## Circular holographic video display system |

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 10, pp. 9147-9156 (2011)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.009147

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### Abstract

A circular holographic video display system reconstructs holographic video. Phase-only spatial light modulators are tiled in a circular configuration in order to increase the field of view. A beam-splitter is used to align the active area of the SLMs side by side without any gap. With the help of this configuration observers can see 3D ghost-like image floating in space and can move and rotate around the object. The 3D reconstructions can be observed binocularly. Experimental results are satisfactory.

© 2011 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. M. Kovachev, R. Ilieva, P. Benzie, G.B. Esmer, L. Onural, J. Watson, and T. Reyhan, “Holographic 3DTV displays using spatial light modulators,” in *Three-Dimensional Television - Capture, Transmission, Display*, H. Ozaktas and L. Onural, eds., pp. 529–555, (Springer, 2008). [CrossRef]

7. F. Yaraş, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “State of the art in holographic displays: A survey,” J. Disp. Technol. **6**(10), 443–454 (2010). [CrossRef]

8. Holoeye Photonics AG, http://www.holoeye.com/.

*μm*and therefore, for green light (

*λ*= 532

*nm*), maximum diffraction angle,

*θ*

*, is approximately ∓1.9°. This severely restricts the field of view and prevents binocular vision; therefore, a state-of-the-art single SLM does not support 3D vision. Furthermore, since the overall size of a SLM is quite small, the reconstructed objects are also small in size. As a result, the observer can not move around the reconstruction and can not observe reconstructed object binocularly when only one SLM is used.*

_{max}*et al.*presented a wide holographic display system [10]. In their system, they use transmission type SLMs and align three of them side by side in a planar configuration by using a beam-splitter. They also utilize a lenticular sheet and discard the vertical parallax. Slinger

*et al.*proposed a different tiling scheme to increase the field of view [11

11. C. Slinger, P. Brett, V. Hui, G. Monnington, D. Pain, and I. Sage, “Electrically controllable multiple, active, computer-generated hologram,” Opt. Lett. **22**(14), 1113–1115 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12. M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from active tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” Proc. SPIE **5005**, 247–258 (2003). [CrossRef]

13. J. Hahn, H. Kim, Y. Lim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Wide viewing angle dynamic holographic stereogram with a curved array of spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express **16**(16), 12372–12386 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13. J. Hahn, H. Kim, Y. Lim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Wide viewing angle dynamic holographic stereogram with a curved array of spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express **16**(16), 12372–12386 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13. J. Hahn, H. Kim, Y. Lim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Wide viewing angle dynamic holographic stereogram with a curved array of spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express **16**(16), 12372–12386 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 2. Field of view in holographic displays

2. F. Yaraş, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “Real-time phase-only color holographic video display system using LED illumination,” Appl. Opt. **48**(34), H48–H53 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*cm*× 2

*cm*, pixel period, Δ

*, is about 8*

_{p}*μm*and the corresponding diffraction angle,

*θ*, is about 1.9° (where Δ

_{max}*=*

_{p}*λ/*[2sin(

*θ*)]). A more detailed analysis can be found in [4

_{max}4. L. Onural, F. Yaraş, and H. Kang, “Digital holographic three-dimensional video displays,” Proc. IEEE **99**(4), 576–589 (2011). [CrossRef]

## 3. Optical setup

## 4. Hologram generation and experimental results

*M*) by

*N*where (

*M,N*) = (1920, 1080) is the single SLM size. This procedure is applied for each frame of the video.

*ξ*,

*η*) describe the hologram (SLM) plane. In order to calculate the holograms, we extracted the point cloud data from the three-dimensional computer graphic model. Each point in the point cloud has a complex amplitude denoted as

*O*(

*x,y,z*) =

*o*(

*x,y,z*)exp(

*jθ*(

_{o}*x, y, z*)), where

*o*(

*x, y, z*) and

*θ*(

_{o}*x, y, z*) denote the magnitude and the phase of the object wave at the object point, respectively. As mentioned in the previous section, expanding non-symmetric wave is used to illuminate the holograms. Therefore, a correction term is required to compensate for this effect while computing the holograms. This illuminating wave can be expressed as a separable function. In the horizontal direction, the incoming wave is reflected radially by the cone mirror. Therefore, the center of the horizontal spherical wave is at the center of the cone mirror. As shown in Fig. 4, the distance between the SLM and the center of the cone mirror is denoted as

*D*. The illuminating wave along the horizontal direction,

_{l}*P*(

*ξ*), is given approximately as, since our SLM sizes are small and thus the paraxial approximation is valid. In the vertical direction, the cone mirror behaves just as a slanted mirror. Therefore, it does not change the center of the incoming light. However, since the size of the cone mirror is smaller than the size of the SLM; therefore, we use an expanding illuminating wave along the vertical direction. In this case, the distance between the center of the expanding illuminating wave and the SLM is calculated as

*D*+

_{p}*D*(See Fig. 4). Thus, the illuminating wave along the vertical direction,

_{l}*P*(

*η*), is given by: where,

*S*is the height of the SLM and

_{H}*D*is the distance between the cone mirror and the center of the spherical illumination wave. Furthermore, as a typical property of the SLMs, a strong undiffracted beam exists at the reconstructions [14

_{p}14. D. Palima and V. Daria, “Holographic projection of arbitrary light patterns with a suppressed zero-order beam,” Appl. Opt. **46**, 4197–4201 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*P*, also to the correction term and it is given by: where, sin(

_{t}*θ*) is the angle between undiffracted beam and the reconstructed beam. As a result, the overall correction term becomes:

_{t}*N*is the number of points in the point cloud of the three-dimensional computer graphic model,

*p*is the index of the points,

*k*is the wavenumber (

*k*= 2

*π*

*/λ*, where

*λ*is the wavelength) and

*r*is the distance between

_{p}*p*point and the hologram plane and given as: After multiplying by the correction term, the complex field on the hologram plane (

^{th}*ξ, η*plane) becomes: Then, the pixelated complex field on the hologram plane is calculated as: Here

*M*and

*N*are number of columns and rows of the pixelated complex field, respectively; and, Δ

*and Δ*

_{m}*are pixel periods along the corresponding directions. Since our SLMs are phase-only, we discard the magnitude and take only the phase information of the complex field. Of course, if full complex field is used, the reconstruction quality will be better. Discarding the magnitude of a complex field is a non-linear process and will degrade the quality of the reconstructions. Edges may be enhanced and the intensity in smooth areas may be suppressed. However, based on our subjective tests we observed that when only the phase information is used, the quality of the reconstructions is still satisfactory for a causal observer. Since our SLMs have 1920 × 1080 pixels,*

_{n}*M*= 1920 and

*N*= 1080.

*ξ, η*) plane and the relative coordinates, (

*x*,

_{p}*y*,

_{p}*z*), of the object points to match the SLM position.

_{p}*D*, is 0.3

_{l}*m*, and the distance between the center of the illuminating wave and the SLM,

*D*+

_{p}*D*, is 0.55

_{l}*m*. The reconstruction distance is about 0.35

*m*and the height of the reconstruction is approximately 1

*cm*. We use green laser (

*λ*= 532

*nm*) for video reconstruction. LED illumination can be used for naked eye observation. Total field of view is approximately 24° and this gives a quite comfortable range for an observer to move around the reconstruction.

## 5. Conclusion

## Acknowledgment

## References and links

1. | M. Kovachev, R. Ilieva, P. Benzie, G.B. Esmer, L. Onural, J. Watson, and T. Reyhan, “Holographic 3DTV displays using spatial light modulators,” in |

2. | F. Yaraş, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “Real-time phase-only color holographic video display system using LED illumination,” Appl. Opt. |

3. | M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, A. Finizio, R. Nsnen, T. Naughton, and P. Ferraro, “Synthesis and display of dynamic holographic 3D scenes with real-world objects,” Opt. Express |

4. | L. Onural, F. Yaraş, and H. Kang, “Digital holographic three-dimensional video displays,” Proc. IEEE |

5. | T. Kozacki, “On resolution and viewing of holographic image generated by 3D holographic display,” Opt. Express |

6. | F. Yaraş, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “Multi-SLM holographic display system with planar configuration,” 3DTV-Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), 2010. |

7. | F. Yaraş, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “State of the art in holographic displays: A survey,” J. Disp. Technol. |

8. | Holoeye Photonics AG, http://www.holoeye.com/. |

9. | J. W. Goodman, |

10. | N. Fukaya, K. Maeno, O. Nishikawa, K. Matumoto, K. Sato, and T. Honda, “Expansion of the image size and viewing zone in holographic display using liquid crystal devices,” Proc. SPIE |

11. | C. Slinger, P. Brett, V. Hui, G. Monnington, D. Pain, and I. Sage, “Electrically controllable multiple, active, computer-generated hologram,” Opt. Lett. |

12. | M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from active tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” Proc. SPIE |

13. | J. Hahn, H. Kim, Y. Lim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Wide viewing angle dynamic holographic stereogram with a curved array of spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express |

14. | D. Palima and V. Daria, “Holographic projection of arbitrary light patterns with a suppressed zero-order beam,” Appl. Opt. |

**OCIS Codes**

(090.2870) Holography : Holographic display

(090.4220) Holography : Multiplex holography

(090.1995) Holography : Digital holography

**ToC Category:**

Holography

**History**

Original Manuscript: February 8, 2011

Revised Manuscript: March 24, 2011

Manuscript Accepted: April 4, 2011

Published: April 26, 2011

**Citation**

Fahri Yaraş, Hoonjong Kang, and Levent Onural, "Circular holographic video display system," Opt. Express **19**, 9147-9156 (2011)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-10-9147

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### References

- M. Kovachev, R. Ilieva, P. Benzie, G.B. Esmer, L. Onural, J. Watson, and T. Reyhan, “Holographic 3DTV displays using spatial light modulators,” in Three-Dimensional Television - Capture, Transmission, Display , H. Ozaktas and L. Onural, eds., pp. 529–555, (Springer, 2008). [CrossRef]
- F. Yaraş, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “Real-time phase-only color holographic video display system using LED illumination,” Appl. Opt. 48(34), H48–H53 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Paturzo, P. Memmolo, A. Finizio, R. Nsnen, T. Naughton, and P. Ferraro, “Synthesis and display of dynamic holographic 3D scenes with real-world objects,” Opt. Express 18, 8806–8815 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- L. Onural, F. Yaraş, and H. Kang, “Digital holographic three-dimensional video displays,” Proc. IEEE 99(4), 576–589 (2011). [CrossRef]
- T. Kozacki, “On resolution and viewing of holographic image generated by 3D holographic display,” Opt. Express 18, 27118–27129 (2010). [CrossRef]
- F. Yaraş, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “Multi-SLM holographic display system with planar configuration,” 3DTV-Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), 2010.
- F. Yaraş, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “State of the art in holographic displays: A survey,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(10), 443–454 (2010). [CrossRef]
- Holoeye Photonics AG, http://www.holoeye.com/ .
- J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
- N. Fukaya, K. Maeno, O. Nishikawa, K. Matumoto, K. Sato, and T. Honda, “Expansion of the image size and viewing zone in holographic display using liquid crystal devices,” Proc. SPIE 2406, 283–289 (1995).
- C. Slinger, P. Brett, V. Hui, G. Monnington, D. Pain, and I. Sage, “Electrically controllable multiple, active, computer-generated hologram,” Opt. Lett. 22(14), 1113–1115 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from active tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” Proc. SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003). [CrossRef]
- J. Hahn, H. Kim, Y. Lim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Wide viewing angle dynamic holographic stereogram with a curved array of spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12372–12386 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D. Palima and V. Daria, “Holographic projection of arbitrary light patterns with a suppressed zero-order beam,” Appl. Opt. 46, 4197–4201 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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