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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 9 — Apr. 26, 2010
  • pp: 8853–8858
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Microstructured KY(WO4)2:Gd3+, Lu3+, Yb3+ channel waveguide laser

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 9, pp. 8853-8858 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.008853


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Abstract

Epitaxially grown, 2.4-µm-thin layers of KY(WO4)2:Gd3+, Lu3+, Yb3+, which exhibit a high refractive index contrast with respect to the undoped KY(WO4)2 substrate, have been microstructured by Ar beam milling, providing 1.4-µm-deep ridge channel waveguides of 2 to 7 µm width, and overgrown by an undoped KY(WO4)2 layer. Channel waveguide laser operation was achieved with a launched pump power threshold of only 5 mW, a slope efficiency of 62% versus launched pump power, and 76 mW output power.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

The unique property of the family of monoclinic double tungstates, especially KGd(WO4)2, KY(WO4)2, and KLu(WO4)2, to strongly enhance the absorption and emission cross sections of optically active rare-earth ions doped into these host materials is widely recognized, see Ref [1

1. M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. and references therein. Combination of these enhanced absorption cross-sections with very large Yb3+ doping concentrations, reaching the stoichiometric structure KYb(WO4)2 [2

2. M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002). [CrossRef]

], can reduce the pump absorption length near 980 nm to less than 20 μm. Also the quantum defect resulting from the difference between pump and laser photon energy can become very small in Yb3+-doped double tungstates [3

3. P. Klopp, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Pottasium ytterbium tungstate provides the smallest laser quantum defect,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 3A3A), L246–L248 (2003). [CrossRef]

], making them excellent candidates for bulk [4

4. N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64(4), 409–413 (1997). [CrossRef]

,5

5. A. A. Lagatsky, N. V. Kuleshov, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Diode-pumped CW lasing of Yb:KYW and Yb:KGW,” Opt. Commun. 165(1–3), 71–75 (1999). [CrossRef]

], thin-disk [6

6. S. Rivier, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. C. Pujol, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, S. Vernay, and D. Rytz, “Thin-disk Yb:KLu(WO(4))(2) laser with single-pass pumping,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 735–737 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and waveguide [7

7. Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, M. Pollnau, S. Rivier, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 53–55 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,8

8. F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, S. V. Kurilchick, V. E. Kisel, S. A. Guretsky, A. M. Luginets, N. A. Kalanda, I. M. Kolesova, N. V. Kuleshov, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Continuous-wave and Q-switched operation of a compact, diode-pumped Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1666–1670 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] lasers.

For the latter purpose, rare-earth-ion-doped KY(WO4)2 (KYW) thin layers have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) onto undoped KYW substrates [9

9. R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents,” J. Cryst. Growth 169(3), 600–603 (1996). [CrossRef]

,10

10. Y. E. Romanyuk, I. Utke, D. Ehrentraut, V. Apostolopoulos, M. Pollnau, S. García-Revilla, and R. Valiente, “Low-temperature liquid phase epitaxy and optical waveguiding of rare-earth-ion doped KY(WO4)2 thin layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(2–4), 377–384 (2004). [CrossRef]

,7

7. Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, M. Pollnau, S. Rivier, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 53–55 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Optimization of the doping concentration for efficient lasing results in KYW:Yb3+ planar waveguides with low Yb3+ concentrations of typically 1-3 at.%, which induces a refractive index contrast between layer and substrate of only a few × 10−4, thus requiring a layer thickness in excess of 10 μm for waveguiding. In such planar structures, laser operation was demonstrated with slope efficiencies up to 80% [7

7. Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, M. Pollnau, S. Rivier, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 53–55 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and in a monolithic cavity under diode pumping [8

8. F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, S. V. Kurilchick, V. E. Kisel, S. A. Guretsky, A. M. Luginets, N. A. Kalanda, I. M. Kolesova, N. V. Kuleshov, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Continuous-wave and Q-switched operation of a compact, diode-pumped Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1666–1670 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Also a channel waveguide laser was demonstrated by strip loading such a planar layer [11

11. D. Geskus, J. D. B. Bradley, S. Aravazhi, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Poor man's channel waveguide laser: KY(WO4)2:Yb,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San José, California, 2008, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC 2008), paper CTuS4.

], although the weak guiding in the horizontal direction led to unreliable performance. In a more reliable manner, channel waveguides were produced in bulk double tungstates by femtosecond-laser writing of refractive index changes [12

12. C. N. Borca, V. Apostolopoulos, F. Gardillou, H. G. Limberger, M. Pollnau, and R. P. Salathé, “Buried channel waveguides in Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(19), 8300–8303 (2007). [CrossRef]

], having resulted in the demonstration of Raman gain [13

13. S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 81105–81107 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and channel waveguide lasing [14

14. F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, N. V. Kuleshov, A. K. Kar, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Ultrafast laser inscribed Yb:KGd(WO4)2 and Yb:KY(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22417–22422 (2009). [CrossRef]

], albeit with a rather large mode size and considerable waveguide propagation losses.

In an attempt to produce higher integrated structures with better mode confinement, the active layer was co-doped with large amounts of optically inert Gd3+ and Lu3+ ions [15

15. F. Gardillou, Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, R. P. Salathé, and M. Pollnau, “Lu, Gd codoped KY(WO(4))(2):Yb epitaxial layers: towards integrated optics based on KY(WO(4))(2).,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 488–490 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Both ions provide a higher electron density than the Y3+ ion they replace, thus increasing the refractive index contrast of the layer with respect to the undoped substrate by an order of magnitude to ~7.5 × 10−3 [15

15. F. Gardillou, Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, R. P. Salathé, and M. Pollnau, “Lu, Gd codoped KY(WO(4))(2):Yb epitaxial layers: towards integrated optics based on KY(WO(4))(2).,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 488–490 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], leading to few-µm-thin waveguide layers. Besides, Gd3+ and Lu3+ alter the lattice parameters of KYW in opposite directions, hence lattice matching of layer and substrate can be achieved by the appropriate choice of Gd3+ and Lu3+ concentrations [15

15. F. Gardillou, Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, R. P. Salathé, and M. Pollnau, “Lu, Gd codoped KY(WO(4))(2):Yb epitaxial layers: towards integrated optics based on KY(WO(4))(2).,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 488–490 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,16

16. W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. This approach makes refractive index contrast and lattice matching constant design parameters over a wide range of Yb3+ doping concentrations, because the Yb3+ ions can now replace Lu3+ ions of similar ion radius and electron density. Such highly co-doped layers have recently been shown to maintain the favorable spectroscopic properties of the Yb3+ ion and enabled planar waveguide lasing with excellent light confinement and overlap of pump and laser mode, resulting in a record-high slope efficiency of 82.3% and a laser threshold as low as 18 mW of absorbed pump power [17

17. D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, E. Bernhardi, C. Grivas, S. Harkema, K. Hametner, D. Günther, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Low-threshold, highly efficient Gd3+, Lu3+ co-doped KY(WO4)2:Yb3+ planar waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(11), 800–805 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

Furthermore, the much smaller layer thickness greatly facilitates microstructuring of double tungstates [15

15. F. Gardillou, Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, R. P. Salathé, and M. Pollnau, “Lu, Gd codoped KY(WO(4))(2):Yb epitaxial layers: towards integrated optics based on KY(WO(4))(2).,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 488–490 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Exploiting this option, here we fabricate ridge channel waveguides in KYW:Gd3+, Lu3+, Yb3+ layers by use of standard photo-resist as a mask and Ar beam etching. The obtained waveguides with well-defined cross-sections of a few µm2 and excellent mode confinement allow us to demonstrate a channel waveguide laser with a threshold of only 4.5 mW launched pump power, a slope efficiency of 62%, and an output power of 75 mW.

2. Sample fabrication

Active layers of KY(WO4)2:(43.3%)Gd3+, (15%)Lu3+, (1.7%)Yb3+ were grown by LPE onto undoped, (010)-orientated, laser-grade polished KYW substrates of 1 cm2 size in a K2W2O7 solvent at temperatures of 920-923°C, leading to crack-free layers with a thickness of ~5-10 µm. Subsequently, the layer surface was polished parallel to the layer-substrate interface to a uniform thickness of 2.4 µm with a measured rms surface roughness of 1.5 nm.

A photoresist (Fujifilm OiR 908/35) mask was deposited and patterned, and Ar beam milling [18

18. C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, M. Pollnau, A. Crunteanu, and M. Jelinek, “Performance of Ar+-milled Ti:Sapphire rib waveguides as single transverse mode broadband fluorescence sources,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(3), 501–507 (2003). [CrossRef]

] with an energy of 350 eV, resulting in an etch rate of 3 nm/min., was applied to the sample which was rotating at an angle of 20° in order to transfer the structures into the layer. In this manner, 1.4-µm-deep ridge waveguides with widths varying from 2 to 7 µm were created along the Ng optical axis. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) picture of such a ridge waveguide is shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) SEM micrograph of a microstructured channel waveguide before overgrowth; (b) measured mode profile of the laser emission (both to scale).
. In order to reduce the propagation losses the structures were overgrown by an epitaxial layer of undoped KYW, resulting in buried channel waveguides.

The endfaces of the sample were polished perpendicular to the channels, i.e. parallel to the Nm optical axis. The final channel length was 7.5 mm. Dielectric mirrors were butt-coupled to the waveguide endfaces by use of fluorinated oil (Fluka) with a refractive index of 1.58, such that a monolithic cavity along the Ng optical axis was formed.

3. Laser experiments

Pump light from a continuous-wave Ti:Sapphire laser operating at a wavelength of 981 nm, at the Yb3+ absorption peak in KYW, was coupled with polarization parallel to the Nm optical axis into a 7-µm-wide channel waveguide by a × 16 microscope objective with a numerical aperture (N.A.) of 0.32. Residual transmitted pump light and laser light were coupled out at the other waveguide end by a × 20, N.A. = 0.4 microscope objective. A reflective grating was used as a dispersive element to separate the residual transmitted pump light from the laser emission. A schematic of the setup is shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of experimental setup
.

At the laser wavelength near 1028 nm the incoupling mirror had a reflectivity of 99.8%, while for the outcoupling mirror transparencies of 2%, 5%, 10%, and 23% were tested. Figure 3
Fig. 3 Measured output power as a function of launched pump power (approx. 99% of the launched pump power was absorbed) for different transmission values Tout of the outcoupling mirror.
shows the laser output power as a function of launched pump power. For the smallest outcoupling efficiency of 2%, laser oscillation commenced at a launched pump power as low as 4.5 mW. The laser threshold increased to a value of 5.5 mW for the largest outcoupling efficiency of 23%. Due to the low threshold which clamped the excitation of the upper laser level to a rather low excitation density, resulting in only a small fraction of ground-state bleaching, as well as the rather long waveguide length approx. 99% of the launched pump power was absorbed in the channel. Slope efficiencies of 11%, 23%, 53%, and 62% versus launched pump power and maximum extracted laser powers of 13 mW, 24 mW, 61 mW, and 76 mW were obtained for 2%, 5%, 10%, and 23% output coupling, respectively.

The measured near-field mode profile of Fig. 1(b) shows a triangular shape, caused by the ridge waveguide geometry. A Gaussian fit of the intensity profile in both horizontal and vertical directions results in a beam size of 4.8 × 2.1 µm2. According to simulations, the tested waveguide of 7 µm width supports 2 propagating modes; hence we assume that the laser output is transverse multi-mode. When analyzing the obtained slope efficiencies versus output coupling according to the theory for laser devices exhibiting reabsorption [17

17. D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, E. Bernhardi, C. Grivas, S. Harkema, K. Hametner, D. Günther, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Low-threshold, highly efficient Gd3+, Lu3+ co-doped KY(WO4)2:Yb3+ planar waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(11), 800–805 (2009). [CrossRef]

] an intracavity roundtrip loss of 11% is derived. This value includes the waveguide propagation losses and losses occurring due to butt-coupling of the mirror substrates to the endfacets. Therefore, the value of 11%, equaling 0.34 dB/cm, is the upper limit for the propagation loss at 1028 nm in the microstructured channel waveguide.

Figure 4
Fig. 4 Measured slope efficiencies (vs. absorbed pump power) as a function of transmission of the output coupler for different samples (blue = KYW:Yb3+, green = KGW:Yb3+; red = KYW:Gd3+, Lu3+, Yb3+), waveguide geometries (solid symbols = planar waveguide; open symbols = channel waveguide) and pump/resonator configurations: solid diamonds = extended-cavity, Ti:Sapphire pumped [7]; solid circles = diode pumped [8]; solid triangles = Ti:Sapphire pumped [17]; open square = strip-loaded channel, Ti:Sapphire pumped (unreliable data) [11]; open circles = fs-laser-written channel, diode pumped [14]; open triangles = microstructured channel, Ti:Sapphire pumped [this work].
compares the Yb3+ single-doped KYW and KGW and Gd3+, Lu3+, Yb3+ co-doped KYW waveguide lasers reported in the literature to date with respect to their measured slope efficiency as a function of transmission of the outcoupling mirror. Apparently, the maximum achieved slope efficiency for each set of layer composition, waveguide geometry, and pump conditions depends greatly on pump and laser mode confinement and overlap, waveguide propagation losses, but also on the largest output coupling degree available to the experimentalist. From the graphs it is easy to predict that as long as the laser is operated well above threshold, further improvement in slope efficiency can be expected with higher degrees of output coupling from the laser cavity in almost all the investigated configurations. Furthermore, waveguides with losses below ~0.5 dB/cm are required to obtain high-performance waveguide lasers. Generally, the results summarized in Fig. 4 suggest that KYW:Yb3+ waveguide lasers are highly promising devices for future applications. For comparison, channel waveguide lasers with slope efficiencies of 43% in a Yb:YAG multimode channel waveguide, created by use of bonding techniques [19

19. U. Griebner and H. Schönnagel, “Laser operation with nearly diffraction-limited output from a Yb:YAG multimode channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 24(11), 750–752 (1999). [CrossRef]

], 27% in a Nd:GGG ion-implanted microchannel [20

20. S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:GGG channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(1), 52–54 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], 48% in Nd:GGG ion beam milled channel structures [21

21. R. Gerhardt, J. Kleine-Börger, L. Beilschmidt, M. Frommeyer, H. Dötsch, and B. Gather, “Efficient channel-waveguide laser in Nd:GGG at 1.062 mm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(9), 1210–1212 (1999). [CrossRef]

], as well as 60% [22

22. G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttirum aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and 59% [23

23. T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B . in press.

] in femtosecond-laser-written channel waveguides in Nd:YAG ceramics and bulk crystals, respectively, have been reported.

4. Conclusions

We have demonstrated, to the best of our knowledge, the first microstructured double tungstate channel waveguide laser. Excellent control over the lateral waveguide dimensions, resulting in tight confinement of pump and laser mode, in combination with the high absorption and emission cross-sections present in Yb3+-doped double tungstates, make it an attractive high-gain laser device.

In the future, replacing the butt-coupled mirrors with an on-chip integrated cavity by etching Bragg reflectors or a distributed-feedback grating into the channel waveguide [1

1. M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007). [CrossRef]

] or employing a ring-resonator configuration will make the device more robust and environmentally stable, such that real-world applications can seriously be envisaged.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank M. Dijkstra, M. J. de Boer, J. W. Berenschot, and J. W. Mertens for their help with the mask fabrication and ion beam etching. This work was supported by The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) through the VICI Grant no. 07207 “Photonic integrated structures”.

References and links

1.

M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Güell, X. Mateos, R. Solé, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, J. Massons, F. Díaz, P. Klopp, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165121 (2002). [CrossRef]

3.

P. Klopp, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Pottasium ytterbium tungstate provides the smallest laser quantum defect,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 3A3A), L246–L248 (2003). [CrossRef]

4.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er, Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64(4), 409–413 (1997). [CrossRef]

5.

A. A. Lagatsky, N. V. Kuleshov, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Diode-pumped CW lasing of Yb:KYW and Yb:KGW,” Opt. Commun. 165(1–3), 71–75 (1999). [CrossRef]

6.

S. Rivier, X. Mateos, O. Silvestre, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, M. C. Pujol, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, S. Vernay, and D. Rytz, “Thin-disk Yb:KLu(WO(4))(2) laser with single-pass pumping,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 735–737 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, M. Pollnau, S. Rivier, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 53–55 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, S. V. Kurilchick, V. E. Kisel, S. A. Guretsky, A. M. Luginets, N. A. Kalanda, I. M. Kolesova, N. V. Kuleshov, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Continuous-wave and Q-switched operation of a compact, diode-pumped Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1666–1670 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents,” J. Cryst. Growth 169(3), 600–603 (1996). [CrossRef]

10.

Y. E. Romanyuk, I. Utke, D. Ehrentraut, V. Apostolopoulos, M. Pollnau, S. García-Revilla, and R. Valiente, “Low-temperature liquid phase epitaxy and optical waveguiding of rare-earth-ion doped KY(WO4)2 thin layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(2–4), 377–384 (2004). [CrossRef]

11.

D. Geskus, J. D. B. Bradley, S. Aravazhi, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Poor man's channel waveguide laser: KY(WO4)2:Yb,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San José, California, 2008, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC 2008), paper CTuS4.

12.

C. N. Borca, V. Apostolopoulos, F. Gardillou, H. G. Limberger, M. Pollnau, and R. P. Salathé, “Buried channel waveguides in Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(19), 8300–8303 (2007). [CrossRef]

13.

S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 81105–81107 (2008). [CrossRef]

14.

F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, N. V. Kuleshov, A. K. Kar, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Ultrafast laser inscribed Yb:KGd(WO4)2 and Yb:KY(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22417–22422 (2009). [CrossRef]

15.

F. Gardillou, Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, R. P. Salathé, and M. Pollnau, “Lu, Gd codoped KY(WO(4))(2):Yb epitaxial layers: towards integrated optics based on KY(WO(4))(2).,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 488–490 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, E. Bernhardi, C. Grivas, S. Harkema, K. Hametner, D. Günther, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Low-threshold, highly efficient Gd3+, Lu3+ co-doped KY(WO4)2:Yb3+ planar waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(11), 800–805 (2009). [CrossRef]

18.

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, M. Pollnau, A. Crunteanu, and M. Jelinek, “Performance of Ar+-milled Ti:Sapphire rib waveguides as single transverse mode broadband fluorescence sources,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(3), 501–507 (2003). [CrossRef]

19.

U. Griebner and H. Schönnagel, “Laser operation with nearly diffraction-limited output from a Yb:YAG multimode channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 24(11), 750–752 (1999). [CrossRef]

20.

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:GGG channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(1), 52–54 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

R. Gerhardt, J. Kleine-Börger, L. Beilschmidt, M. Frommeyer, H. Dötsch, and B. Gather, “Efficient channel-waveguide laser in Nd:GGG at 1.062 mm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(9), 1210–1212 (1999). [CrossRef]

22.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttirum aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008). [CrossRef]

23.

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B . in press.

OCIS Codes
(230.7380) Optical devices : Waveguides, channeled
(140.3615) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ytterbium

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: February 1, 2010
Revised Manuscript: April 1, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: April 6, 2010
Published: April 13, 2010

Citation
D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, "Microstructured KY(WO4)2:Gd3+, Lu3+, Yb3+ channel waveguide laser," Opt. Express 18, 8853-8858 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-9-8853


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References

  1. M. Pollnau, Y. E. Romanyuk, F. Gardillou, C. N. Borca, U. Griebner, S. Rivier, and V. Petrov, “Double tungstate lasers: From bulk toward on-chip integrated waveguide devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 661–671 (2007). [CrossRef]
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  3. P. Klopp, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Pottasium ytterbium tungstate provides the smallest laser quantum defect,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 2, No. 3A3A), L246–L248 (2003). [CrossRef]
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  9. R. Solé, V. Nikolov, X. Ruiz, J. Gavaldà, X. Solans, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Growth of β-KGd1-xNdx(WO4)2 single crystals in K2W2O7 solvents,” J. Cryst. Growth 169(3), 600–603 (1996). [CrossRef]
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  11. D. Geskus, J. D. B. Bradley, S. Aravazhi, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Poor man's channel waveguide laser: KY(WO4)2:Yb,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, San José, California, 2008, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC 2008), paper CTuS4.
  12. C. N. Borca, V. Apostolopoulos, F. Gardillou, H. G. Limberger, M. Pollnau, and R. P. Salathé, “Buried channel waveguides in Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 crystals fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(19), 8300–8303 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. S. M. Eaton, C. A. Merchant, R. Iyer, A. J. Zilkie, A. S. Helmy, J. S. Aitchison, P. R. Herman, D. Kraemer, R. J. D. Miller, C. Hnatovsky, and R. S. Taylor, “Raman gain from waveguides inscribed in KGd(WO4)2 by high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(8), 81105–81107 (2008). [CrossRef]
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  15. F. Gardillou, Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, R. P. Salathé, and M. Pollnau, “Lu, Gd codoped KY(WO(4))(2):Yb epitaxial layers: towards integrated optics based on KY(WO(4))(2).,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 488–490 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, E. Bernhardi, C. Grivas, S. Harkema, K. Hametner, D. Günther, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Low-threshold, highly efficient Gd3+, Lu3+ co-doped KY(WO4)2:Yb3+ planar waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(11), 800–805 (2009). [CrossRef]
  18. C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, M. Pollnau, A. Crunteanu, and M. Jelinek, “Performance of Ar+-milled Ti:Sapphire rib waveguides as single transverse mode broadband fluorescence sources,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(3), 501–507 (2003). [CrossRef]
  19. U. Griebner and H. Schönnagel, “Laser operation with nearly diffraction-limited output from a Yb:YAG multimode channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 24(11), 750–752 (1999). [CrossRef]
  20. S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:GGG channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 17(1), 52–54 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. Gerhardt, J. Kleine-Börger, L. Beilschmidt, M. Frommeyer, H. Dötsch, and B. Gather, “Efficient channel-waveguide laser in Nd:GGG at 1.062 mm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(9), 1210–1212 (1999). [CrossRef]
  22. G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttirum aluminum garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008). [CrossRef]
  23. T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, O. Hellmig, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser with 1.3 W output power, fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing,” Appl. Phys. B . in press.

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