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  • Editor: Bernard Kippelen
  • Vol. 18, Iss. S4 — Nov. 8, 2010
  • pp: A575–A583
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Enhanced photoluminescence from mixed-valence Eu-doped nanocrystalline silicate glass ceramics

Guojun Gao, Ning Da, Sindy Reibstein, and Lothar Wondraczek  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 18, Issue S4, pp. A575-A583 (2010)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.18.00A575


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Abstract

Intense photoluminescence was observed from mixed-valence Eu-doped nanocrystalline BaAl2Si2O8/LaBO3 glass ceramics. For preparation in air, the ratio between Eu3+ and Eu2+ luminescence depends on synthesis temperature. XRD, TEM and IR absorption spectra were employed to characterize the crystallization process and structural properties of the precursor glass and corresponding glass ceramics. When annealed at 950 °C, the material exhibited photoluminescence more than ten times stronger than was found in its glassy state. Spectroscopic data indicate that during such a heat treatment, even in air, a significant part of the Eu3+ ions is reduced to Eu2+. Lifetime of the 5D0 state of Eu3+ increases with increasing heat treatment temperature. Eu3+ species are largely incorporated on La3+ sites in LaBO3 crystallites whereas Eu2+ locates on Ba2+ sites in the hexacelsian phase. A mechanism for the internal reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ is proposed. Spectroscopic properties of the material suggest application in additive luminescent light generation.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Over the last few decades, optical properties of rare-earth (RE) ions doped into various host materials have been studied extensively, mainly with respect to potential application in solid state lighting, displays, lasers, optical amplifiers, sensors, etc [1

1. C. Ronda, ed., Luminescence: From Theory to Applications (Wiley-VCH, 2008).

]. Of the various RE species, europium is traditionally occupying a dominant role. The electronic configuration of Eu is [Xe]4f75d06s2. In oxide matrices, it is usually incorporated as Eu3+ or Eu2+. Depending on valence state, its red (Eu3+) or bluish (Eu2+) luminescence is widely known and made use of in various applications. In the case of Eu3+, photoluminescence typically originates from f-f transitions which are practically independent of ligand field strength. The corresponding emission spectrum comprises relatively narrow bands, in glasses usually dominated by the 5D07F2 transition at a wavelength of about 612 nm. On the other hand, for Eu2+, photoluminescence evolves from f-d relaxation. In this case, corresponding emission bands are typically rather broad and strongly field-dependent (e. g. [2

2. K. K. Mahato, S. B. Rai, and A. Rai, “Optical studies of Eu3+ doped oxyfuloroborate glass,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(4), 979–985 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4

4. S. Balaji, P. A. Azeem, and R. R. Reddy, “Absorption and emission properties of Eu3+ ions in Sodium fluoroborate glasses,” Physica B 394(1), 62–68 (2007). [CrossRef]

]).

Doping Eu3+ into glass ceramics may be motivated by various aspects. Most importantly, compared to conventional solid-state reactions, the glass ceramic route enables to benefit from all the advantages of glass processing. That is, glasses with very broad compositional flexibility, very high homogeneity and well-controlled dopant concentration may be prepared (and recycled) by conventional melting, and can, in principal, be processed almost universally [5

5. W. Höland, and G. H. Beall, Glass ceramic technology (American Ceramic Society, 2002).

]. In a second step of thermal annealing, one or more crystalline phases are then precipitated from the glass, preferably by internal nucleation without affecting macroscopic geometry of the as-processed body. The structure of the precipitated crystallite species is typically controlled by composition and annealing procedure. Depending on the availability of sufficiently large (or small) lattice sites, the dopant will at least partially enter (or not enter) the crystalline phase [6

6. M. Peng, B. Sprenger, M. A. Schmidt, H. G. Schwefel, and L. Wondraczek, “Broadband NIR photoluminescence from bismuth-doped Ba2P2O7 crystals: Insights into the nature of NIR-emitting Bismuth centers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12852–12863 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. As a consequence, the spectroscopic properties of the material change. For instance, if the dopant does not enter the crystalline phase, it will ultimately be enriched in the residual glass phase and, e.g., concentration quenching may be observed. Alternatively, emission intensity may be increased as a result of multiple scattering at the newly developed glass-crystal interfaces [7

7. N. Da, M. Peng, S. Krolikowski, and L. Wondraczek, “Intense red photoluminescence from Mn2+-doped (Na+, Zn2+) sulfophosphate glasses and glass ceramics as LED converters,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2549–2557 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Multiple scattering may also occur in the contrary case, if the dopant enters the crystalline phase. As a result of the changing ligand field, distinct changes may occur in the emission spectrum as well as in the lifetime of the excited states. Internal QE may be affected by a change in the phonon-electron interaction and, hence, the probability of non-radiative transfer. Additionally, a change in the absorption cross section may further lead to increasing emission intensity. Often, it is thus highly desirable to, via developing glass ceramics, combine advantages of glasses and polycrystalline materials. From a standpoint of optical application, it is usually even more desirable to prepare glass ceramics with high crystallite number density and low crystallite size. Such nanocrystalline glass ceramics, suitable as host material of Eu-dopants, can be obtained only from a rather limited number of chemical systems [8

8. S. Schweizer, L. Hobbs, M. Secu, J. Spaeth, A. Edgar, G. V. M. Williams, and J. Hamlin, “Photostimulated luminescence from fluorochlorozirconate glass ceramics and the effect of crystallite size,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083522 (2005). [CrossRef]

11

11. Q. Luo, X. Fan, X. Qiao, H. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Eu2+-Doped Glass Ceramics Containing BaF2 Nanocrystals as a Potential Blue Phosphor for UV-LED,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(4), 942–944 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

2. Experimental

Samples of nominal composition (mol.%) 33.3SiO2-10Al2O3-16.7B2O3-35BaO-5La2O3-0.2Eu2O3 (SABBL) were prepared by conventional melting and quenching from a 100 g batch of analytical grade reagents SiO2, Al2O3, H3BO3, BaCO3 La2O3 and Eu2O3. Melting was performed in alumina crucibles at 1600 °C for 2 hours. Glass slabs were obtained after pouring the melts into preheated (500 °C) graphite moulds and annealing for 2 h. From these slabs, disks of 10x10x1 mm3 were cut and polished (SiC/water). Subsequently, samples were heat-treated on an alumina substrate at temperatures between 800°C and 950 °C (step size 50 °C) for 2 hours in ambient atmosphere. During this procedure, glasses were transformed into translucent glass ceramics. Structural characterization was performed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD, Siemens Kristalloflex D500, Bragg-Brentano, 30 kV/30 mA, Cu Kα) and infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy (FTIR spectroscopy, Pekin-Elmer 1600) in the wave number range of 400 - 2000 cm−1 with a resolution of 2 cm−1. Photoluminescence was studied with a high-resolution spectrofluorometer and by single photon counting (Horiba Jobin Yvon Fluorolog-3), using a static Xe lamp (450 W) and a Xe flashlamp (75 W) as excitation sources, respectively. All spectroscopic analyses were performed at room temperature. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on a Philips CM30 at 300kV. For that, samples were cut in slices, polished, dimpled ans subsequently ion-thinned and coated with a thin carbon layer.

3. Results and discussion

3.1 Structural characterization

XRD patterns of Eu-doped SABBL samples are shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 XRD pattern of as-made Eu-doped SABBL and corresponding samples after annealing at various temperatures (left). Right: Bright field image showing diffraction contrast of needle-shaped hexacelsian and globular LaBO3 crystallites. Inset: Corresponding diffraction pattern, resulting from contributions of several crystals with different orientation.
. The as-melted specimen does not exhibit any discrete diffraction peaks, confirming its amorphous nature. Annealing resulted in the gradual precipitation of hexacelsian [19

19. A. Kremenović, P. Norby, R. Dimitrijević, and V. Dondur, “Time-temperature resolved synchrotron XRPD study of the hexacelsian α→β polymorph inversion,” Solid State Ion. 101–103(1-2), 611–618 (1997).

], BaAl2Si2O8, (JCPDS card no. 00-012-0725), first observed after heat-treating for 2 h at 850 °C. Subsequently, after treatment at 950 °C, an orthorhombic high-temperature polymorph of lanthanum orthoborate can be observed (JCPDS card no. 00-012-0762). The latter is assumed to be a result of lattice distortion in monoclinic LaBO3 ([20

20. R. Böhlhoff, H. U. Bambauer, and W. Hoffmann, “Hochtemperatur-Lanthanborat,” Naturwissenschaften 57(3), 129 (1970). [CrossRef]

], JCPDS card no. 00-073-1149) due to the incorporation of impurities such as, eventually, Eu-ions [21

21. n.n., Natl. Buro Standards US monograph No. 25 (1), p. 20 (1962).

]. Both phases can readily be observed by TEM (Fig. 1, right).

Corresponding FTIR absorption spectra are presented in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 FTIR absorption spectra of SABBL samples. In (A) the deconvolution of the spectrum of the as-made glass is shown. (B) shows spectra of samples after annealing at different temperatures.
. Spectra were normalized to the intensity of the peak at around 960 cm−1. In Fig. 2(a), the deconvolution of the spectrum of the as-made glass into eight individual peaks is shown. These are attributed to Si-O-Si asymmetric bending of SiO4 tetrahedra (~450 cm−1 [22

22. K. El-Egili, “Infrared studies of Na2O–B2O3–SiO2 and Al2O3–Na2O–B2O3–SiO2 glasses,” Physica B 325, 340–348 (2003). [CrossRef]

]), due to the impact of the Ba2+ network modifier ion deconvoluted into two peaks at 441 cm−1 and 481 cm−1 [12

12. M. Nogami, T. Kawaguchi, and A. Yasumori, “Spectral hole burning of Eu3+-doped Al2O3-SiO2 glass prepared by melt quenching,” Opt. Commun. 193(1-6), 237–244 (2001). [CrossRef]

], the B-O-B bending vibration in trigonal BO3, overlapped by vibrations of the AlO6-group at 702 cm−1 [23

23. L. Stoch and M. Sroda, “Infrared spectroscopy in the investigation of oxide glasses structure,” J. Mol. Struct. 511–512(1-3), 77–84 (1999). [CrossRef]

,24

24. M. Arora, S. Baccaro, G. Sharma, D. Singh, K. S. Thind, and D. P. Singh, “Radiation effects on PbO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses by FTIR spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 267(5), 817–820 (2009). [CrossRef]

], B-O-B stretching in tetrahedral BO4, overlapped by vibrations of Si-O- non-bridging oxygen at ~950 cm−1 [13

13. C. Wang, M. Peng, N. Jiang, X. Jiang, C. Zhao, and J. Qiu, “Tuning the Eu luminescence in glass materials synthesized in air by adjusting glass compositions,” Mater. Lett. 61(17), 3608–3611 (2007). [CrossRef]

], the Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching vibration at 1052 cm−1 [25

25. F. Wang, A. Stamboulis, D. Holland, S. Matsuya, and A. Takeuchi, “Solid state MAS-NMR and FTIR study of barium containing alumino-silicate glasses,” Key Eng. Mater. 361–363, 825–828 (2008). [CrossRef]

], asymmetric stretching of the B-O- non-bridging oxygen at 1233 cm−1 and 1395 cm−1 [13

13. C. Wang, M. Peng, N. Jiang, X. Jiang, C. Zhao, and J. Qiu, “Tuning the Eu luminescence in glass materials synthesized in air by adjusting glass compositions,” Mater. Lett. 61(17), 3608–3611 (2007). [CrossRef]

,26

26. P. Pernice, S. Esposito, A. Aronne, and V. N. Sigaev, “Structure and crystallization behavior of glasses in the BaO-B2O3-Al2O3 system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 258(1-3), 1–10 (1999). [CrossRef]

] and boroxol rings at 1306 cm−1 [27

27. Y. Chen, H. Xiao, S. Chen, and B. Tang, “Structure and crystallization of B2O3–Al2O3–SiO2 glasses,” Physica B 404(8-11), 1230–1234 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Upon transition to the glass ceramic [Fig. 2(b)], distinct sharpening and splitting of these bands can be observed. I. e., splitting of the Si-O-Si asymmetric bending increases. At the same time, the B-O-B bending vibration of trigonal BO3 shifts to higher energy and decreases in intensity, and a new band evolves at ~650 cm−1. Also the broad resonance at around 960 cm−1 sharpens, shifts towards higher energy and, upon crystallization, deconvolutes further into at least three distinct bands. The intensity ratio of the bands at ~960 cm−1 and ~700 cm−1 increases with increasing crystallization progress, indicating a transition in boron coordination from trigonal to tetrahedral. Consequently, also the resonances of the asymmetric stretching vibrations of non-bridging oxygen sharpen, and the band centered at ~1233 cm−1 (B-O- of BO4) increases in intensity.

3.2 Photoluminescence from Eu3+ centers

As noted before, it is well know that in a solid matrix, photoluminescence from Eu2+ is dominated by the 4f65d → 4f7 transition, while emission from Eu3+ ions results from 5D07FJ (J = 0-4). Both species can thus be unambiguously distinguished by luminescence spectroscopy.

Room temperature excitation spectra of Eu3+ (monitoring the 612 nm emission) in Eu-doped SABBL glass and glass ceramics are shown in Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 Eu3+-excitation (A) and emission (B) spectra of as-melted glass and SABBL samples after annealing at various temperatures. Inset of (B): Zoom at the spectral region of 500-570 nm.
. Broad excitation peaks correspond to Eu3+ transitions from the ground state (7F0) to the indicated excited levels. The most intense excitation peak corresponds to the 7F05L6 transition at 393 nm and was used in the following for recording Eu3+ emission spectra [Fig. 3(b), relaxation from 5D0 to the indicated states]. As visible from Fig. 3(b), upon heat-treatment, the luminescence properties of Eu3+ ions undergo significant changes. That is, firstly, upon crystallization, intensity of all excitation and emission peaks increases notably. In principle, this may be a result of either multiple scattering, increasing absorption cross section or increasing quantum efficiency, eventually caused by the incorporation of Eu3+ in a crystalline environment. In a more detailed consideration, it further becomes visible that particularly the emission bands of 5D07F1 (587 nm), 5D07F3 (648 nm) and 5D07F4 at (702 nm) become sharpen and that, relative to the overall increase, their intensity increase is stronger (i.e., the intensity ratio of these peaks to the 612 nm - peak increases). This change is most prominent when the annealing temperature reaches 950 °C and is taken as a clear indicator that at this temperature, Eu3+ species are incorporated into one of the crystalline phases.

The 5D07F2 transition is electric-dipole allowed and, hence, the intensity of the corresponding photoemission depends strongly on the symmetry of the Eu3+ environment. Contrary, 5D07F1 is magnetic-dipole allowed and is independent of local symmetry [9

9. K. Driesen, V. K. Tikhomirov, and C. Görller-Walrand, “Eu3+ as a probe for rare-earth dopant site structure in nano-glass-ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 024312 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. As a result, the ratio R of the emission intensities of 5D07F2 and 5D07F1 can be taken as a probe of the ligand asymmetry in the vicinity of Eu3+ ions. High values of R indicate low ligand symmetry and high bond covalency. For the present case, R is plotted as a function of the annealing temperature in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Asymmetry ratio of the emission intensities of Eu3+ transitions of 5D07F2 and 5D07F1 for as-melted as well as annealed (2h) SABBL samples for different annealing temperatures.
. Its value decreases with increasing annealing temperature from about 3.8 to 1.30. Hence, with higher heat treatment temperature, Eu3+ locates in an increasingly symmetric environment of less covalent character.

For the glass ceramic, the emission bands of 5D07F1 and 5D07F2 exhibit strong Stark splitting into two or three, respectively, distinct bands. For the as-melted glass, splitting of the 5D07F1 transition into three peaks indicates the low symmetry of the Eu3+ environment. Upon crystallization, these split bands become sharper and gradually overlap. This is a further indicator of the increasing symmetry of the Eu3+ environment. A similar conclusion can be drawn from the evolution of the split emission bands of 5D07F3 and 5D07F4.

Typically, photoluminescence from Eu3+ ions doped into glasses always results from 5D0, regardless of which was the highest excitation band. The reason for this is the occurrence of fast non-radiative relaxation of the 5DJ(1-3) states by multiphonon interaction. In the spectral range of 550 to 570 nm, photoemission (from 5DJ(1-3)) is therefore very improbable. However, as shown in the inset of Fig. 3(b), for the crystallized samples, photoluminescence from higher lying excited levels 5D17F1, 2, 3, 4, peaking at 525, 535, 551, 560 nm can indeed be observed and the intensity of these bands increases with increasing crystallization. As will be discussed in the following, the reason for this is the lower maximum phonon energy in the vicinity of Eu3+ species embedded in the crystalline phase, resulting in less-likely non-radiative energy transfer (see also Fig. 2).

3.3 Photoluminescence from Eu2+ centers

In the following, a possible mechanism for the internal reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ is proposed on the basis of charge compensation [4

4. S. Balaji, P. A. Azeem, and R. R. Reddy, “Absorption and emission properties of Eu3+ ions in Sodium fluoroborate glasses,” Physica B 394(1), 62–68 (2007). [CrossRef]

,18

18. M. P. Saradhi and U. V. Varadaraju, “Photoluminescence studies on Eu2+-Activated Li2SrSiO4-a Potential Orange-Yellow Phorsphor for Solid-State Lighting,” Chem. Mater. 18(22), 5267–5272 (2006). [CrossRef]

20

20. R. Böhlhoff, H. U. Bambauer, and W. Hoffmann, “Hochtemperatur-Lanthanborat,” Naturwissenschaften 57(3), 129 (1970). [CrossRef]

]. Firstly, it is assumed that Eu2+ is incorporated on Ba2+ sites in the BaAl2Si2O8 hexacelsian phase. While in principle, considering ionic radius alone, Eu2+ could readily be incorporated on the relatively large interstitials as well as on either of the cationic sites, this assumption is based on charge and coordination equivalence. In order to incorporate Eu-species in this lattice, for reasons of charge balance, two Eu3+ ions are needed to substitute for three Ba2+ ions, resulting in the formation of one barium vacancy. This vacancy then acts as the donor of electrons to Eu3+. The whole process is presented in the following equations:

3Ba2++2Eu3+VBa+2[Eu3+]Ba
(1)
VBaV×Ba+2e
(2)
2[Eu3+]Ba+2e2[Eu2+]Ba
(3)

Only a comparably small number of Eu3+ species enters the hexacelsian phase where it is reduced to Eu2+. There, it may be present on one of the two differently coordinated (sixfold and eigthfold, respectively) Ba2+ sites, what gives rise to the occurrence of the distinct emission bands [Fig. 6(b)] and the fact that the decay curve (Fig. 7) does not follow a single exponential equation. Compared with the Ba2+ site in BaAl2Si2O8, the La3+ site in LaBO3 represents an highly suitable host for Eu3+ dopants [28

28. H. Giesber, J. Ballato, G. Chumanov, J. Kolis, and M. Dejneka, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Eu3+ doped acentric LaBO3 and GdBO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 8987–8994 (2003). [CrossRef]

].

4. Conclusions

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to acknowledge the funding of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) through the Cluster of Excellence Engineering of Advanced Materials.

References and links

1.

C. Ronda, ed., Luminescence: From Theory to Applications (Wiley-VCH, 2008).

2.

K. K. Mahato, S. B. Rai, and A. Rai, “Optical studies of Eu3+ doped oxyfuloroborate glass,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(4), 979–985 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

S. S. Babu, K. Jang, E. J. Cho, H. Lee, and C. K. Jayasankar, “Thermal, structural and optical properties of Eu3+-doped zinc-tellurite glasses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(18), 5767–5774 (2007). [CrossRef]

4.

S. Balaji, P. A. Azeem, and R. R. Reddy, “Absorption and emission properties of Eu3+ ions in Sodium fluoroborate glasses,” Physica B 394(1), 62–68 (2007). [CrossRef]

5.

W. Höland, and G. H. Beall, Glass ceramic technology (American Ceramic Society, 2002).

6.

M. Peng, B. Sprenger, M. A. Schmidt, H. G. Schwefel, and L. Wondraczek, “Broadband NIR photoluminescence from bismuth-doped Ba2P2O7 crystals: Insights into the nature of NIR-emitting Bismuth centers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12852–12863 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

N. Da, M. Peng, S. Krolikowski, and L. Wondraczek, “Intense red photoluminescence from Mn2+-doped (Na+, Zn2+) sulfophosphate glasses and glass ceramics as LED converters,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2549–2557 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

S. Schweizer, L. Hobbs, M. Secu, J. Spaeth, A. Edgar, G. V. M. Williams, and J. Hamlin, “Photostimulated luminescence from fluorochlorozirconate glass ceramics and the effect of crystallite size,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(8), 083522 (2005). [CrossRef]

9.

K. Driesen, V. K. Tikhomirov, and C. Görller-Walrand, “Eu3+ as a probe for rare-earth dopant site structure in nano-glass-ceramics,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 024312 (2007). [CrossRef]

10.

B. Zhu, S. Zhang, S. Zhou, N. Jiang, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced upconversion and luminescence of transparent Eu3+-doped glass-ceramics containing nonlinear optical microcrystals,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 653–655 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

Q. Luo, X. Fan, X. Qiao, H. Yang, M. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Eu2+-Doped Glass Ceramics Containing BaF2 Nanocrystals as a Potential Blue Phosphor for UV-LED,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(4), 942–944 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

M. Nogami, T. Kawaguchi, and A. Yasumori, “Spectral hole burning of Eu3+-doped Al2O3-SiO2 glass prepared by melt quenching,” Opt. Commun. 193(1-6), 237–244 (2001). [CrossRef]

13.

C. Wang, M. Peng, N. Jiang, X. Jiang, C. Zhao, and J. Qiu, “Tuning the Eu luminescence in glass materials synthesized in air by adjusting glass compositions,” Mater. Lett. 61(17), 3608–3611 (2007). [CrossRef]

14.

Q. Zhang, Y. Qiao, B. Qian, G. Dong, J. Ruan, X. Liu, Q. Zhou, Q. Chen, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Luminescence properties of the Eu-doped porous glass and spontaneous reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+,” J. Lumin. 129(11), 1393–1397 (2009). [CrossRef]

15.

C. Zhang, J. Yang, C. Lin, C. Li, and J. Lin, “Reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in MAl2Si2O8 (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) in air condition,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(7), 1673–1678 (2009). [CrossRef]

16.

M. Peng, Z. Pei, G. Hong, and Q. Su, “The reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in BaMgSiO4:Eu prepared in air and the luminescence of BaMgSiO4 phosphor,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(5), 1202–1205 (2003). [CrossRef]

17.

M. Peng and G. Hong, “Reduction from Eu3+ to Eu2+ in BaAl2O4:Eu phosphor prepared in an oxidizing atmosphere and luminescence properties of BaAl2O4:Eu,” J. Lumin. 127(2), 735–740 (2007). [CrossRef]

18.

M. P. Saradhi and U. V. Varadaraju, “Photoluminescence studies on Eu2+-Activated Li2SrSiO4-a Potential Orange-Yellow Phorsphor for Solid-State Lighting,” Chem. Mater. 18(22), 5267–5272 (2006). [CrossRef]

19.

A. Kremenović, P. Norby, R. Dimitrijević, and V. Dondur, “Time-temperature resolved synchrotron XRPD study of the hexacelsian α→β polymorph inversion,” Solid State Ion. 101–103(1-2), 611–618 (1997).

20.

R. Böhlhoff, H. U. Bambauer, and W. Hoffmann, “Hochtemperatur-Lanthanborat,” Naturwissenschaften 57(3), 129 (1970). [CrossRef]

21.

n.n., Natl. Buro Standards US monograph No. 25 (1), p. 20 (1962).

22.

K. El-Egili, “Infrared studies of Na2O–B2O3–SiO2 and Al2O3–Na2O–B2O3–SiO2 glasses,” Physica B 325, 340–348 (2003). [CrossRef]

23.

L. Stoch and M. Sroda, “Infrared spectroscopy in the investigation of oxide glasses structure,” J. Mol. Struct. 511–512(1-3), 77–84 (1999). [CrossRef]

24.

M. Arora, S. Baccaro, G. Sharma, D. Singh, K. S. Thind, and D. P. Singh, “Radiation effects on PbO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses by FTIR spectroscopy,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 267(5), 817–820 (2009). [CrossRef]

25.

F. Wang, A. Stamboulis, D. Holland, S. Matsuya, and A. Takeuchi, “Solid state MAS-NMR and FTIR study of barium containing alumino-silicate glasses,” Key Eng. Mater. 361–363, 825–828 (2008). [CrossRef]

26.

P. Pernice, S. Esposito, A. Aronne, and V. N. Sigaev, “Structure and crystallization behavior of glasses in the BaO-B2O3-Al2O3 system,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 258(1-3), 1–10 (1999). [CrossRef]

27.

Y. Chen, H. Xiao, S. Chen, and B. Tang, “Structure and crystallization of B2O3–Al2O3–SiO2 glasses,” Physica B 404(8-11), 1230–1234 (2009). [CrossRef]

28.

H. Giesber, J. Ballato, G. Chumanov, J. Kolis, and M. Dejneka, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Eu3+ doped acentric LaBO3 and GdBO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 8987–8994 (2003). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3380) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials
(140.4480) Lasers and laser optics : Optical amplifiers
(160.2540) Materials : Fluorescent and luminescent materials
(160.4670) Materials : Optical materials

ToC Category:
Fluorescent Luminescent Materials

History
Original Manuscript: August 11, 2010
Revised Manuscript: October 6, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: October 8, 2010
Published: October 15, 2010

Citation
Guojun Gao, Ning Da, Sindy Reibstein, and Lothar Wondraczek, "Enhanced photoluminescence from 
mixed-valence Eu-doped nanocrystalline 
silicate glass ceramics," Opt. Express 18, A575-A583 (2010)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-S4-A575


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References

  1. C. Ronda, ed., Luminescence: From Theory to Applications (Wiley-VCH, 2008).
  2. K. K. Mahato, S. B. Rai, and A. Rai, “Optical studies of Eu3+ doped oxyfuloroborate glass,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(4), 979–985 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. S. Babu, K. Jang, E. J. Cho, H. Lee, and C. K. Jayasankar, “Thermal, structural and optical properties of Eu3+-doped zinc-tellurite glasses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(18), 5767–5774 (2007). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Balaji, P. A. Azeem, and R. R. Reddy, “Absorption and emission properties of Eu3+ ions in Sodium fluoroborate glasses,” Physica B 394(1), 62–68 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. W. Höland, and G. H. Beall, Glass ceramic technology (American Ceramic Society, 2002).
  6. M. Peng, B. Sprenger, M. A. Schmidt, H. G. Schwefel, and L. Wondraczek, “Broadband NIR photoluminescence from bismuth-doped Ba2P2O7 crystals: Insights into the nature of NIR-emitting Bismuth centers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12852–12863 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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