OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 10 — May. 9, 2011
  • pp: 9000–9007
« Show journal navigation

Electro-optical Pockels scattering from a single nanocrystal

Bassam Hajj, Sandrine Perruchas, Joseph Lautru, Géraldine Dantelle, Thierry Gacoin, Joseph Zyss, and Dominique Chauvat  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 10, pp. 9000-9007 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.009000


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1116 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The electro-optical Pockels response from a single non-centrosymmetric nanocrystal is reported. High sensitivity to the weak electric-field dependent nonlinear scattering is achieved through a dedicated imaging interferometric microscope and the linear dependence of electro-optical signal upon the applied field is checked. Using different incident light polarization states, a priori random spatial orientation of the crystal can be inferred. The electro-optical response from a nanocrystal provides local subwavelength sensor of quasi-static electric fields with potential applications in physics and biology. It also leads to a new sub-wavelength microscopy towards the nanoscale investigation of interesting phenomena such as nanoferroelectricity.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Here we report the Pockels effect of single isolated nanoparticle with a significantly sub-wavelength size of the order of 150 nm. We make use of a highly sensitive detection scheme with interferometric detection. The nanoparticles are ferroelectric Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (KTP) crystals, a material known for its good ferroelectric and quadratic optical non-linear coefficients. We show that the three-dimension orientation of a single nanoKTP crystal can be extracted using the experimental tensorial Pockels response to different optical polarization states. Further prospects for nanoscale detection of electric field and nano-ferroelectricity are then discussed.

2. Principle

3. Setup

While the microscope setup was described in more details elsewhere for thin film and membrane studies [9

9. B. Hajj, S. De Reguardati, L. Hugonin, B. Le Pioufle, T. Osaki, H. Suzuki, S. Takeuchi, H. Mojzisova, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Electro-optical imaging microscopy of dye-doped artificial lipidic membranes,” Biophys. J. 97(11), 2913–2921 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,19

19. T. Toury, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Electro-optical microscopy: mapping nonlinear polymer films with micrometric resolution,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1468–1470 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the principle of detection for isolated nanoparticles appears to be quite different owing for the specific demand of a nano-sensitive measurement. The microscope is shown in Figs. 1(a)
Fig. 1 Principle of EO detection: a) the different fields participating to the experiment; Ein: incident optical field, EΩ: quasi-static field applied by lateral gold electrodes, P: crystal polarization; b) Simplified representation of the interferometer scheme; L: cw HeNe laser, P: photodiode.
, 1(b). It is based on a Mach-Zhender type interferometer which is injected by a stabilized He-Ne continuous wave laser with a power of 1.5mW. The beam is split in two using a polarized beam splitter. One beam serves as a reference and the other one as a probe that is focused to a diffraction limited spot onto the sample using a microscope objective (Nikon, 40x, 0.6 NA). The transmitted light, as well as the scattered one, are collimated with a second identical objective, and then recombined with the reference beam in a balanced homodyne detection scheme. The static phase shift between the two beams is fixed to π/2to maximize the sensitivity. The transmitted light as well as the scattered one interferes with the reference beam and the corresponding intensity writes
I=|Erefω+Esigω+Escatteringω+Ω|2
(4)
Any variation in the scattering optical field due to the application of an electric field is being measured as variation in interference fringes. To avoid low-frequency noise sources, the electric field applied on the sample is modulated at a 20-kHz frequency Ω. Using a lock-in amplifier, the associated interference term proportional to the amplitude of the electro-optical part of the scattered field is detected

S2Re[(Erefω+Esigω)*Escω+Ω]
(5)

4. Sample and results

4.1 Sample preparation

Two flat and gold electrodes (see Fig. 1(a)), separated by 20micrometeres are shaped by photo-lithography, and, after being sonicated to prevent formation of aggregates [20

20. X. L. Le, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, “Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy,” Small 4(9), 1332–1336 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], a solution of 150-nm KTP nanocrystals in polyvynilpyrolidone (PVP) is deposited by spin-coating on top of the structured substrate. An expected average size of this nanocrystal is given by the dynamic light scattering analysis (DLS) of a nano-KTP colloidal solution (Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Dynamic light scattering of the KTP solution used in this experiment. A mean value of 150nm size is found.
). A 250-V difference of potential amplitude is applied between the two electrodes with the above 20-kHz modulation frequency. The sample is mounted on a three-axis piezo stage with nanometric positioning accuracy, which allows focusing the light on the sample and performing a transverse two-dimensional scan towards mapping of the electro-optical signal.

4.2 Results

Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Typical spatial response distribution from a single nanocrystal; (b) the linear dependence of the signal on the applied electric field amplitude.
shows a typical scan of a region between the electrodes. It reveals an electro-optical response appearing as a spot almost limited by diffraction. This signal is associated to a single nanometric-sized object that has dimensions well below the wavelength of light. As shown below, it can be unambiguously assigned to the electro-optical Pockels response from a single well-isloated monocrystalline KTP nanocrystal.

As expected form the linear nature of the Pockels effect, changing the amplitude of the modulated electric field on the nanocrystal results in a linear dependency of the electro-optical signal (See Fig. 3(b)).

4.3 Theoretical model- exemple

In the actual microscope configuration the signal beam is horizontally polarized, then rotated using a half-wave plate of an angle θ, leading to the following expression of the incident optical field on the sample

Einc=E0(cosθux+sinθuy)
(6)

To illustrate the expected theoretical response from an electro-optic nanoparticle, let us consider a simple case where the direction of the electric field and the Z crystallographic axis of the nanocrystal are both along the laboratory x axis. Taking the X crystallographic axis of the nanoKTP along the y-axis of the laboratory frame, the EO part of the scattered field from the nanoparticle writes
EscPε0E0E1Ω[(r33cosθ+r52sinθ)ux+(r53cosθ+r13sinθ)uy]
(7)
After the second half-wave plate and a second polarized beam splitter, only the horizontal component of the signal polarization interferes with the reference optical field. The final expression of this interference term writes
Iinterference2(Eref+Es)ESCε0E0E1Ω(Erefω+Es)[r33cos2θ+r13sin2θ]
(8)
As shown in Fig. 4(a), such a response displayed using the incident polarization angle as the polar angle features two lobes along the principal x axes. Asr33 is 4 times higher thanr13 for KTP, the lobes along the x-axis (0°) are 4 times more intense than the one along the y-axis (90°), and the small lobes are out-weighed by the presence of the bigger one.

4.4 Theoretical model- general case

In the general case, the first term of Eq. (8) can be used to simulate the angular dependency of the EO Pockels effect. In this expressionESC carries the information of the 3D orientation of the crystal. The Euler angles (α,β,γ) defines the orientation of the (X, Y, Z) principal optical axis system associated to the nanocrystal orientation with respect to the (x,y,z) laboratory frame. Equation (2) which gives the electro-optical tensor in the crystal principal axes, transforms under rotations and writes in the laboratory axes
ri,j,k=i',j',k'ri',j',k'(i^',i^)(j^',j^)(k^',k^)
(9)
where (i^,j^,k^) refers to the laboratory axes, and (i^',j^',k^')to the crystallographic ones. Taking the electric field to be along the laboratory x-axis, the Euler angles are adjusted to fit the experimental data shown in Figs. 3(b) to 3(d) with Eqs. (8) and (9). From this analysis, we are able to extract the Euler angles of the three nanocrystals (see Figs. 4(b) to 4(d)), e.g. equal to α=114°,   β=45° and γ=150° in the first case (Fig. 4(b)). We note that, due to the use of a relatively low NA of the microscope objective, our sensitivity to any z-component of the scattered field is very small so that the error on the out-of-plane angle determination of the nanocrystal orientation is higher than for the in-plane one. We also note that for the same reason, any z component of the incident optical field at the microscope focus can be neglected which simplifies the analysis.

4.5 Discussion

As a coherent scattering process, the amplitude of the optical electromagnetic field variation associated to the Pockels effect is proportional to the volume of the emitter for a small enough nanoparticle. As the size of the particle is reduced by two, the scattered signal will be divided by 8. With a SNR of 12 for a particle size of 150 nm, a current detection limit can be set at the level of 65nm sized nanocrystal.

This however does not constitute any fundamental limit, since a higher NA microscope objective could be used to increase the amount of collected light, as well as a higher intensity of the incident field. We note that the use of a non-resonant electromagnetic field for Pockels measurement is not prone to photo-destruction. In our case the incident intensity is just limited by the maximum 1.5mW power delivered by the stabilized He-Ne laser. Such power could be significaly increased since it lies well below the optical breakdown limit of the KTP material in the transparency region. A further reduction of the size of nanoPockels sensor would be gained by using materials with higher electro-optical coefficients, a good candidate being semiconducting quantum dots [21

21. L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Wang, and R. O. Claus, “Linear electro-optic tensor ratio determination and quadratic electro-optic modulation of electrostatically self-assembled CdSe quantum dot films,” J. Chem. Phys. 116(14), 6297–6304 (2002). [CrossRef]

] or Barium titanate nanocrystals [22

22. A. R. Johnston, “The strain-free electrooptic effect in single crystal barium titanate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7(7), 195–198 (1965). [CrossRef]

].

5. Conclusion

References

1.

A. Yariv, and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals - Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley, 2003).

2.

F. Agullo-Lopez, Electrooptics: Phenomena, Materials and Applications (Elsevier Science & Technology Books, 1994).

3.

C. Bosshard, G. Knopfle, P. Pretre, S. Follonier, C. Serbutoviez, and P. Gunter, “Molecular-crystals and polymers for nonlinear optics,” Opt. Eng. 34(7), 1951–1960 (1995). [CrossRef]

4.

K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, and H. Miyazawa, “Millimeter-wave Ti: LiNbO3 optical modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(4), 615–619 (1998). [CrossRef]

5.

A. Donval, E. Toussaere, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Polarization insensitive electro-optic polymer modulator,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3258–3262 (2000). [CrossRef]

6.

H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, and H. R. Fetterman, “Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3136–3138 (2001). [CrossRef]

7.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

H. Z. Ma and J. Levy, “GHz apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy of ferroelectric nanodomain dynamics,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 341–344 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

B. Hajj, S. De Reguardati, L. Hugonin, B. Le Pioufle, T. Osaki, H. Suzuki, S. Takeuchi, H. Mojzisova, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Electro-optical imaging microscopy of dye-doped artificial lipidic membranes,” Biophys. J. 97(11), 2913–2921 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

E. Gross, R. S. Bedlack Jr, and L. M. Loew, “Dual-wavelength ratiometric fluorescence measurement of the membrane dipole potential,” Biophys. J. 67(1), 208–216 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

L. Moreaux, T. Pons, V. Dambrin, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, “Electro-optic response of second-harmonic generation membrane potential sensors,” Opt. Lett. 28(8), 625–627 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

D. A. Dombeck, M. Blanchard-Desce, and W. W. Webb, “Optical recording of action potentials with second-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Neurosci. 24(4), 999–1003 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

U. Woggon, S. V. Bogdanov, O. Wind, K. H. Schlaad, H. Pier, C. Klingshirn, P. Chatziagorastou, and H. P. Fritz, “Electrooptic properties of CdS embedded in a polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 48(16), 11979–11986 (1993). [CrossRef]

14.

Y. S. Wang, R. Z. Wang, P. Sun, Q. Y. Tu, Q. L. Yan, and P. Huang, “Effects of modulated electric field form and frequency on the electro-optical properties of CdS0.1Se0.9 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(3), 1473–1475 (2000). [CrossRef]

15.

Y. S. Wang, R. Z. Wang, P. Sun, Q. Y. Tu, Q. L. Yan, and P. Huang, “Electro-optical properties of CdS0.1Se0.9 nanocrystals,” Physica E 9(2), 310–313 (2001). [CrossRef]

16.

B. Garrido, M. Lopez, A. Perez-Rodriguez, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, R. Ferre, J. A. Moreno, J. R. Morante, C. Bonafos, M. Carrada, A. Claverie, J. de la Torre, and A. Souifi, “Optical and electrical properties of Si-nanocrystals ion beam synthesized in SiO2,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 216, 213–221 (2004). [CrossRef]

17.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, (Academic Press, 2008).

18.

J. D. Bierlein and C. B. Arweiler, “Electrooptic and dielectric-properties of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(15), 917–919 (1986). [CrossRef]

19.

T. Toury, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Electro-optical microscopy: mapping nonlinear polymer films with micrometric resolution,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1468–1470 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

X. L. Le, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, “Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy,” Small 4(9), 1332–1336 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Wang, and R. O. Claus, “Linear electro-optic tensor ratio determination and quadratic electro-optic modulation of electrostatically self-assembled CdSe quantum dot films,” J. Chem. Phys. 116(14), 6297–6304 (2002). [CrossRef]

22.

A. R. Johnston, “The strain-free electrooptic effect in single crystal barium titanate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7(7), 195–198 (1965). [CrossRef]

23.

N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, D. Chauvat, C. Zhou, J. F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a single nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16051–16060 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

M. Sigelle and R. Hierle, “Determination of the electrooptic coefficients of 3-methyl 4-nitropyridine 1-oxide by an interferometric phase-modulation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(6), 4199–4204 (1981). [CrossRef]

25.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430(7001), 758–761 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

H. Z. Ma, J. Levy, M. D. Biegalski, S. Trolier-McKinstry, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature electro-optic properties of strained SrTiO3 films grown on DyScO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 014102 (2009). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
(110.0180) Imaging systems : Microscopy
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
(190.2640) Nonlinear optics : Stimulated scattering, modulation, etc.

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: November 3, 2010
Revised Manuscript: December 10, 2010
Manuscript Accepted: December 12, 2010
Published: April 25, 2011

Virtual Issues
Vol. 6, Iss. 6 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Bassam Hajj, Sandrine Perruchas, Joseph Lautru, Géraldine Dantelle, Thierry Gacoin, Joseph Zyss, and Dominique Chauvat, "Electro-optical Pockels scattering from a single nanocrystal," Opt. Express 19, 9000-9007 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-10-9000


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. A. Yariv, and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals - Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley, 2003).
  2. F. Agullo-Lopez, Electrooptics: Phenomena, Materials and Applications (Elsevier Science & Technology Books, 1994).
  3. C. Bosshard, G. Knopfle, P. Pretre, S. Follonier, C. Serbutoviez, and P. Gunter, “Molecular-crystals and polymers for nonlinear optics,” Opt. Eng. 34(7), 1951–1960 (1995). [CrossRef]
  4. K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, and H. Miyazawa, “Millimeter-wave Ti: LiNbO3 optical modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(4), 615–619 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. A. Donval, E. Toussaere, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Polarization insensitive electro-optic polymer modulator,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(7), 3258–3262 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Zhang, M. C. Oh, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, D. H. Chang, and H. R. Fetterman, “Push-pull electro-optic polymer modulators with low half-wave voltage and low loss at both 1310 and 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(20), 3136–3138 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Z. Ma and J. Levy, “GHz apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy of ferroelectric nanodomain dynamics,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 341–344 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Hajj, S. De Reguardati, L. Hugonin, B. Le Pioufle, T. Osaki, H. Suzuki, S. Takeuchi, H. Mojzisova, D. Chauvat, and J. Zyss, “Electro-optical imaging microscopy of dye-doped artificial lipidic membranes,” Biophys. J. 97(11), 2913–2921 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Gross, R. S. Bedlack, and L. M. Loew, “Dual-wavelength ratiometric fluorescence measurement of the membrane dipole potential,” Biophys. J. 67(1), 208–216 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Moreaux, T. Pons, V. Dambrin, M. Blanchard-Desce, and J. Mertz, “Electro-optic response of second-harmonic generation membrane potential sensors,” Opt. Lett. 28(8), 625–627 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. A. Dombeck, M. Blanchard-Desce, and W. W. Webb, “Optical recording of action potentials with second-harmonic generation microscopy,” J. Neurosci. 24(4), 999–1003 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. U. Woggon, S. V. Bogdanov, O. Wind, K. H. Schlaad, H. Pier, C. Klingshirn, P. Chatziagorastou, and H. P. Fritz, “Electrooptic properties of CdS embedded in a polymer,” Phys. Rev. B 48(16), 11979–11986 (1993). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. S. Wang, R. Z. Wang, P. Sun, Q. Y. Tu, Q. L. Yan, and P. Huang, “Effects of modulated electric field form and frequency on the electro-optical properties of CdS0.1Se0.9 nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(3), 1473–1475 (2000). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. S. Wang, R. Z. Wang, P. Sun, Q. Y. Tu, Q. L. Yan, and P. Huang, “Electro-optical properties of CdS0.1Se0.9 nanocrystals,” Physica E 9(2), 310–313 (2001). [CrossRef]
  16. B. Garrido, M. Lopez, A. Perez-Rodriguez, C. Garcia, P. Pellegrino, R. Ferre, J. A. Moreno, J. R. Morante, C. Bonafos, M. Carrada, A. Claverie, J. de la Torre, and A. Souifi, “Optical and electrical properties of Si-nanocrystals ion beam synthesized in SiO2,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 216, 213–221 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, (Academic Press, 2008).
  18. J. D. Bierlein and C. B. Arweiler, “Electrooptic and dielectric-properties of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(15), 917–919 (1986). [CrossRef]
  19. T. Toury, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, “Electro-optical microscopy: mapping nonlinear polymer films with micrometric resolution,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1468–1470 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. X. L. Le, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. F. Roch, “Photostable second-harmonic generation from a single KTiOPO4 nanocrystal for nonlinear microscopy,” Small 4(9), 1332–1336 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. M. Zhang, F. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Wang, and R. O. Claus, “Linear electro-optic tensor ratio determination and quadratic electro-optic modulation of electrostatically self-assembled CdSe quantum dot films,” J. Chem. Phys. 116(14), 6297–6304 (2002). [CrossRef]
  22. A. R. Johnston, “The strain-free electrooptic effect in single crystal barium titanate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7(7), 195–198 (1965). [CrossRef]
  23. N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, D. Chauvat, C. Zhou, J. F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a single nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16051–16060 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. Sigelle and R. Hierle, “Determination of the electrooptic coefficients of 3-methyl 4-nitropyridine 1-oxide by an interferometric phase-modulation technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 52(6), 4199–4204 (1981). [CrossRef]
  25. J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430(7001), 758–761 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. H. Z. Ma, J. Levy, M. D. Biegalski, S. Trolier-McKinstry, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature electro-optic properties of strained SrTiO3 films grown on DyScO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 014102 (2009). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited