demonstrated reconfigurable optical filters that can be dynamically and reversibly tuned using electrostatic forces over ~10 nm wavelength range when less than 6 V of external bias is applied to the structure. This work will serve as a basis for exciting applications ranging from reconfigurable and programmable photonics (e.g. filters, routers, switches, lasers), motion and mass sensing, RF photonics, and so on. The tuning method is stable and remarkably reproducible, provided that the voltage is not raised beyond the point of pull-in. By allowing precision wavelength trimming of devices, this method also provides higher tolerances for fabrication errors, enabling diverse applications in optomechanics, cavity quantum electrodynamics, and optical signal processing.

Acknowledgements

This work is supported in part by NSF CAREER grant. Device fabrication was performed at the Center for Nanoscale Systems at Harvard. The authors would like to thank CNS Staff members David Lange and Steven Paolini for their assistance. The authors would also like to thank Prof. Ming Wu for helpful discussions. M.W.M. would like to thank NSERC (Canada) for its support and I.W.F. thanks the NSF GRFP.

References and links

1.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005). [CrossRef]

2.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151112 (2005). [CrossRef]

4.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vucković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature 450(7171), 857–861 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

X. Yang, C. J. Chen, C. A. Husko, and C. W. Wong, “Digital resonance tuning of high-Q/Vm silicon photonic crystal nanocavities by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161115 (2007). [CrossRef]

7.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008). [CrossRef]

8.

J. Pan, Y. Huo, K. Yamanaka, S. Sandhu, L. Scaccabarozzi, R. Timp, M. L. Povinelli, S. Fan, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, “Aligning microcavity resonances in silicon photonic-crystal slabs using laser-pumped thermal tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103114 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

I. Märki, M. Salt, H. P. Herzig, R. Stanley, L. El Melhaoui, P. Lyan, and J. M. Fedeli, “Optically tunable microcavity in a planar photonic crystal silicon waveguide buried in oxide,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 513–515 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

I. Fushman, E. Waks, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical tuning of photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091118 (2007). [CrossRef]

11.

M. W. McCutcheon, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, G. W. Rieger, and J. F. Young, “Emission spectrum of electromagnetic energy stored in a dynamically perturbed optical microcavity,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11472–11480 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005). [CrossRef]

13.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 360–362 (2004). [CrossRef]

14.

C. Sauvan, G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. P. Hugonin, “Modal-reflectivity enhancement by geometry tuning in Photonic Crystal microcavities,” Opt. Express 13(1), 245–255 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

M. W. McCutcheon and M. Loncar, “Design of a silicon nitride photonic crystal nanocavity with a Quality factor of one million for coupling to a diamond nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19136–19145 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, “Ultrahigh-Q nanocavity with 1D photonic gap,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11095–11102 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

A. R. Md Zain, N. P. Johnson, M. Sorel, and R. M. De la Rue, “Ultra high quality factor one dimensional photonic crystal/photonic wire micro-cavities in silicon-on-insulator (SOI),” Opt. Express 16(16), 12084–12089 (2008). [CrossRef]

18.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

P. Velha, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, J. C. Rodier, P. Lalanne, and D. Peyrade, “Ultra-high q/v fabry-perot microcavity on soi substrate,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16090–16096 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “Coupled photonic crystal nanobeam Cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 031102 (2009). [CrossRef]

21.

M. A. Popovic, C. Manolatou, and M. R. Watts, “Coupling-induced resonance frequency shifts in coupled dielectric multi-cavity filters,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1208–1222 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

M. C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, “Tunable coupling regimes of silicon microdisk resonators using MEMS actuators,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4703–4712 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

M. W. McCutcheon, G. W. Rieger, I. W. Cheung, J. F. Young, D. Dalacu, S. Frederick, P. J. Poole, G. C. Aers, and R. L. Williams, “Resonant scattering and second-harmonic spectroscopy of planar photonic crystal microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(22), 221110 (2005). [CrossRef]

25.

H. Altug and J. Vucković, “Polarization control and sensing with two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal microcavity arrays,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 982–984 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and fano resonances in high-q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(7), 071101 (2009). [CrossRef]

27.

C. Liu, Foundations of MEMS (Prentice Hall, 2005).

28.

Q. P. Unterreithmeier, E. M. Weig, and J. P. Kotthaus, “Universal transduction scheme for nanomechanical systems based on dielectric forces,” Nature 458(7241), 1001–1004 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(230.4555) Optical devices : Coupled resonators
(230.5298) Optical devices : Photonic crystals

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystals

History
Original Manuscript: February 24, 2010
Revised Manuscript: April 4, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: April 4, 2010
Published: April 9, 2010

Citation
Ian W. Frank, Parag B. Deotare, Murray W. McCutcheon, and Marko Lončar, "Programmable photonic crystal nanobeam cavities," Opt. Express 18, 8705-8712 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-8-8705


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References

  1. B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005). [CrossRef]
  2. P. B. Deotare, M. W. McCutcheon, I. W. Frank, M. Khan, and M. Loncar, “High quality factor photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 121106 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151112 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vucković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature 450(7171), 857–861 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. X. Yang, C. J. Chen, C. A. Husko, and C. W. Wong, “Digital resonance tuning of high-Q/Vm silicon photonic crystal nanocavities by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 161115 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Pan, Y. Huo, K. Yamanaka, S. Sandhu, L. Scaccabarozzi, R. Timp, M. L. Povinelli, S. Fan, M. M. Fejer, and J. S. Harris, “Aligning microcavity resonances in silicon photonic-crystal slabs using laser-pumped thermal tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103114 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. I. Märki, M. Salt, H. P. Herzig, R. Stanley, L. El Melhaoui, P. Lyan, and J. M. Fedeli, “Optically tunable microcavity in a planar photonic crystal silicon waveguide buried in oxide,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 513–515 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. I. Fushman, E. Waks, D. Englund, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultrafast nonlinear optical tuning of photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091118 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. M. W. McCutcheon, A. G. Pattantyus-Abraham, G. W. Rieger, and J. F. Young, “Emission spectrum of electromagnetic energy stored in a dynamically perturbed optical microcavity,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11472–11480 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 360–362 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. C. Sauvan, G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. P. Hugonin, “Modal-reflectivity enhancement by geometry tuning in Photonic Crystal microcavities,” Opt. Express 13(1), 245–255 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. W. McCutcheon and M. Loncar, “Design of a silicon nitride photonic crystal nanocavity with a Quality factor of one million for coupling to a diamond nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19136–19145 (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, and H. Taniyama, “Ultrahigh-Q nanocavity with 1D photonic gap,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11095–11102 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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