## Observation of large contrast electromagnetically induced absorption resonance due to population transfer in a three-level Λ-system interacting with three separate electromagnetic fields |

Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 10, pp. 9956-9961 (2011)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.009956

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### Abstract

We describe a new scheme to induce large contrast (nearly 50%) absorption resonances using three co-propagating fields which interact with a three-level Λ-system (obtained by the *D*_{2} transition of ^{87}*Rb* atoms) in an *N*-configuration scheme. A single mode laser which couples the upper ground state to the excited state of ^{87}*Rb* is phase modulated at half the hyperfine splitting frequency. The resultant three line spectrum interacts with the atomic vapor yielding a population transfer which increases the absorption by an amount which depends on the carrier to modulation side band intensity ratio.

© 2011 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,” in “*Progress in Optics*,” vol. XXXV, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1996), pp. 257–354. [CrossRef]

2. S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today **50**, 36–42 (1997). [CrossRef]

4. M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A **60**, 3225–3228 (1999). [CrossRef]

*N*configuration [5

5. H. Schmidt and A. Imamogdlu, “Giant kerr nonlinearities obtained by electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Lett. **21**, 1936–1938 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7. M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, “Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nature (London) **413**, 273–276 (2001). [CrossRef]

8. A. Lezama, S. Barreiro, and A. M. Akulshin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption,” Phys. Rev. A **59**, 4732–4735 (1999). [CrossRef]

9. A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a four-state system,” Phys. Rev. A **61**, 011802 (1999). [CrossRef]

*N*configuration can also be established in three-level Λ-systems such as Rubidium atoms. Zibrov

*et al.*[10

10. A. S. Zibrov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, “Observation of a three-photon electromagnetically induced transparency in hot atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. A **65**, 043817 (2002). [CrossRef]

11. S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. L. Walsworth, and A. S. Zibrov, “Three-photon-absorption resonance for all-optical atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A **72**, 011801 (2005). [CrossRef]

14. C. Hancox, M. Hohensee, M. Crescimanno, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Lineshape asymmetry for joint coherent population trapping and three-photon N resonances,” Opt. Lett. **33**, 1536–1538 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*N*-resonance [11

11. S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. L. Walsworth, and A. S. Zibrov, “Three-photon-absorption resonance for all-optical atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A **72**, 011801 (2005). [CrossRef]

*N*configuration scheme. The

*D*

_{2}transition of

^{87}

*Rb*atoms serves as the Λ-system. It interacts with three spectral components in an

*N*-type configuration as described schematically in Fig. 1(a). The probe,

*ω*

_{3}, couples the higher ground state |

*g*

_{2}〉 to the excited state |

*e*〉 while

*ω*

_{1}and

*ω*

_{2}are far detuned from the

*|g*

_{1}〉 → |

*e*〉 and |

*g*

_{2}〉 →

*|e*〉 transition frequencies, respectively. The probe,

*ω*

_{3}senses the resonance as the two other fields scan. By setting the one photon detuning values of

*ω*

_{1}and

*ω*

_{2}to be equal (zero two-photon Raman detuning), a two-photon transition which couples the ground states is obtained. The coupling repopulates |

*g*

_{2}〉 which is optically pumped by the probe and therefore increases the absorption of

*ω*

_{3}. The interacting spectrum is obtained by modulating a laser which emits at the |

*g*

_{2}〉 →

*|e*〉 transition by half the hyperfine splitting frequency (

*f*) of

_{hfs}^{87}

*Rb*. As shown in Fig. 1(b), the optical carrier,

*ω*

_{3}, serves as the probe while

*ω*

_{1}and

*ω*

_{2}are scanned by sweeping the modulation frequency near the two-photon Raman resonance. Under optimum conditions, the probe experiences a large absorption resonance with a contrast of up to 50%. The absorption enhancement may be thought of as a synchronous (intensity) optical pumping [15

15. J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. J. Delaney, “On the use of intensity optical pumping and coherent population trapping techniques in the implementation of atomic frequency standards,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. **52**, 822–831 (2003). [CrossRef]

## 2. The experimental setup

*nm*External Cavity Diode Laser (ECDL) is set to the |

*F*

*= 2〉 → |*

_{g}*F*

*= 2〉 transition, monitored by Polarization Spectroscopy using a Balanced Polarimeter (PSBP) [16*

_{e}16. Y. Yoshikawa, T. Umeki, T. Mukae, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, “Frequency stabilization of a laser diode with use of Light-Induced birefringence in an atomic vapor,” Appl. Opt. **42**, 6645–6649 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*GHz*(

*f*

_{hfs}*/*2) generating the spectrum shown in Fig. 1(b). The carrier (at

*ω*

_{3}) to first side lobe (at

*ω*

_{1}and

*ω*

_{2}) intensity ratio (C1L) is varied from a few percents to infinity by adjusting the modulator drive (DC bias and RF power). Second order side lobes are filtered by two backreflacting Fabry-Perot etalons; higher order side lobes are negligible. The spectrum is monitored by a Fabry-Perot spectrum analyzer and the total intensity of the three spectral lines is controlled by a natural density (ND) filter and kept constant at a moderately low value of 300

*μW*. The polarization is adjusted to be circular by a

*λ/*4 plate. The Gaussian shaped beam is truncated by a 1

*mm*pinhole before it impinges on a cylindrical vapor cell with a diameter of 25

*mm*and a length of 30

*mm*which contains pure

^{87}

*Rb*atoms and a buffer gas at a pressure of 20

*torr*. The cell temperature is stabilized to about 66°C. A large solenoid generates a magnetic field of 57

*μT*in a direction parallel to the propagation of the beam. The entire cell structure is surrounded by a

*μ*-metal shield.

^{87}

*Rb*cell is filtered prior to detection by a cascade of two Fabry-Perot etalons which are slightly misaligned with respect to each other. The filters pass the carrier (probe) and rejects the first order side modes by a factor of 200.

## 3. Results and discussion

*D*

_{2}transition, compared to the simplified three-level atom used in the calculations. The energetic manifold of

^{87}

*Rb*in the experiment allows transitions other than the three-level Λ-system transitions. Moreover, Doppler broadened one-photon absorption processes mask the EIA effect at very low probe intensities. Similar effects are known to reduce the efficiency of CPT resonance [20

20. S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, and R. Wynands, “Temperature dependence of coherent population trapping resonances,” Appl. Phys. B **74**, 217–222 (2002). [CrossRef]

*ω*

_{1}and

*ω*

_{2}transmission profiles as shown in traces (b) and (c), respectively. Although the one-photon detunings of these frequency components are large, the atom absorbs a photon at

*ω*

_{1}and stimulatingly emits one at

*ω*

_{2}due to the two-photon process, consistent with predictions for the

*N*configuration employing two fields in [10

10. A. S. Zibrov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, “Observation of a three-photon electromagnetically induced transparency in hot atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. A **65**, 043817 (2002). [CrossRef]

*ω*

_{2}, and to an absorption of

*ω*

_{1}.

## 4. Conclusions

*et al.*[11

11. S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. L. Walsworth, and A. S. Zibrov, “Three-photon-absorption resonance for all-optical atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A **72**, 011801 (2005). [CrossRef]

14. C. Hancox, M. Hohensee, M. Crescimanno, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Lineshape asymmetry for joint coherent population trapping and three-photon N resonances,” Opt. Lett. **33**, 1536–1538 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*ω*

_{3}, to the |

*F*

*= 1〉 → |*

_{g}*F*

*= 2〉 transition and exchanging the roles of*

_{e}*ω*

_{1}and

*ω*

_{2}.

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,” in “ |

2. | S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today |

3. | M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, |

4. | M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A |

5. | H. Schmidt and A. Imamogdlu, “Giant kerr nonlinearities obtained by electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Lett. |

6. | S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

7. | M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, “Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nature (London) |

8. | A. Lezama, S. Barreiro, and A. M. Akulshin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption,” Phys. Rev. A |

9. | A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a four-state system,” Phys. Rev. A |

10. | A. S. Zibrov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, “Observation of a three-photon electromagnetically induced transparency in hot atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. A |

11. | S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. L. Walsworth, and A. S. Zibrov, “Three-photon-absorption resonance for all-optical atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A |

12. | I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, R. L. Walsworth, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Cancellation of light shifts in an N-resonance clock,” Opt. Lett. |

13. | I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, R. L. Walsworth, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Comparison of 87Rb N-resonances for D1 and D2 transitions,” Opt. Lett. |

14. | C. Hancox, M. Hohensee, M. Crescimanno, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Lineshape asymmetry for joint coherent population trapping and three-photon N resonances,” Opt. Lett. |

15. | J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. J. Delaney, “On the use of intensity optical pumping and coherent population trapping techniques in the implementation of atomic frequency standards,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. |

16. | Y. Yoshikawa, T. Umeki, T. Mukae, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, “Frequency stabilization of a laser diode with use of Light-Induced birefringence in an atomic vapor,” Appl. Opt. |

17. | J. H. Shirley, “Solution of the schrödinger equation with a hamiltonian periodic in time,” Phys. Rev. |

18. | D. R. Masson, “Schrödinger’s equation and continued fractions,” Int. J. Quantum Chem. |

19. | S. M. Tan, “A computational toolbox for quantum and atomic optics,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. |

20. | S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, and R. Wynands, “Temperature dependence of coherent population trapping resonances,” Appl. Phys. B |

**OCIS Codes**

(020.1670) Atomic and molecular physics : Coherent optical effects

(300.6210) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, atomic

(300.6380) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, modulation

**ToC Category:**

Spectroscopy

**History**

Original Manuscript: February 22, 2011

Revised Manuscript: March 26, 2011

Manuscript Accepted: April 26, 2011

Published: May 6, 2011

**Citation**

Ido Ben-Aroya and Gadi Eisenstein, "Observation of large contrast electromagnetically induced absorption resonance due to population transfer in a three-level Λ-system interacting with three separate electromagnetic fields," Opt. Express **19**, 9956-9961 (2011)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-10-9956

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### References

- E. Arimondo, “Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy,” in “Progress in Optics ,” vol. XXXV, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 1996), pp. 257–354. [CrossRef]
- S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today 50, 36–42 (1997). [CrossRef]
- M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge University Press, 1997).
- M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleischhauer, and M. O. Scully, “Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225–3228 (1999). [CrossRef]
- H. Schmidt and A. Imamogdlu, “Giant kerr nonlinearities obtained by electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1936–1938 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. E. Harris and Y. Yamamoto, “Photon switching by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611–3614 (1998). [CrossRef]
- M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoglu, “Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nature (London) 413, 273–276 (2001). [CrossRef]
- A. Lezama, S. Barreiro, and A. M. Akulshin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4732–4735 (1999). [CrossRef]
- A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a four-state system,” Phys. Rev. A 61, 011802 (1999). [CrossRef]
- A. S. Zibrov, C. Y. Ye, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. B. Matsko, and M. O. Scully, “Observation of a three-photon electromagnetically induced transparency in hot atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043817 (2002). [CrossRef]
- S. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, R. L. Walsworth, and A. S. Zibrov, “Three-photon-absorption resonance for all-optical atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 011801 (2005). [CrossRef]
- I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, R. L. Walsworth, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Cancellation of light shifts in an N-resonance clock,” Opt. Lett. 31, 622–624 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, R. L. Walsworth, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Comparison of 87Rb N-resonances for D1 and D2 transitions,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2353–2355 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- C. Hancox, M. Hohensee, M. Crescimanno, D. F. Phillips, and R. L. Walsworth, “Lineshape asymmetry for joint coherent population trapping and three-photon N resonances,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1536–1538 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. Vanier, M. W. Levine, D. Janssen, and M. J. Delaney, “On the use of intensity optical pumping and coherent population trapping techniques in the implementation of atomic frequency standards,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 52, 822–831 (2003). [CrossRef]
- Y. Yoshikawa, T. Umeki, T. Mukae, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, “Frequency stabilization of a laser diode with use of Light-Induced birefringence in an atomic vapor,” Appl. Opt. 42, 6645–6649 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. H. Shirley, “Solution of the schrödinger equation with a hamiltonian periodic in time,” Phys. Rev. 138, B979–B987 (1965). [CrossRef]
- D. R. Masson, “Schrödinger’s equation and continued fractions,” Int. J. Quantum Chem. 32, 699–712 (1987). [CrossRef]
- S. M. Tan, “A computational toolbox for quantum and atomic optics,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 1, 424–432 (1999). [CrossRef]
- S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, and R. Wynands, “Temperature dependence of coherent population trapping resonances,” Appl. Phys. B 74, 217–222 (2002). [CrossRef]

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