OSA's Digital Library

Energy Express

Energy Express

  • Editor: Bernard Kippelen
  • Vol. 18, Iss. S3 — Sep. 13, 2010
  • pp: A293–A299
« Show journal navigation

Absorbing one-dimensional planar photonic crystal for amorphous silicon solar cell

Ounsi El Daif, Emmanuel Drouard, Guillaume Gomard, Anne Kaminski, Alain Fave, Mustapha Lemiti, Sungmo Ahn, Sihan Kim, Pere Roca i Cabarrocas, Heonsu Jeon, and Christian Seassal  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue S3, pp. A293-A299 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.00A293


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1932 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We report on the absorption of a 100nm thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer patterned as a planar photonic crystal (PPC), using laser holography and reactive ion etching. Compared to an unpatterned layer, electromagnetic simulation and optical measurements both show a 50% increase of the absorption over the 0.38-0.75micron spectral range, in the case of a one-dimensional PPC. Such absorbing photonic crystals, combined with transparent and conductive layers, may be at the basis of new photovoltaic solar cells.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Controlling light absorption in very thin semiconductor layers is of prime importance for thin film photovoltaics, photodetectors and infrared imaging. Such a control may be achieved using various kinds of light trapping techniques allowed by the maturity of nanophotonics. Light trapping efficiency depends on the increase of light absorption over controlled spectral range and large angular acceptance. In the specific case of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, ideal light trapping structures integrated over very large areas, should enable absorption control over the whole solar spectrum, and for a wide range of incidence angles.

Absorption enhancement using surface plasmons has been proposed during the last years, either with self-assembled nanoparticles [1

1. F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114310 (2009). [CrossRef]

] or regular arrays of nanostructures fabricated using top-down technological processes [2

2. R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. In these approaches, the absorption enhancement around the plasmon resonances is balanced by light absorption in the metallic nanostructures. Photonic Crystals (PCs) have also been considered to realize either a back reflector [3

3. L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008). [CrossRef]

] or selective filters for tandem solar cells [4

4. A. Bielawny, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Intermediate reflectors for enhanced top cell performance in photovoltaic thin-film tandem cells,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8439–8446 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It was recently proposed to pattern directly the absorbing medium of a PV solar cell as a planar photonic crystal (PPC), in order to control the absorption of incident light [5

5. Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14312–14321 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10

10. S. Zanotto, M. Liscidini, and L. C. Andreani, “Light trapping regimes in thin-film silicon solar cells with a photonic pattern,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4260–4274 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this work we investigate both theoretically and experimentally the absorption of an hydrogenated amorphous silicon (aSi:H) PPC and compare it to a plain layer; optical properties of this material are detailed in ref [11

11. A. Fontcuberta i Morral, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Clerc, “Structure and hydrogen content of polymorphous silicon thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and nuclear measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 125307 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. In section 2, the basic configuration of the absorbing one-dimensional (1D) PPC structures is introduced, and we discuss the choice of appropriate geometrical parameters, optimised by using electromagnetic simulations. A simple way to pattern wide areas of aSi:H layers as PPCs is then described in section 3. In section 4, we discuss the absorption spectra measured on PPCs and plain layers, and we compare the results with optical simulations.

2. Absorbing photonic crystal structure design and simulation

We first performed simulations using Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) [15

15. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of planar-grating diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71(7), 811–818 (1981). [CrossRef]

] to obtain the absorption spectrum of such a stack, in the 380-750nm wavelength range, as a function of the 1D PPC parameters (L and ff). The investigation is limited to wavelengths below 750nm, i.e. in the spectral range where aSi:H exibits a non zero absorption coefficient [11

11. A. Fontcuberta i Morral, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Clerc, “Structure and hydrogen content of polymorphous silicon thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and nuclear measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 125307 (2004). [CrossRef]

], and we considered the AM1.5g solar spectral intensity distribution. The corresponding contour mapping of wavelength-integrated absorption efficiency is shown on Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Contour mapping of the integrated absorbency of a 100nm patterned aSi:H layer deposited on glass. The proportion of absorbed solar light intensity, integrated over 380-750nm, is shown as a function of the PC parameters (L, ff, see Fig. 1).
. Using the same method, we simulated that a simple 100nm unpatterned layer of aSi:H on glass absorbs about 30% of the same solar light spectral range. In the case of the 1D PPC, the absorption is increased to more than 42%. One can note on Fig. 2 the integrated absorption tolerance to a change in the PC parameters: a 10% relative change in the filling factor or in the PPC period affects integrated absorption only by 2%.

3. Fabrication

95nm thick aSi:H films were deposited on a glass substrate in a standard capacitively coupled radio frequency glow discharge system [16

16. P. Roca i Cabarrocas, J. B. Chevrier, J. Huc, A. Lloret, J. Y. Parey, and J. P. M. Schmitt, “A fully automated hot-wall multiplasma-monochamber reactor for thin film deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9(4), 2331–2341 (1991). [CrossRef]

]. In order to generate the PPC pattern over a large-area, we used laser holography. Two coherent planar waves originating from a single 325nm He-Cd laser were combined to interfere with each other and to produce a series of grating lines on a resist mask [17

17. C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, Y. Park, H. Jeon, B.-S. Lee, H.-W. Kim, and Y.-H. Choe, “Photonic crystal slab waveguides fabricated by the combination of holography and photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 4A), 1384–1387 (2004). [CrossRef]

,18

18. D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. Soo Park, J. Cho, J. Seo Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005). [CrossRef]

] which was transferred into a hard mask of silica. aSi:H was then selectively etched using Reactive Ion Etching, with a gas plasma based on SF6 and Ar, at low pressure (15 mT), yielding an aSi:H PPC structure with a period of 335nm and ff = 58 +/− 2%. These parameters do not strictly correspond to the optimal structure, due to technological inaccuracies. The silica hard mask was left above the stripes as a protection, adding about 100nm of transparent medium, which has a negligible effect on the absorption properties, and may account for a transparent layer to be used as a TCO for carrier collection in a complete stack, or as an antireflection coating. This process enables to pattern aSi:H layers with thicknesses up to 400nm, as shown on Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Close-up (a) and general scanning electron microscope (SEM) view (b) of a 400nm thick processed sample, covered by a thin chromium layer to increase the image quality.
, where the shown sample (used only for topographical characterization) has a 1D PPC period of 400nm and a lateral stripe size of 225 +/− 5nm. As shown in Fig. 3(a), the etched side-walls are fairly vertical, although the top half of the silicon patterns exhibit a 5-10° slope. The line profile can be seen on Fig. 3(b) from above, the latter is not perfectly straight, but stays well below the 10% tolerance limit given by simulations.

4. Optical characterisation and results

To characterize the optical properties of the structures, we performed spectrally resolved reflectivity (respectively transmittivity) experiments integrated over the whole half space around the front (resp. back) sample surface, using an integrating sphere with a 1mm spot diameter; the experimental uncertainty on each measurement is of 5%. The results obtained for unpolarized light are shown on Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Reflection and transmission spectra of the 95nm thick 1D PPC (shown for unpolarized light). (b) Derived absorption spectra of the same structure for Ex and Ey polarizations. (c) Absorption spectra of the 1D PPC structure (blue squares), of an unpatterned layer with the same thickness (red crosses), and of an unpatterned layer of 400nm (black plain circles with line). Simulations are also shown for the 1D PPC (blue continuous line) and the corresponding unpatterned structure (red continuous line).
. In non absorbing PPCs, the addressed Bloch modes generally exhibit a very high reflectivity at normal incidence [13

13. S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 mu m vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071105 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. But in the case of our material, this maximum is damped and its amplitude is well below 100% since a significant amount of incident light is resonantly absorbed. Given the absence of any other light source in this structure, and the low light intensity we are using, the transmittance T and reflectance R spectra enable a direct measurement of the effective absorbency A as shown by the relation A + T + R = 1.

Figure 4(b) displays the absorption spectra derived from R and T measurements for incident light with an electric field polarized along x (Ex) and y (Ey) axes. Due to the strong anisotropy of the 1D PPC, the photon lifetimes and wavelengths of resonant modes strongly depend on the incident light polarization. This results in a higher absorption increase at low (resp. high) wavelengths for Ex (resp. Ey) polarization. Such a polarization dependant behavior could be reduced in the case of a 2D PPC structure.

In the case of unpolarized incident light, the spectra are shown on Fig. 4(c), together with spectra calculated by RCWA, for both the 1D PPC structure and the unpatterned aSi:H layer including the remaining SiO2 layer on top. These absorption measurements, which fairly agree with the prediction, show an absorption increase of the patterned layer, with respect to the unpatterned one, over the whole measured spectrum. The increase is of 50% between 380 and 750nm: ~44% of AM1.5g solar intensity is absorbed instead of ~29%. These spectra exhibit a decrease in absorption efficiency above a wavelength of λ = 600 nm. This is due to the fast decrease of aSi:H extinction coefficient k towards zero [11

11. A. Fontcuberta i Morral, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Clerc, “Structure and hydrogen content of polymorphous silicon thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and nuclear measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 125307 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. For comparison, we measured on the same set-up the absorption spectrum of a simple 400nm thick aSi:H layer, plotted on the same graph on Fig. 4(c). The latter absorbs ~40% of solar light on the same spectrum, still less than the 95nm thick 1D PPC, where the volume of absorbing material is more than seven times lower. The absorption spectrum corresponding to the 400nm thick unpatterned layer exhibits oscillations attributed to Fabry-Perot modes ; these are visible at long wavelengths, i.e. provided the absorption coefficient is low enough to enable the observation of such resonances.

The measured values of the absorption are higher than the numerically predicted ones, in particular at high wavelengths. This is first attributed to the measurement uncertainties, which are higher at high wavelengths because of the small measured values. Second, two topographical characteristics of the real PPC structure were not considered in the simulations: the patterns exhibit disorder, and the sidewalls are not strictly vertical, which is expected to increase the incident light coupling efficiency [19

19. A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023825 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. As shown on Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental absorption ratio between the 95nm-thick patterned and unpatterned layers. No points are shown above 700nm as error bars are larger than the ratio, given the extremely small measured absolute values.
, the ratio between the unpatterned and patterned layer absorption is around 1.35 between 400 and 500nm, where the absorption efficiency of the unpatterned layer is constant at around 50%. In this spectral range, the extinction coefficient of aSi:H is so large that the absorption length is lower than the layer thickness; the PPC patterns offer a way to couple the incident light with a reduced reflectance, which explains measured and predicted ratio. The effect can therefore be considered antireflective. Above 500nm, the absolute values of the absorption are reduced, due to the lower absorption coefficient of aSi:H [11

11. A. Fontcuberta i Morral, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Clerc, “Structure and hydrogen content of polymorphous silicon thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and nuclear measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 125307 (2004). [CrossRef]

] so photons lifetime corresponds to an optical path length much longer than the layer thickness, allowing light to couple with Bloch resonances of the structure . This leads to the apparition of various damped absorption peaks, observable in Fig. 4(c) as well as on Fig. 5. This is attributed to the impact of the PPC Bloch modes which resonantly increase the absorption. The absorption ratio is thus increasing along with the decrease of the extinction coefficient k. This absorption enhancement finally indicates an increased generation of photocarriers, which is more precisely proportional to the spectrally integrated solar light absorption indicated above, provided appropriate processes suited to a-Si:H solar cells are used to passivate the etched surfaces of the PPC, in order to keep surface recombination low and so as to fully benefit from this photonic engineering scheme.

5. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have shown both theoretically and experimentally that patterning an aSi:H layer as a PPC yields a 50% increase of the absorption, in a wavelength range as wide as 380-750nm. A patterned structure of 95nm then absorbs incident light with a higher efficiency than a 400nm thick unpatterned layer. Given the limited carrier diffusion of aSi:H, this is of high importance, since such a reduction of the thickness will improve the collection of the photogenerated carriers and thus the solar cell efficiency. Using this very promising concept, we are now developing the fabrication of complete solar cells using such an absorbing structure, together with TCO layers. Given the controllability of the absorption enhancement through photonic band engineering, we believe that this method could also be used for other absorbing materials such as crystalline silicon [20

20. V. Depauw, I. Gordon, G. Beaucarne, J. Poortmans, R. Mertensa, and J.-P. Celis, “Proof of concept of an epitaxy-free layer-transfer process for silicon solar cells based on the reorganisation of macropores upon annealing,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 159–160, 286–290 (2009). [CrossRef]

], CIGS, III-V or II-VI semiconductors, but also in order to improve the characteristics of detectors on given spectral bands [21

21. S. Bandiera, D. Jacob, T. Muller, F. Marquier, M. Laroche, and J.-J. Greffet, “Enhanced absorption by nanostructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193103 (2008). [CrossRef]

].

Acknowledgements

This work is funded by the French Research Agency (ANR) PV program (SPARCS) and is partly performed in the frame of the French-Korean LIA “Center for Photonics and Nanostructure”. We thank Drs. C. Jamois, X. Letartre and P. Viktorovitch for helpful discussions, the NanoLyon Technology Platform and R. Perrin for efficient support, and Prof. P. Bienstman for his help with CAMFR. S. Ahn, S. Kim, and H. Jeon acknowledge the financial support from the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology through the National Research Foundation (2009-0082020).

References and links

1.

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114310 (2009). [CrossRef]

2.

R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

A. Bielawny, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Intermediate reflectors for enhanced top cell performance in photovoltaic thin-film tandem cells,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8439–8446 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14312–14321 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

Y.-C. Lee, C.-F. Huang, J.-Y. Chang, and M.-L. Wu, “Enhanced light trapping based on guided mode resonance effect for thin-film silicon solar cells with two filling-factor gratings,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7969–7975 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

C. Lin and M. L. Povinelli, “Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanowire arrays with a large lattice constant for photovoltaic applications,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19371–19381 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

O. El Daif, E. Drouard, G. Gomard, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, Y. Park, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, S. Ahn, H. Jeon, and C. Seassal, “Photonic Crystal Enhanced Absorption of Amorphous Silicon for Solar Cells,” Proc. 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, p. 548–552 (2009).

9.

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5691–5706 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

S. Zanotto, M. Liscidini, and L. C. Andreani, “Light trapping regimes in thin-film silicon solar cells with a photonic pattern,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4260–4274 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

A. Fontcuberta i Morral, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Clerc, “Structure and hydrogen content of polymorphous silicon thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and nuclear measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 125307 (2004). [CrossRef]

12.

Y. M. Soro, A. Abramov, M. E. Gueunier-Farret, E. V. Johnson, C. Longeaud, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and J. P. Kleider, ““Device grade hydrogenated polymorphous silicon deposited at high rates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(19-25), 2092–2095 (2008). [CrossRef]

13.

S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 mu m vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071105 (2007). [CrossRef]

14.

L. Ferrier, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Rojo Romeo, C. Seassal, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Viktorovitch, “Surface emitting microlaser based on 2D photonic crystal rod lattices,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9780–9788 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of planar-grating diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71(7), 811–818 (1981). [CrossRef]

16.

P. Roca i Cabarrocas, J. B. Chevrier, J. Huc, A. Lloret, J. Y. Parey, and J. P. M. Schmitt, “A fully automated hot-wall multiplasma-monochamber reactor for thin film deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9(4), 2331–2341 (1991). [CrossRef]

17.

C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, Y. Park, H. Jeon, B.-S. Lee, H.-W. Kim, and Y.-H. Choe, “Photonic crystal slab waveguides fabricated by the combination of holography and photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 4A), 1384–1387 (2004). [CrossRef]

18.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. Soo Park, J. Cho, J. Seo Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005). [CrossRef]

19.

A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023825 (2008). [CrossRef]

20.

V. Depauw, I. Gordon, G. Beaucarne, J. Poortmans, R. Mertensa, and J.-P. Celis, “Proof of concept of an epitaxy-free layer-transfer process for silicon solar cells based on the reorganisation of macropores upon annealing,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 159–160, 286–290 (2009). [CrossRef]

21.

S. Bandiera, D. Jacob, T. Muller, F. Marquier, M. Laroche, and J.-J. Greffet, “Enhanced absorption by nanostructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193103 (2008). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(040.5350) Detectors : Photovoltaic
(160.5298) Materials : Photonic crystals
(310.6845) Thin films : Thin film devices and applications

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystals

History
Original Manuscript: April 15, 2010
Revised Manuscript: June 20, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: June 20, 2010
Published: June 30, 2010

Citation
Ounsi El Daif, Emmanuel Drouard, Guillaume Gomard, Anne Kaminski, Alain Fave, Mustapha Lemiti, Sungmo Ahn, Sihan Kim, Pere Roca i Cabarrocas, Heonsu Jeon, and Christian Seassal, "Absorbing one-dimensional planar photonic crystal for amorphous silicon solar cell," Opt. Express 18, A293-A299 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-S3-A293


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. F. J. Beck, A. Polman, and K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114310 (2009). [CrossRef]
  2. R. A. Pala, J. White, E. Barnard, J. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Design of Plasmonic Thin-Film Solar Cells with Broadband Absorption Enhancements,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3504–3509 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. L. Zeng, P. Bermel, Y. Yi, B. A. Alamariu, K. A. Broderick, J. Liu, C. Hong, X. Duan, J. Joannopoulos, and L. C. Kimerling, “Demonstration of enhanced absorption in thin film Si solar cells with textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221105 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. A. Bielawny, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and R. B. Wehrspohn, “Intermediate reflectors for enhanced top cell performance in photovoltaic thin-film tandem cells,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8439–8446 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14312–14321 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y.-C. Lee, C.-F. Huang, J.-Y. Chang, and M.-L. Wu, “Enhanced light trapping based on guided mode resonance effect for thin-film silicon solar cells with two filling-factor gratings,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7969–7975 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Lin and M. L. Povinelli, “Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanowire arrays with a large lattice constant for photovoltaic applications,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19371–19381 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. O. El Daif, E. Drouard, G. Gomard, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, Y. Park, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, S. Ahn, H. Jeon, and C. Seassal, “Photonic Crystal Enhanced Absorption of Amorphous Silicon for Solar Cells,” Proc. 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, p. 548–552 (2009).
  9. S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5691–5706 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Zanotto, M. Liscidini, and L. C. Andreani, “Light trapping regimes in thin-film silicon solar cells with a photonic pattern,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4260–4274 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Fontcuberta i Morral, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Clerc, “Structure and hydrogen content of polymorphous silicon thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and nuclear measurements,” Phys. Rev. B 69(12), 125307 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. Y. M. Soro, A. Abramov, M. E. Gueunier-Farret, E. V. Johnson, C. Longeaud, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and J. P. Kleider, ““Device grade hydrogenated polymorphous silicon deposited at high rates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(19-25), 2092–2095 (2008). [CrossRef]
  13. S. Boutami, B. Benbakir, J. L. Leclercq, and P. Viktorovitch, “Compact and polarization controlled 1.55 mu m vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using single-layer photonic crystal mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071105 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. L. Ferrier, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Rojo Romeo, C. Seassal, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Viktorovitch, “Surface emitting microlaser based on 2D photonic crystal rod lattices,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9780–9788 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Rigorous coupled-wave analysis of planar-grating diffraction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71(7), 811–818 (1981). [CrossRef]
  16. P. Roca i Cabarrocas, J. B. Chevrier, J. Huc, A. Lloret, J. Y. Parey, and J. P. M. Schmitt, “A fully automated hot-wall multiplasma-monochamber reactor for thin film deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9(4), 2331–2341 (1991). [CrossRef]
  17. C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, Y. Park, H. Jeon, B.-S. Lee, H.-W. Kim, and Y.-H. Choe, “Photonic crystal slab waveguides fabricated by the combination of holography and photolithography,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 4A), 1384–1387 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. Soo Park, J. Cho, J. Seo Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. A. Chutinan and S. John, “Light trapping and absorption optimization in certain thin-film photonic crystal architectures,” Phys. Rev. A 78(2), 023825 (2008). [CrossRef]
  20. V. Depauw, I. Gordon, G. Beaucarne, J. Poortmans, R. Mertensa, and J.-P. Celis, “Proof of concept of an epitaxy-free layer-transfer process for silicon solar cells based on the reorganisation of macropores upon annealing,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 159–160, 286–290 (2009). [CrossRef]
  21. S. Bandiera, D. Jacob, T. Muller, F. Marquier, M. Laroche, and J.-J. Greffet, “Enhanced absorption by nanostructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193103 (2008). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4 Fig. 5
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited