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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 9 — Apr. 26, 2010
  • pp: 8916–8922
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Broadband external cavity tunable quantum dot lasers with low injection current density

X. Q. Lv, P. Jin, W. Y. Wang, and Z. G. Wang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 9, pp. 8916-8922 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.008916


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Abstract

Broadband grating-coupled external cavity laser, based on InAs/GaAs quantum dots, is achieved. The device has a wavelength tuning range from 1141.6 nm to 1251.7 nm under a low continuous-wave injection current density (458 A/cm2). The tunable bandwidth covers consecutively the light emissions from both the ground state and the 1st excited state of quantum dots. The effects of cavity length and antireflection facet coating on device performance are studied. It is shown that antireflection facet coating expands the tuning bandwidth up to ~150 nm, accompanied by an evident increase in threshold current density, which is attributed to the reduced interaction between the light field and the quantum dots in the active region of the device.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Grating-coupled external cavity (EC) laser is an important kind of coherent light source for the applications of spectroscopy [1

1. S. C. Woodworth, D. T. Cassidy, and M. J. Hamp, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy by use of an asymmetric multiple-quantum-well diode laser in an external cavity,” Appl. Opt. 40(36), 6719–6724 (2001). [CrossRef]

], biomedical [2

2. J. T. Olesberg, M. A. Arnold, C. Mermelstein, J. Schmitz, and J. Wagner, “Tunable laser diode system for noninvasive blood glucose measurements,” Appl. Spectrosc. 59(12), 1480–1484 (2005). [CrossRef]

], interferometry [3

3. N. Kuramoto and K. Fujii, “Volume determination of a silicon sphere using an improved interferometer with optical frequency tuning,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(2), 868–871 (2005). [CrossRef]

] and so on. Combining with the fast swept frequency technique, this kind of light source can also be applied in the wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) system [4

4. T. Tanaka, Y. Hibino, T. Hashimoto, M. Abe, R. Kasahara, and Y. Tohmori, “100-GHz spacing 8-channel light source integrated with external cavity lasers on planar lightwave circuit platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 567–573 (2004). [CrossRef]

] and optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurement [5

5. S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 340–342 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. H. Lim, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, E. C. W. Lee, R. Yelin, and S. H. Yun, “Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 815-870 nm range,” Opt. Express 14(13), 5937–5944 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Wavelength tuning range is one of the most important parameters of an EC laser, as a large tuning range increases the channel amount of a WDM system and improves the spatial resolution for the OCT measurement significantly. It was proposed that the characteristic of size inhomogeneity, naturally occurring in self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) grown by Stranski-Krastanow mode, is beneficial to broadening the gain spectra and suitable for the realization of broadband emission [7

7. C. K. Chia, S. J. Chua, J. R. Dong, and S. L. Teo, “Ultrawide band quantum dot light emitting device by postfabrication laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061101 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Based on their broadband emission characteristic, QDs have successfully been used for the fabrication of superluminescent diode (SLD) [8

8. Z. Y. Zhang, Z. G. Wang, B. Xu, P. Jin, Z. Z. Sun, and F. Q. Liu, “High-performance quantum-dot superluminescent diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 27–29 (2004). [CrossRef]

12

12. Z. Y. Zhang, R. A. Hogg, B. Xu, P. Jin, and Z. G. Wang, “Realization of extremely broadband quantum-dot superluminescent light-emitting diodes by rapid thermal-annealing process,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1210–1212 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and broadband laser diode [13

13. M. Sugawara, K. Mukai, and Y. Nakata, “Light emission spectra of columnar-shaped self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers: Effect of homogeneous broadening of the optical gain on lasing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1561–1563 (1999). [CrossRef]

15

15. A. E. Zhukov and A. R. Kovsh, “Quantum dot diode lasers for optical communication systems,” Quantum Electron. 38(5), 409–423 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. For 1.5-μm wavelength range, broadband InP based Q-dash laser has also been achieved recently [16

16. C. L. Tan, H. S. Djie, Y. Wang, C. E. Dimas, V. Hongpinyo, Y. H. Ding, and B. S. Ooi, “Wavelength tuning and emission width widening of ultrabroad quantum dash interband laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111101 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. In the last few years, EC lasers with QDs as gain medium have been demonstrated [17

17. P. Eliseev, H. Li, A. Stintz, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Tunable grating-coupled laser oscillation and spectral hole burning in an InAs quantum-dot laser diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(4), 479–485 (2000). [CrossRef]

25

25. X. Q. Lü, P. Jin, and Z. G. Wang, “A broadband external cavity tunable InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser by utilizing only the ground state emission,” Chin. Phys. B 19(1), 018104–4 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Compared to the EC laser with quantum well as gain medium [26

26. A. Lidgard, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, H. Temkin, K. W. Wecht, and N. A. Olsson, “External-cavity InGaAs/InP graded index multiquantum well laser with a 200 nm tuning range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(9), 816–817 (1990). [CrossRef]

29

29. S. C. Woodworth, D. T. Cassidy, and M. J. Hamp, “Experimental analysis of a broadly tunable InGaAsP laser with compositionally varied quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(3), 426–430 (2003). [CrossRef]

], the QDs’ size inhomogeneity and relatively low ground state (GS) saturated gain make a QD-EC laser being advantageous in low injection current density, broadband and uninterrupted tuning in wavelength. Only utilizing the QD-GS emission, tuning range of 69 nm [25

25. X. Q. Lü, P. Jin, and Z. G. Wang, “A broadband external cavity tunable InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser by utilizing only the ground state emission,” Chin. Phys. B 19(1), 018104–4 (2010). [CrossRef]

] and 83 nm [20

20. A. Biebersdorf, C. Lingk, M. De Giorgi, J. Feldmann, J. Sacher, M. Arzberger, C. Ulbrich, G. Böhm, M.-C. Amann, and G. Abstreiter, “Tunable single and dual mode operation of an external cavity quantum-dot injection laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(16), 1928–1930 (2003). [CrossRef]

] were realized for the QDs devices without facet coating and with single facet antireflection (AR) coating, respectively. By involving QDs’ GS and excited state (ES) transitions simultaneously, a tuning wavelength range of 201 nm [19

19. P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Low-threshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 36(18), 1544–1545 (2000). [CrossRef]

] has been reported. The unique characteristics of QD-EC laser make it preferable over other broadband light source, such as QD laser and SLD. Combining with the characteristics of wide wavelength tuning and narrow linewidth, QD-EC laser can be used for the sensitive absorption spectroscopy. Besides, the QD-EC laser can also be used in Fourier-domain OCT system [5

5. S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 340–342 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. H. Lim, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, E. C. W. Lee, R. Yelin, and S. H. Yun, “Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 815-870 nm range,” Opt. Express 14(13), 5937–5944 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] based on swept wavelength interferometry, which offers higher sensitivity and imaging speed over conventional time-domain technique.

Besides a tunable bandwidth, continuous-wave (CW) operation of an EC laser at low injection current density is also required in practical applications. Generally, in order to achieve a wide wavelength tuning range, AR coating on the device facet is needed to increase the threshold current density (Jth) of inner Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity resonance. However, AR coating also increases the EC Jth significantly (the reason will be discussed later) and the CW operation is difficult to be realized [18

18. H. Li, G. T. Liu, P. M. Varangis, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “150-nm tuning range in a grating-coupled external cavity quantum-dot laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 759–761 (2000). [CrossRef]

,19

19. P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Low-threshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 36(18), 1544–1545 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Without AR coating, the injection current density can remain at a low level, but the tuning range is restricted [17

17. P. Eliseev, H. Li, A. Stintz, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Tunable grating-coupled laser oscillation and spectral hole burning in an InAs quantum-dot laser diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(4), 479–485 (2000). [CrossRef]

,23

23. A. Tierno and T. Ackemann, “Tunable, narrow-band light source in the 1.25 μm region based on broad-area quantum dot lasers with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 585–588 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore the trade-offs between the two key features of tuning bandwidth and working current of an EC laser are very important for its practical applications.

In this paper, the effect of cavity length on the tuning bandwidth and Jth of a QD EC laser has been investigated. A tuning range of 110 nm (1141.6-1251.7 nm) under 458 A/cm2 CW injection level has been realized for a 2-mm length device without facet coating. The wavelength tuning range covers the QDs’ GS and the 1st ES light emissions simultaneously. The effect of device-facet AR coating on the EC laser’s performance is also studied. As compared with the EC laser employing as-cleaved facet, AR facet coating leads to enhancement of tuning bandwidth and increase of Jth evidently. The latter is attributed to the reduced interaction between the light field and the QD active region.

2. Experiment

The epitaxial structure of the QD gain devices used in this study was grown on n-GaAs (001) substrate by a Riber 32P solid-source molecular beam epitaxy machine. Five layers of self-assembled InAs QDs covered by 5-nm In0.15Ga0.85As and separated from each other by 35-nm GaAs spacer form the active region, which is embedded in the waveguide. 2-monolayer InAs is deposited at 500 °C for the formation of QDs in each layer. The areal density is about 4×1010 cm−2 obtained by atomic force microscopy for an uncapped sample, which has the same growth parameters as the device structure. Below and above the waveguide are 1.5-μm n- and p-type Al0.5Ga0.5As cladding layers grown at 620 °C, respectively. Finally, a p +-doped GaAs contact layer completes the structure. The QD epitaxial wafer was processed to fabricate gain devices of broad-area ridge structure with a stripe width of 120 μm and a length of 1-3 mm. They were mounted epitaxial-side down on copper heat sink.

A Littrow configuration is constructed in the EC tuning experiment [25

25. X. Q. Lü, P. Jin, and Z. G. Wang, “A broadband external cavity tunable InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser by utilizing only the ground state emission,” Chin. Phys. B 19(1), 018104–4 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The emission from one facet of a QD gain device is nearly collimated by using an aspherical lens, and then is fed back by a 1200-grooves/mm grating in its 1st diffraction order. By rotating the grating, the EC resonance wavelength is selected. The emission from the other facet of the QD gain device is used to perform emission spectra and output power measurements. The device is tested at room temperature without temperature control and with CW (<900 A/cm2) or pulsing (>900 A/cm2, 1 kHz repetition rate and 3% duty cycle) injection. The spectral resolution is about 0.5 nm, lying on the grating monochromator used.

3. Results and discussion

Three QD gain devices, 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm in cavity length, are fabricated. The current-injection emission spectra from the three free-running gain devices are shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Current-injection emission spectra of the free-running QD gain devices with (a) 1 mm, (b) 2 mm and (c) 3 mm cavity length under various injection current densities. Some spectra are shifted vertically for clarity. The inset of (a) gives a 3-peak Gaussian fitting of the emission spectrum at 833 A/cm2 injection, presenting the GS, the 1st and the 2nd ESs transitions simultaneously.
. As shown in Fig. 1(c), for the device of 3 mm in cavity length under 28 A/cm2 injection, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the emission spectrum is 61 nm, which should originate mainly from spontaneous emission of QDs’ GS. This relatively wide GS emission is attributedto the size inhomogeneity naturally occurring in QDs’ growth. Due to the sufficient GS gain, the 3-mm device lases at GS with a Jth of 206 A/cm2. As the significant increased mirror loss with the reduction of the cavity length, 2 mm long device lases at the 1st ES of QDs at 1163 nm. At the injection of 333 A/cm2, simultaneous contribution of QDs’ GS and the 1st ES to emission spectrum leads to a FWHM of 95 nm (Fig. 1(b)). While for the device with 1-mm cavity length, in addition to GS and the 1st ES, the 2nd ES can be filled before lasing, as shown in Fig. 1(a). The inset of Fig. 1 (a) shows a 3-peak Gaussian fitting of the emission spectrum under 833 A/cm2 injection, presenting the GS, the 1st and the 2nd ESs transitions in QDs, respectively. Because the gain of low-energy state transition is too small to compensate for the total loss, lasings occur at the 2nd ES transitions for 1 mm device.

The QD gain devices with different cavity length were put in the Littrow setup to evaluate the tuning properties. The tuning spectra of the devices are shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Lasing spectra of grating-coupled EC lasers with InAs/GaAs QD gain devices of (a) 1 mm, (b) 2 mm and (c) 3 mm cavity length. No coating was applied on the facets. The inset of (c) shows the experimental setup (Littrow configuration). The emitting directly from the gain device is used for the spectra and power measurements.
. No facet coating was applied on the device facets. In order to avoid the inner FP resonance, the injection current density is chosen just below the Jth of the free-running gain device. So no inner FP resonance appears even when the wavelength is tuned to the extremes, as presented in Fig. 2. For all the tuning wavelengths, the sidemode suppression ratio is better than 25 dB and the amplified spontaneous emission suppression ratio is better than 20 dB. The FWHM of the lasing spectra is no more than 2 nm. Because the measurements for the spectra and power are performed from one facet of gain device, the spatial distribution of the emitted optical mode should be the same as the free-running device. The gain devices with different cavity length are also different in tuning range. For the device of 3-mm cavity length, there is only contribution from the QDs’ GS and a tuning bandwidth of 55 nm ranging from 1198.2 to 1253.1 nm, is achieved. While for the device with 2-mm cavity length, the wavelength tuning extends to 1141.6 nm at the short-wavelength side, with no sacrifice of long-wavelength tuning. Decreasing the cavity length further down to 1 mm leads to a tuning bandwidth of 100 nm (1073.9-1173.8 nm), contributed by the 1st and the 2nd ESs. The large cavity loss makes the disappearance of the tuning across QD-GS.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Threshold current density as a function of the tuning wavelength for QD gain device with different cavity length.
compares Jth dependence on the tuning wavelength for the QD gain devices with 1-, 2- and 3-mm cavity length, respectively. The Jth of the three free-running devices without facet coating are 206, 475, and 1708 A/cm2, respectively. The EC laser with 3-mm cavity length shows the lowest Jth (117-194 A/cm2) and the narrowest tuning range. In order to avoid the inner lasing in the device, the injection current density is restricted to a relatively low value and only the GS of QDs can be populated under this injection level. The 1-mm device, which is shortest in cavity length, shows broader tunability at the expense of higher Jth. As shown in Fig. 2(a), the gain device with 1-mm cavity length allows EC laser to work under the injection level up to 1667 A/cm2. Under this injection level, the 2nd ES of QDs in the device can be populated. However, the GS saturated gain cannot compensate the external cavity loss for the 1-mm length device. So the wavelength tuning range covers only the 1st and the 2nd ESs, with the GS foreclosed. The EC laser with 2-mm cavity length shows better performance. Although the Jth increases to some extent, it still remains equivalent tuning to the long- wavelength side compared to that with 3-mm cavity length device. Furthermore, the tuning on the short wavelength side can be extended to the 1st ES.

It can be seen from the above results that the choice of the cavity length is crucial for optimization on both Jth and the tuning bandwidth. On the premise that the GS saturated gain is higher than the external cavity loss, the cavity length of the gain device should be as short as possible. Thus, the tuning range can cover both the GS and the 1st ES and the tuning range above 100 nm can be realized. Besides, the low QDs’ GS saturated gain makes the QDs’ ESs be occupied under lower injection level. This gives rise to lower Jth at the short wavelength side in the tuning range compared to the QW-EC laser. Generally more than 10 kA/cm2 pump level is needed for the carriers filling to the ESs in QW-EC laser [26

26. A. Lidgard, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, H. Temkin, K. W. Wecht, and N. A. Olsson, “External-cavity InGaAs/InP graded index multiquantum well laser with a 200 nm tuning range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(9), 816–817 (1990). [CrossRef]

,27

27. H. Tabuchi and H. Ishikawa, “External grating tunable MQW laser with wide tuning range of 240 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26(11), 742–743 (1990). [CrossRef]

]. In addition, the spectral broadening of QDs induced by its size inhomogeneity is beneficial to the consecutive tuning between two neighboring states.

Figure 4
Fig. 4 Output power of the QD-EC lasers as a function of tuning wavelength for QD gain devices with different cavity length. No coating was applied on the facets. For the L = 1mm device, the injection is pulsed and the output power is the peak one.
shows the output power as a function of tuning wavelength for the QD gain devices of 1-, 2- and 3-mm in cavity length. It can be seen from the figure that under the given injection level as used in Fig. 2, the maximal output power is 65, 53 and 54 mW and the corresponding working current is 2-, 1.1- and 0.7-A, respectively. Although the output power is comparable for the three devices, the working current shows great difference and the 3-mm device has the lowest power consumption. This indicates that the longer device possesses higher efficiency. From the figure, it also shows that the dependence of the output power on the wavelength represents approximately the gain characteristic of the three QD devices. A single peak can be observed in the output power vs wavelength for the 3-mm cavity length device, which is attributed to the QDs’ GS. However, there are two peaks in the output-power curve for both the 1- and 2- mm cavity length devices, because of the simultaneous contribution of two states. For the 2-mm cavity length device, the output power at GS is lower than that of the 1st ES due to finite gain of GS. Increasing the cavity length of the device slightly can eliminate the difference in output power for the two QDs’ states to some extent.

AR facet coating of a gain device has been proved to be effective to enlarge the tuning bandwidth [18

18. H. Li, G. T. Liu, P. M. Varangis, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “150-nm tuning range in a grating-coupled external cavity quantum-dot laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 759–761 (2000). [CrossRef]

,19

19. P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Low-threshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 36(18), 1544–1545 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Because the Jth of the inner FP resonance can be increased effectively by facet coating, the EC laser can work under a relatively high injection level and the tuning towards short wavelength can be realized easily. In order to evaluate the effect of AR coating, a single λ/4 ZrO2 layer designed for minimum reflectivity at 1227 nm was deposited on one facet (coupled with the grating in the tuning experiment) of the gain device 3 mm in cavity length. After coating, the device lases at 1133 nm due to the increased mirror loss. From the difference in slope efficiencies between the two facets, an effective reflectivity of approximately 2.7% is estimated at the lasing wavelength.

A ~150 nm tuning bandwidth (1084.7 nm-1234.3 nm), covering simultaneously the GS, the 1st and the 2nd ESs, is shown for EC tuning with the 3-mm facet coating device . The Jth dependence on the tuning wavelength is also presented in Fig. 3. Because of the increased facet loss, the Jth of the EC laser at 1228 nm with AR facet coating (319.4 A/cm2) is 2.6 times as high as that without coating (122.2 A/cm2). Accordingly, the CW mode operation cannot be ensured across the whole tuning range. The increase of Jth can be explained as follows. With AR coating on the device facet, more radiation comes out from the active region and enters into the EC, where no active medium exists. Light field in the EC doesn’t interact with the injected carriers and shows no contribution to the stimulated radiation. Namely, the optical confinement factor in the direction of light transmission decreases by the facet AR coating. As a result, the Jth increases. By further optimizing the structure of active region and choosing appropriate cavity length of gain device, an even lower working current density and wider tuning bandwidth should be achieved without facet coating.

4. Summary

In conclusion, the tuning characteristics of QD gain devices with different cavity length is investigated. A 110 nm tuning bandwidth under the low CW injection level of 458 A/cm2, has been realized by using a device of 2 mm cavity length without facet coating. The easiness of GS optical gain saturation is beneficial to the short wavelength tuning with low injection level. The AR coating is also used to expand the tuning bandwidth. A 150 nm tuning band can be realized after AR coating, accompanied with an evident increase of Jth, which is attributed to reduced interaction between the light field and the QD active region.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr. J. Wu for the correction on grammar and P. Liang, H. Sun and Y. Hu for assistance on device fabrication. This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2006CB604904) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60976057, 60876086, 60776037 and 60676029).

References and links

1.

S. C. Woodworth, D. T. Cassidy, and M. J. Hamp, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy by use of an asymmetric multiple-quantum-well diode laser in an external cavity,” Appl. Opt. 40(36), 6719–6724 (2001). [CrossRef]

2.

J. T. Olesberg, M. A. Arnold, C. Mermelstein, J. Schmitz, and J. Wagner, “Tunable laser diode system for noninvasive blood glucose measurements,” Appl. Spectrosc. 59(12), 1480–1484 (2005). [CrossRef]

3.

N. Kuramoto and K. Fujii, “Volume determination of a silicon sphere using an improved interferometer with optical frequency tuning,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54(2), 868–871 (2005). [CrossRef]

4.

T. Tanaka, Y. Hibino, T. Hashimoto, M. Abe, R. Kasahara, and Y. Tohmori, “100-GHz spacing 8-channel light source integrated with external cavity lasers on planar lightwave circuit platform,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 567–573 (2004). [CrossRef]

5.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 340–342 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

H. Lim, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, E. C. W. Lee, R. Yelin, and S. H. Yun, “Optical frequency domain imaging with a rapidly swept laser in the 815-870 nm range,” Opt. Express 14(13), 5937–5944 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

C. K. Chia, S. J. Chua, J. R. Dong, and S. L. Teo, “Ultrawide band quantum dot light emitting device by postfabrication laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 061101 (2007). [CrossRef]

8.

Z. Y. Zhang, Z. G. Wang, B. Xu, P. Jin, Z. Z. Sun, and F. Q. Liu, “High-performance quantum-dot superluminescent diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 27–29 (2004). [CrossRef]

9.

L. H. Li, M. Rossetti, A. Fiore, L. Occhi, and C. Velez, “Wide emission spectrum from superluminescent diodes with chirped quantum dot multilayers,” Electron. Lett. 41(1), 41–43 (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

S. K. Ray, K. M. Groom, M. D. Beattie, H. Y. Liu, M. Hopkinson, and R. A. Hogg, “Broad-band superluminescent light-emitting diodes incorporating quantum dots in compositionally modulated quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 58–60 (2006). [CrossRef]

11.

X. Q. Lv, N. Liu, P. Jin, and Z. G. Wang, “Broadband Emitting Superluminescent Diodes With InAs Quantum Dots in AlGaAs Matrix,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(20), 1742–1744 (2008). [CrossRef]

12.

Z. Y. Zhang, R. A. Hogg, B. Xu, P. Jin, and Z. G. Wang, “Realization of extremely broadband quantum-dot superluminescent light-emitting diodes by rapid thermal-annealing process,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1210–1212 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

M. Sugawara, K. Mukai, and Y. Nakata, “Light emission spectra of columnar-shaped self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers: Effect of homogeneous broadening of the optical gain on lasing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1561–1563 (1999). [CrossRef]

14.

A. Kovsh, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, J. Weimert, and A. Zhukov, “Quantum dot laser with 75 nm broad spectrum of emission,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 793–795 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

A. E. Zhukov and A. R. Kovsh, “Quantum dot diode lasers for optical communication systems,” Quantum Electron. 38(5), 409–423 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

C. L. Tan, H. S. Djie, Y. Wang, C. E. Dimas, V. Hongpinyo, Y. H. Ding, and B. S. Ooi, “Wavelength tuning and emission width widening of ultrabroad quantum dash interband laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(11), 111101 (2008). [CrossRef]

17.

P. Eliseev, H. Li, A. Stintz, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Tunable grating-coupled laser oscillation and spectral hole burning in an InAs quantum-dot laser diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(4), 479–485 (2000). [CrossRef]

18.

H. Li, G. T. Liu, P. M. Varangis, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “150-nm tuning range in a grating-coupled external cavity quantum-dot laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 759–761 (2000). [CrossRef]

19.

P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Low-threshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 36(18), 1544–1545 (2000). [CrossRef]

20.

A. Biebersdorf, C. Lingk, M. De Giorgi, J. Feldmann, J. Sacher, M. Arzberger, C. Ulbrich, G. Böhm, M.-C. Amann, and G. Abstreiter, “Tunable single and dual mode operation of an external cavity quantum-dot injection laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(16), 1928–1930 (2003). [CrossRef]

21.

C. Ni. Allen, P. J. Poole, P. Barrios, P. Marshall, G. Pakulski, S. Raymond, and S. Fafard, “External cavity quantum dot tunable laser through 1.55 μm,” Physica E 26, 372–376 (2005). [CrossRef]

22.

G. Ortner, C. Ni. Allen, C. Dion, P. Barrios, D. Poitras, D. Dalacu, G. Pakulski, J. Lapointe, P. J. Poole, W. Render, and S. Raymond, “External cavity InAs/InP quantum dot laser with a tuning range of 166 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121119 (2006). [CrossRef]

23.

A. Tierno and T. Ackemann, “Tunable, narrow-band light source in the 1.25 μm region based on broad-area quantum dot lasers with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 585–588 (2007). [CrossRef]

24.

A. Yu. Nevsky, U. Bressel, I. Ernsting, Ch. Eisele, M. Okhapkin, S. Schiller, A. Gubenko, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “A narrow-line-width external cavity quantum dot laser for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared and yellow spectral ranges,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 501–507 (2008). [CrossRef]

25.

X. Q. Lü, P. Jin, and Z. G. Wang, “A broadband external cavity tunable InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser by utilizing only the ground state emission,” Chin. Phys. B 19(1), 018104–4 (2010). [CrossRef]

26.

A. Lidgard, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, H. Temkin, K. W. Wecht, and N. A. Olsson, “External-cavity InGaAs/InP graded index multiquantum well laser with a 200 nm tuning range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(9), 816–817 (1990). [CrossRef]

27.

H. Tabuchi and H. Ishikawa, “External grating tunable MQW laser with wide tuning range of 240 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26(11), 742–743 (1990). [CrossRef]

28.

X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, M. J. Hamp, D. A. Thompson, B. J. Robinson, Q. C. Zhao, and M. Davies, “1.4-μm InGaAsP–InP strained multiple-quantum-well laser for broad-wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(9), 1202–1204 (1997). [CrossRef]

29.

S. C. Woodworth, D. T. Cassidy, and M. J. Hamp, “Experimental analysis of a broadly tunable InGaAsP laser with compositionally varied quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(3), 426–430 (2003). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3410) Lasers and laser optics : Laser resonators
(140.3600) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, tunable
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(250.5590) Optoelectronics : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: December 15, 2009
Revised Manuscript: March 19, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: April 1, 2010
Published: April 14, 2010

Citation
X. Q. Lv, P. Jin, W. Y. Wang, and Z. G. Wang, "Broadband external cavity tunable quantum dot lasers with low injection current density," Opt. Express 18, 8916-8922 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-9-8916


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References

  1. S. C. Woodworth, D. T. Cassidy, and M. J. Hamp, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy by use of an asymmetric multiple-quantum-well diode laser in an external cavity,” Appl. Opt. 40(36), 6719–6724 (2001). [CrossRef]
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  13. M. Sugawara, K. Mukai, and Y. Nakata, “Light emission spectra of columnar-shaped self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers: Effect of homogeneous broadening of the optical gain on lasing characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1561–1563 (1999). [CrossRef]
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  19. P. M. Varangis, H. Li, G. T. Liu, T. C. Newell, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, “Low-threshold quantum dot lasers with 201 nm tuning range,” Electron. Lett. 36(18), 1544–1545 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. A. Biebersdorf, C. Lingk, M. De Giorgi, J. Feldmann, J. Sacher, M. Arzberger, C. Ulbrich, G. Böhm, M.-C. Amann, and G. Abstreiter, “Tunable single and dual mode operation of an external cavity quantum-dot injection laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(16), 1928–1930 (2003). [CrossRef]
  21. C. Ni. Allen, P. J. Poole, P. Barrios, P. Marshall, G. Pakulski, S. Raymond, and S. Fafard, “External cavity quantum dot tunable laser through 1.55 μm,” Physica E 26, 372–376 (2005). [CrossRef]
  22. G. Ortner, C. Ni. Allen, C. Dion, P. Barrios, D. Poitras, D. Dalacu, G. Pakulski, J. Lapointe, P. J. Poole, W. Render, and S. Raymond, “External cavity InAs/InP quantum dot laser with a tuning range of 166 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(12), 121119 (2006). [CrossRef]
  23. A. Tierno and T. Ackemann, “Tunable, narrow-band light source in the 1.25 μm region based on broad-area quantum dot lasers with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 585–588 (2007). [CrossRef]
  24. A. Yu. Nevsky, U. Bressel, I. Ernsting, Ch. Eisele, M. Okhapkin, S. Schiller, A. Gubenko, D. Livshits, S. Mikhrin, I. Krestnikov, and A. Kovsh, “A narrow-line-width external cavity quantum dot laser for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared and yellow spectral ranges,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 501–507 (2008). [CrossRef]
  25. X. Q. Lü, P. Jin, and Z. G. Wang, “A broadband external cavity tunable InAs/GaAs quantum dot laser by utilizing only the ground state emission,” Chin. Phys. B 19(1), 018104–4 (2010). [CrossRef]
  26. A. Lidgard, T. Tanbun-Ek, R. A. Logan, H. Temkin, K. W. Wecht, and N. A. Olsson, “External-cavity InGaAs/InP graded index multiquantum well laser with a 200 nm tuning range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(9), 816–817 (1990). [CrossRef]
  27. H. Tabuchi and H. Ishikawa, “External grating tunable MQW laser with wide tuning range of 240 nm,” Electron. Lett. 26(11), 742–743 (1990). [CrossRef]
  28. X. Zhu, D. T. Cassidy, M. J. Hamp, D. A. Thompson, B. J. Robinson, Q. C. Zhao, and M. Davies, “1.4-μm InGaAsP–InP strained multiple-quantum-well laser for broad-wavelength tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(9), 1202–1204 (1997). [CrossRef]
  29. S. C. Woodworth, D. T. Cassidy, and M. J. Hamp, “Experimental analysis of a broadly tunable InGaAsP laser with compositionally varied quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(3), 426–430 (2003). [CrossRef]

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