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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 18, Iss. 9 — Apr. 26, 2010
  • pp: 9034–9047
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Generalized refractive tunable-focus lens and its imaging characteristics

Antonin Miks, Jiri Novak, and Pavel Novak  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue 9, pp. 9034-9047 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.009034


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Abstract

Conventional lenses made from optical glass or plastics have fixed properties (e.g. focal length) that depend on the index of refraction and geometrical parameters of the lens. We present an approach to the problem of calculation of basic paraxial parameters and the third order aberration coefficients of compound optical elements analogical to classical lenses which are based on refractive tunable-focus lenses. A detailed theoretical analysis is performed for a simple tunable-focus lens, a generalized tunable-focus lens, a generalized tunable-focus lens with minimum spherical aberration, and three-element tunable-focus lens (a tunable-focus doublet).

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Recently the first types of tunable-focus lenses with variable optical parameters appeared on the market [1,2] that give a possibility to design optical systems, which have no analogy in classical systems. The advantage of these active lenses is their capability to change continuously the focal length within a certain range. Using several tunable-focus lenses one can build optical systems which change their parameters (focal length, magnification, etc.) in a continuous way without a need for changing their mutual position. Such lenses with a tunable focal length in a wide range and lens type convertibility make possible to design optical systems with functions that are difficult to combine using conventional approaches. A novel design of lens systems with tunable-focus lenses is promising for future, especially due to a possibility for size reduction, a lower complexity and costs, better robustness, and a faster adjustment of optical parameters of such systems.

Different types of either refractive or diffractive tunable lenses with variable focal lengths were developed in recent years [118

18. R. Marks, D. L. Mathine, G. Peyman, J. Schwiegerling, and N. Peyghambarian, “Adjustable fluidic lenses for ophthalmic corrections,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 515–517 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and some of them are offered commercially nowadays [1,2]. The technology of tunable-focus lenses is inspired with an active change of optical parameters of the human eye. Several different technical approaches were developed for controlling the focal length of lenses. Tunable-focus lenses can use the principle of electrowetting [1,3

3. B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000). [CrossRef]

8

8. R. Peng, J. Chen, and S. Zhuang, “Electrowetting-actuated zoom lens with spherical-interface liquid lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(11), 2644–2650 (2008). [CrossRef]

], the controlled injection of fluid into chambers with deformable membranes [9

9. D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive zoom lens with high zoom ratio and widely tunable field of view,” Opt. Commun. 249(1-3), 175–182 (2005). [CrossRef]

11

11. H. W. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Variable-focus liquid lens,” Opt. Express 15(10), 5931–5936 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], thermooptical or electroactive polymers [2,12

12. G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11847–11857 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], or voltage-controlled liquid crystals as active optical elements [13

13. A. F. Naumov, G. D. Love, M. Y. Loktev, and F. L. Vladimirov, “Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses,” Opt. Express 4(9), 344–352 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17

17. P. Valley, D. L. Mathine, M. R. Dodge, J. Schwiegerling, G. Peyman, and N. Peyghambarian, “Tunable-focus flat liquid-crystal diffractive lens,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 336–338 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The development of tunable-focus lenses is of great importance for a number of practical applications, ranging from adaptive eyeglasses for vision correction [18

18. R. Marks, D. L. Mathine, G. Peyman, J. Schwiegerling, and N. Peyghambarian, “Adjustable fluidic lenses for ophthalmic corrections,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 515–517 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to fast and miniaturized zooming devices in various cameras, camcorders, and mobile phones [19

19. F. C. Wippermann, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and P. Craen, “Bifocal liquid lens zoom objective for mobile phone applications,” SPIE Proc. 6501, 650109 (2007). [CrossRef]

21

21. B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Variable liquid lenses for electronic products,” Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

In this work we focused on analysis of refractive tunable-focus lenses that can be fabricated, for example, using two liquids and electrowetting phenomena, in which an electrically induced change in surface-tension changes the surface curvature of liquid [3

3. B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000). [CrossRef]

,5

5. B. Berge, “Liquid lens technology: Principle of electrowetting based lenses and applications to imaging”, Proc. IEEE MEMS, 227–230 (2004).

]. Adjusting the shape of the surface between two immiscible liquids can be used for forming a positive or negative lens. Optical power, shape and material are fundamental optical parameters of the lens which affects its imaging properties [22

22. A. Miks, Applied Optics (Czech Technical University Press, Prague 2009). [PubMed]

26

26. M. Herzberger, Modern Geometrical Optics (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York 1958).

]. Aberrations are essential factors which affect the image quality of the lens. Thus, it is important for designing optical systems composed of tunable-focus lenses to analyze paraxial imaging properties and aberrations of such lenses. Only a few papers address imaging properties and aberration analysis of tunable-focus lenses and their systems [27

27. S. Reichelt and H. Zappe, “Design of spherically corrected, achromatic variable-focus liquid lenses,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14146–14154 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29

29. Z. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Zhao, “Aberration analyses of liquid zooming lenses without moving parts,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 22–26 (2007). [CrossRef]

].

The purpose of this work is to show a possible approach for the calculation of fundamental paraxial properties and the third order aberration coefficients of refractive tunable-focus lenses and their combinations into more complex optical systems analogical to classical lenses. We perform a detailed theoretical analysis of different optical elements based on refractive tunable-focus lenses composed of two immiscible liquids with an interface of a variable curvature. The calculation of aberrations and parameters of these elements is presented on several examples. The provided analysis may serve for the initial design of non-conventional optical systems using refractive tunable-focus lenses.

2. Basic formulas for calculation of parameters of refractive tunable-focus lenses

From the optical and technological point of view a simple refractive tunable-focus lens can be most easily designed as an optical system consisting of three optical surfaces, whereas the first and the last surface is planar, and the inner surface has a spherical shape with an adjustable curvature. Such tunable-focus lenses can be fabricated, for example, using two immiscible liquids and electrowetting phenomena, in which an electrically induced change in surface-tension changes the surface curvature of liquid [3

3. B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000). [CrossRef]

,5

5. B. Berge, “Liquid lens technology: Principle of electrowetting based lenses and applications to imaging”, Proc. IEEE MEMS, 227–230 (2004).

]. Adjusting the shape of the surface between two immiscible liquids can be used for forming an optical lens. A change in curvature of this inner surface between two liquids by electrowetting leads to a change in the focal distance of the lens. Further, we will not concern with a detail technical realization of tunable-focus lenses. Several variants of refractive tunable-focus lenses were described in literature [116

16. M. Ye, M. Noguchi, B. Wang, and S. Sato, “Zoom lens system without moving elements realised using liquid crystal lenses,” Electron. Lett. 45(12), 646–648 (2009). [CrossRef]

] and some of them are being fabricated commercially [1,2]. Such lenses can be used in various interesting applications in practice. We will focus our analysis on a model of fluidic tunable-focus lenses. We do not consider a thickness and material of thin covering planparallel plates which are used in fluidic lenses for separation of liquids from the surrounding media. In the following analysis performed in this work we will deal mostly with an optical design using a thin lens approximation, where we can neglect the influence of thin covering plates and the thickness of lenses. The problem of replacing a thin lens by a thick lens is treated in Ref [30

30. M. Herzberger, “Replacing a thin lens by a thick lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34(2), 114–115 (1944). [CrossRef]

]. An optical scheme of the simple tunable-focus lens is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Simple refractive tunable-focus lens
.

The following relations hold for raytracing the paraxial aperture ray through the optical system having K surfaces [22

22. A. Miks, Applied Optics (Czech Technical University Press, Prague 2009). [PubMed]

26

26. M. Herzberger, Modern Geometrical Optics (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York 1958).

]
niσi=niσi+hi(nini)/ri,hi+1=hidiσi,σi+1=σi,ni+1=ni,ni/sini/si=(nini)/ri,si+1=sidi,ni+1=ni,i=1,2,...,K,
(1)
whereσi is the paraxial angle of the aperture ray incident at i-th surface of the optical system, σi is the paraxial angle of the aperture ray refracted at i-th surface, ni is the index of refraction in front of the i-th surface, ni is the index of refraction behind the i-th surface, hi is the incident height of paraxial aperture ray at i-th surface, ri is the radius of curvature of i-th surface, di is the axial distance of the vertex of the i-th surface and the vertex of (i+1)-st surface, si=hi/σi is the distance of the axial point of the object, which is formed by the part of the optical system in front of the i-th surface, from i-th surface, si=hi/σi=hi/σi+1 is the image distance of the axial point of the object, which is formed by first i surfaces, from the i-th surface of the optical system. The transverse magnification m is given by the formula
m=y0y0=n1σ1nKσK.
(2)
Now, consider imaging of the object at infinity (σ1=0). We obtain using Eq. (1)
φ=(n3n2)/r2,σ4=h1φ,h3=h1(1d2n3φ),
(3)
where φ is the optical power of the tunable-focus lens. We can derive for the focal length fand positions sF,sF of the image and object focal points the following formulas
f=1φ=h1σ4=r2(n3n2),sF=h3σ4=fd2n3,sF=f+d1n2.
(4)
Equations (4) make possible to calculate fundamental paraxial parameters of the tunable-focus lens. Consider imaging of the point A in the distance s=s1 from the first surface of the tunable-focus lens, then the image A' is situated in the distance s=s3 from the last surface of the lens. We obtain using Eq. (1)
sf=1m1+d1n2f,sf=1md2n3f,
(5)
where m is the transverse magnification. Equations (5) enable to calculate s and s' for a given value of the transverse magnification m. Further, it holds the following image equation [22

22. A. Miks, Applied Optics (Czech Technical University Press, Prague 2009). [PubMed]

26

26. M. Herzberger, Modern Geometrical Optics (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York 1958).

]
qq=f2,m=q/f=f/q,
(6)
where q is the distance of point A from the object focal point F, and q' is the distance of point A' from the image focal point F'.

3. Third order aberrations of tunable-focus lenses

Aberrations are essential factors which affect the image quality of the lens. Thus, it is very important for designing optical systems composed of tunable-focus lenses to know aberrations of such lenses. Consider that the system of refractive tunable-focus lenses is a rotationally symmetric (Fig. 2
Fig. 2 General optical system
) consisting of K spherical surfaces. In case we know radii of curvature of lenses, their thicknesses, indices of refraction and distances between individual lenses we can simply calculate aberration coefficients of the third order [22

22. A. Miks, Applied Optics (Czech Technical University Press, Prague 2009). [PubMed]

,24

24. M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (Oxford University Press, New York 1964).

,25

25. P. Mouroulis, and J. Macdonald, Geometrical Optics and Optical Design (Oxford University Press, New York 1997).

]. Firstly, we calculate two paraxial (auxiliary) rays through the optical system, namely a paraxial aperture ray and paraxial principal ray. The following relations are valid for raytracing the paraxial principal ray through the optical system having K surfaces
niσ¯i=niσ¯i+h¯i(nini)/ri,h¯i+1=h¯idiσ¯i,σ¯i+1=σ¯,ni+1=ni,ni/s¯ini/s¯i=(nini)/ri,s¯i+1=s¯idi,ni+1=ni,i=1,2,...,K,
(7)
where σ¯i is the paraxial angle of the principal ray incident at i-th surface, σ¯i is the paraxial angle of the principal ray refracted at i-th surface, h¯i is the incident height of paraxial principal ray at i-th surface, s¯i=h¯i/σ¯i is the distance of the image of the entrance pupil, which is formed by the part of the optical system in front of the i-th surface, from i-th surface, s¯i=h¯i/σ¯i=h¯i/σ¯i+1 is the distance of the image of the entrance pupil, which is formed by first i surfaces, from i-th surface of the optical system. The meaning of other symbols is the same as in the case of the paraxial aperture ray. The angular magnification in pupils of the optical system can be expressed as γ¯=σ¯K/σ¯1.

σ¯1=h¯1s¯1=y0s¯1s1.

We can apply above-mentioned formulas on an optical element (lens) with a variable focal length which consists of three surfaces. The outer surfaces are planar (r1=r3=) and the inner surface is a spherical surface with the radius r2 which can be changed in a continuous way. Figure 1 presents an optical scheme of such lens. Using Eq. (9) we obtain after a time-consuming calculation for aberration coefficients of the third order of thin tunable-focus lens (d 1 = 0, d 2 = 0) in air (n 1=1, n 4=1) the following formulas
SI=hM,SII=h¯MHN,SIII=h¯2hM2Hh¯hN+H2φ,SIV=φ   C,SV=h¯3h2M3Hh¯2h2N+H2h¯hφ(3+C),
(10)
where
M=(hφ)3A+σ(hφ)2(4B1)+σ2(hφ)(3+2C),
(11)
N=(hφ)2B+σ(hφ)(2+C).
(12)
Functions A=A(P,Q), B=B(P,Q), and C=C(P,Q) can be expressed as
A=1+2PQQ(PQ)2,B=1+1Q(PQ),C=1PQ,
(13)
where P=n2, Q=n3. As one can see from Eqs. (10-13) we expressed the third order aberration coefficients using three parameters, which depend only on refractive indices of fluids forming the tunable-focus lens and do not depend on the optical power φ of the lens. The graph which presents the dependence of functions A(P,Q) and B(P,Q) on parameters P and Q (refractive indices) is shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Graph of functions A(P,Q) and B(P,Q) for value P = 1.38
for the value P = 1.38.

Assume now a refractive rotationally symmetric aspheric surface of the second order. The formula of the meridian of a general surface of the second order is within the scope of the accuracy of the third-order aberration theory given by [24

24. M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (Oxford University Press, New York 1964).

]
x=y22r+(1+b)y48r3,
where x and y are the coordinates of an arbitrary point of the lens surface meridian, r is the radius of curvature on the optical axis, and b is the aspheric coefficient that characterizes the shape of the aspheric surface. We can determine the type of the curve by the value of the coefficient b. The curve represents hyperbola, if <b<1, parabola, if b=1, ellipse, if 1<b<b ≠ 0 or circle, if b = 0. If the inner surface tunable-focus lens is aspheric then we must replace the variable M in Eq. (11) by the following expression
Masf=M+b(hr2)3(QP).
We can determine aberration coefficients of the third order of a tunable-focus lens using Eqs. (10-13) for an arbitrary value of optical power φ and position of the object plane s. We can write σσ=hφ for the entering paraxial aperture angle σ=σ1 and the exiting paraxial aperture angle σ=σ4 (Fig. 2), where φ=(n3n2)/r2 is the power of the lens. We obtain for a system of K tunable-focus lenses
SI=j=1K(SI)j,SII=j=1K(SII)j,SIII=j=1K(SIII)j,SIV=j=1K(SIV)j,SV=j=1K(SV)j,
(14)
where (Sp)j (p = I, II, III, IV, V) denotes the aberration coefficient of the j-th element of the optical system. We can provide calculations of the third-order aberration coefficients of an arbitrary optical system of thin tunable-focus lenses using Eq. (8) and Eqs. (10-14). The provided analysis may serve for the initial design of optical systems, and the calculated parameters can be used for its further optimization using optical design software. Chromatic aberrations can be simply calculated by substitution of refractive indices for corresponding wavelengths into Eqs. (8)(14). The error due to neglecting the finite thickness of lenses is relatively small because the change of aberration coefficients with respect to the lens thickness is approximately few percents.

4. Imaging properties of generalized tunable-focus lens

φ=1/f=φ1+φ2+dφ1φ2,sF=f(1d/f1),sF=f(1d/f2).
(16)

6. Imaging properties of three thin tunable-focus lenses

7. Examples of tunable-focus lenses

We will show several examples of thin tunable-focus lenses in air and we provide a comparison of imaging properties to traditional lens systems. We have chosen two cases of values of refractive indices of fluids in tunable-focus lenses: (n2=1.38,n3=1.55) and (n2=1.38,n3=1.99). Furthermore, we consider imaging of the object at infinity (σ1=0) and the entrance pupil is identical with the plane of lenses (s¯1=0). Linear dimensions in the following examples are given in mm.

Example 1

We consider a simple thin tunable-focus lens with the optical scheme shown in Fig. 1. Parameters of the lens and the coefficient of spherical aberration SI is given in Table 1

Table 1. Simple thin tunable-focus lens

table-icon
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for both cases of refractive indices.We obtain for the transverse spherical aberration δy and longitudinal spherical aberration δsthe following formulas
δy=yP32f3SI=12sin3USI,δs=12sin2USI,
where U is the image aperture angle of the optical system. Now, we compare parameters of the thin simple tunable-focus lens with parameters of the classical thin lens in air, which is made from optical glass with the refractive index n and the minimum spherical aberration for the object at infinity. We have for the longitudinal spherical aberration δsmin of the classical lens
δsmin=12sin2U(SI)min,
where
(SI)min=n(4n1)4(n+2)(n1)2f.
Using as optical glass Schott BK7 with n = 1.516 (λ = 589 nm) we can calculate for the focal length f=100  mm the aberration coefficient (SI)min=205. If we use optical glass Schott N-LASF46A with n = 1.904 (λ = 589 nm) we obtain (SI)min=98.7 for the value f=100  mm. One can see by comparison to the thin tunable-focus lens with the same focal length f=100  mm that the traditional thin lens has approximately fourteen times lower residual spherical aberration than the first case of the simple thin tunable-focus lens (n 2 = 1.38 and n 3 = 1.55). In the second case (n 2 = 1.38 and n 3 = 1.99) the tunable-focus lens has almost the same residual spherical aberration as the classical lens from the glass BK7. It is clear from the presented example that the difference (n 3 – n 2) between indices of refraction must be relatively large for achieving small residual aberration of the simple tunable-focus lens. It is also evident from Fig. 3.

Example 2

We consider a generalized thin tunable-focus lens with minimum spherical aberration. The optical scheme of this lens is shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. We can calculate parameters of the lens using Eq. (21). These parameters together with the coefficient of spherical aberration (SI)min are presented in Table 2

Table 2. Generalized thin tunable-focus lens

table-icon
View This Table
| View All Tables
. As we can see from Table 2 the first solution gives always lower value SI of spherical aberration.

By comparison with a classical lens we can see that the generalized tunable-focus lens with minimum spherical aberration has 2.2 times lower residual spherical aberration than the classical thin lens made from the glass BK7 and approximately the same residual aberration as the lens from the glass N-LASF46A.

Example 3

8. Summary

The work presents a possible approach to a general solution of the problem of calculation of fundamental paraxial parameters and the third order aberration coefficients of thin tunable-focus lenses and their combinations into more complex optical systems. It is shown that aberration coefficients of the third order of the thin tunable-focus lens are completely characterized by three functions A, B and C that depend only on refractive indices of fluids forming the tunable-focus lens and do not depend on the position and size of the object and the position of the entrance pupil. These functions are constant for a given type of the tunable-focus lens. A detailed theoretical analysis was performed for a simple tunable-focus lens, a generalized tunable-focus lens, a generalized tunable-focus lens with minimum spherical aberration, and three-element tunable-focus lens (a tunable-focus doublet), which is the equivalent of the classical cemented doublet. The derived equations enable to carry out calculations of all parameters of above-mentioned optical systems and are also fundamental for solving of more complex optical systems using tunable-focus lenses. For example, an analogy of a traditional non-cemented doublet is composed of four tunable-focus lenses, a triplet must is composed of six tunable-focus lenses (i.e. three generalized tunable-focus lenses), the Petzval lens is composed of six tunable-focus lenses (i.e. two tunable-focus doublets), etc. The calculation of parameters of the optical systems with tunable-focus lenses was presented on several examples. The provided analysis may serve for better understanding aberration and imaging properties of the refractive tunable-focus lenses and for the initial design of optical systems using such non-conventional lens systems. Tunable-focus lenses start to be used in various practical applications and in near future these lenses will impact considerably the design of modern non-conventional optical systems, e.g. zoom lenses.

Acknowledgements

This work has been supported by Ministry of Education of Czech Republic by the grant MSM6840770022 and GA 202/09/P553 from Czech Science Foundation.

References and links

1.

http://www.varioptic.com

2.

http://www.optotune.com/

3.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000). [CrossRef]

4.

C. Gabay, B. Berge, G. Dovillaire, and S. Bucourt, “Dynamic study of a Varioptic variable focal lens,” SPIE Proc. 4767, 159–165 (2002). [CrossRef]

5.

B. Berge, “Liquid lens technology: Principle of electrowetting based lenses and applications to imaging”, Proc. IEEE MEMS, 227–230 (2004).

6.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. Van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Electrowetting-based variable-focus lens for miniature systems,” Opt. Rev. 12(3), 255–259 (2005). [CrossRef]

7.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1128–1130 (2004). [CrossRef]

8.

R. Peng, J. Chen, and S. Zhuang, “Electrowetting-actuated zoom lens with spherical-interface liquid lenses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(11), 2644–2650 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

D. Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y. H. Lo, “Fluidic adaptive zoom lens with high zoom ratio and widely tunable field of view,” Opt. Commun. 249(1-3), 175–182 (2005). [CrossRef]

10.

H. Ren, D. Fox, P. A. Anderson, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8031–8036 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

H. W. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Variable-focus liquid lens,” Opt. Express 15(10), 5931–5936 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

G. Beadie, M. L. Sandrock, M. J. Wiggins, R. S. Lepkowicz, J. S. Shirk, M. Ponting, Y. Yang, T. Kazmierczak, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Tunable polymer lens,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11847–11857 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

A. F. Naumov, G. D. Love, M. Y. Loktev, and F. L. Vladimirov, “Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses,” Opt. Express 4(9), 344–352 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. Ye and S. Sato, “Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 5B), L571–L573 (2002). [CrossRef]

15.

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4789–4791 (2004). [CrossRef]

16.

M. Ye, M. Noguchi, B. Wang, and S. Sato, “Zoom lens system without moving elements realised using liquid crystal lenses,” Electron. Lett. 45(12), 646–648 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

P. Valley, D. L. Mathine, M. R. Dodge, J. Schwiegerling, G. Peyman, and N. Peyghambarian, “Tunable-focus flat liquid-crystal diffractive lens,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 336–338 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

R. Marks, D. L. Mathine, G. Peyman, J. Schwiegerling, and N. Peyghambarian, “Adjustable fluidic lenses for ophthalmic corrections,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 515–517 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

F. C. Wippermann, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and P. Craen, “Bifocal liquid lens zoom objective for mobile phone applications,” SPIE Proc. 6501, 650109 (2007). [CrossRef]

20.

F. S. Tsai, S. H. Cho, Y. H. Lo, B. Vasko, and J. Vasko, “Miniaturized universal imaging device using fluidic lens,” Opt. Lett. 33(3), 291–293 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

B. H. W. Hendriks, S. Kuiper, M. A. J. van As, C. A. Renders, and T. W. Tukker, “Variable liquid lenses for electronic products,” Proc. SPIE 6034, 603402 (2006). [CrossRef]

22.

A. Miks, Applied Optics (Czech Technical University Press, Prague 2009). [PubMed]

23.

W. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 4th Ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York 2007).

24.

M. Born, and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (Oxford University Press, New York 1964).

25.

P. Mouroulis, and J. Macdonald, Geometrical Optics and Optical Design (Oxford University Press, New York 1997).

26.

M. Herzberger, Modern Geometrical Optics (Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York 1958).

27.

S. Reichelt and H. Zappe, “Design of spherically corrected, achromatic variable-focus liquid lenses,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14146–14154 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

R. Peng, J. Chen, Ch. Zhu, and S. Zhuang, “Design of a zoom lens without motorized optical elements,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6664–6669 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

Z. Wang, Y. Xu, and Y. Zhao, “Aberration analyses of liquid zooming lenses without moving parts,” Opt. Commun. 275(1), 22–26 (2007). [CrossRef]

30.

M. Herzberger, “Replacing a thin lens by a thick lens,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 34(2), 114–115 (1944). [CrossRef]

31.

K. Rektorys, Survey of Applicable Mathematics. (Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dodrecht 1994)

OCIS Codes
(080.3620) Geometric optics : Lens system design
(110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
(220.3630) Optical design and fabrication : Lenses
(110.1080) Imaging systems : Active or adaptive optics

History
Original Manuscript: March 1, 2010
Revised Manuscript: March 31, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: March 31, 2010
Published: April 14, 2010

Citation
Antonin Miks, Jiri Novak, and Pavel Novak, "Generalized refractive tunable-focus lens and its imaging characteristics," Opt. Express 18, 9034-9047 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-9-9034


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