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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 11 — May. 23, 2011
  • pp: 10880–10885
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Optical quenching of photoconductivity in CdSe single nanowires via waveguiding excitation

Fuxing Gu, Pan Wang, Huakang Yu, Bing Guo, and Limin Tong  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 11, pp. 10880-10885 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.010880


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Abstract

We demonstrate broadband optical quenching of photoconductivity in CdSe single nanowires with low excitation power. Using 1550-nm-wavelength light with 10-nW power for waveguiding excitation, we observe a typical responsivity of 0.5 A/W for quenching the photoconductivity established by 10-µW 660-nm-wavelength background light in a 403-nm-diameter CdSe nanowire, with detectable limit of the quenching power down to pW level at room temperature, which is several orders of magnitude lower than those reported previously. This large quenching effect originates from the enhanced light-defect interaction in the nanowires via waveguiding excitation. These results open new opportunities for noninvasive characterization of deep-level defect states in low-dimensional semiconductor nanomaterials, and novel optoelectronic applications of semiconductor nanowires such as high-sensitive broadband photodetection.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Optical quenching of photoconductivity, in which sub-bandgap light reduces the background photoconductivity established by above-bandgap light, has been investigated in bulk semiconductor materials including CdS, CdSe and GaN [6

6. R. H. Bube, Photoelectronic Properties of Semiconductors (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

14

14. Q.-F. Hou, X.-L. Wang, H.-L. Xiao, C.-M. Wang, C.-B. Yang, and J.-M. Li, “Variation of optical quenching of photoconductivity with resistivity in unintentional doped GaN,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(5), 057104 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. This optical quenching effect provides a useful method for studying the optoelectronic properties of defects in semiconductors, such as deep energy levels and trapping mechanisms, and also shows potential for photodetection in the infrared region far below the bandgap of semiconductors. In the past years, optical quenching of photoconductivity in bulk semiconductors has been widely investigated by using the conventional approach that irradiates light directly on semiconductors and measures the current-voltage (I-V) responses. However, for semiconductor nanowires, due to the diffraction limit of light and the weak sub-bandgap optical absorption (typically in the range of 1 to 10 cm−1) [15

15. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic Press, 1991).

] in such a thin nanowire diameters (tens to hundreds of nanometers), the sub-bandgap photoresponse is very weak [3

3. T. Y. Zhai, X. S. Fang, M. Y. Liao, X. J. Xu, H. B. Zeng, B. Yoshio, and D. Golberg, “A comprehensive review of one-dimensional metal-oxide nanostructure photodetectors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 9(8), 6504–6529 (2009). [CrossRef]

,4

4. C. Soci, A. Zhang, X. Y. Bao, H. Kim, Y. Lo, and D. L. Wang, “Nanowire photodetectors,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1430–1449 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,16

16. H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(2), 158–160 (2002). [CrossRef]

22

22. D. S. Deng, N. D. Orf, S. Danto, A. F. Abouraddy, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Processing and properties of centimeter-long, in-fiber, crystalline-selenium filaments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 023102 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. To our knowledge, quenching of photoconductivity effect in semiconductor nanowires has not yet been reported.

Compared with the irradiation excitation that relies on free-space light, waveguiding excitation that forces light guided along the whole lengths of the nanowire waveguides, could significantly enhance the photoresponse by accumulating the local effects within the whole length (usually much larger than the thickness) of the nanowire waveguides, as have been successfully demonstrated for enhancing light-nanowire interactions in high-sensitive optical sensors [23

23. D. J. Sirbuly, S. E. Letant, and T. V. Ratto, “Hydrogen sensing with subwavelength optical waveguides via porous silsesquioxane-palladium nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(24), 4724–4727 (2008). [CrossRef]

25

25. F. X. Gu, X. F. Yin, H. K. Yu, P. Wang, and L. M. Tong, “Polyaniline/polystyrene single-nanowire devices for highly selective optical detection of gas mixtures,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11230–11235 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and light-emitting polymer nanofibers [26

26. F. X. Gu, H. K. Yu, P. Wang, Z. Y. Yang, and L. M. Tong, “Light-emitting polymer single nanofibers via waveguiding excitation,” ACS Nano 4(9), 5332–5338 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. CdSe is a well-known II-VI semiconductor material with direct bandgap of 1.74 eV at room temperature, which have been intensively investigated over the past decade for optoelectronic applications [3

3. T. Y. Zhai, X. S. Fang, M. Y. Liao, X. J. Xu, H. B. Zeng, B. Yoshio, and D. Golberg, “A comprehensive review of one-dimensional metal-oxide nanostructure photodetectors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 9(8), 6504–6529 (2009). [CrossRef]

7

7. R. H. Bube, “Infrared quenching and a unified description of photoconductivity phenomena in cadmium sulfide and selenide,” Phys. Rev. 99(4), 1105–1116 (1955). [CrossRef]

,19

19. Y. Jiang, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. M. Meng, X. Fan, and S. T. Lee, “Photoresponse properties of CdSe single-nanoribbon photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1795–1800 (2007). [CrossRef]

21

21. Z. He, J. Jie, W. Zhang, W. Zhang, L. Luo, X. Fan, G. Yuan, I. Bello, and S.-T. Lee, “Tuning electrical and photoelectrical properties of CdSe nanowires via indium doping,” Small 5(3), 345–350 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Here, for the first time, we demonstrated that, photons with energy far below the bandgap of CdSe, when waveguided in an undoped CdSe single nanowire, exhibit evident infrared quenching of photoconductivity with excitation power (P in) down to pW level at room temperature, which is several orders of magnitude lower than those reported previously [6

6. R. H. Bube, Photoelectronic Properties of Semiconductors (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

14

14. Q.-F. Hou, X.-L. Wang, H.-L. Xiao, C.-M. Wang, C.-B. Yang, and J.-M. Li, “Variation of optical quenching of photoconductivity with resistivity in unintentional doped GaN,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(5), 057104 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

2. Waveguiding CdSe nanowires

Here we synthesized single-crystalline CdSe nanowires in a horizontal tube furnace using an Au-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition process [27

27. C. Ma and Z. L. Wang, “Road map for the controlled synthesis of CdSe nanowires, nanobelts, and nanosaws—a step towards nanomanufacturing,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(21), 2635–2639 (2005). [CrossRef]

,28

28. G. Z. Dai, Q. L. Zhang, Z. W. Peng, W. C. Zhou, M. X. Xia, Q. Wan, A. L. Pan, and B. S. Zou, “One-step synthesis of low-dimensional CdSe nanostructures and optical waveguide of CdSe nanowires,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(13), 135301 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. As-synthesized nanowires were not intentionally doped. The as-synthesized nanowires are typically up to 500 µm long and have uniform diameters ranging from 50 nm to 1 µm, as determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For example, Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) SEM image of a 450-nm-diameter CdSe nanowire. (b) Optical micrograph of a PL emission of a 290-nm-diameter CdSe nanowire. (c) PL spectrum of the 290-nm-diameter CdSe nanowire.
shows a SEM image of a typical 450-nm-diameter CdSe nanowire with excellent uniformity and surface smoothness, which is necessary for low-loss subwavelength waveguiding of the visible and near-infrared light with tight confinement [29

29. L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Due to the low dimension and large surface-to-volume ratio, CdSe nanowire offers high density of surface defect states, mainly arising from the dangling bonds as a result of the sudden termination of the periodic lattice structure [3

3. T. Y. Zhai, X. S. Fang, M. Y. Liao, X. J. Xu, H. B. Zeng, B. Yoshio, and D. Golberg, “A comprehensive review of one-dimensional metal-oxide nanostructure photodetectors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 9(8), 6504–6529 (2009). [CrossRef]

,4

4. C. Soci, A. Zhang, X. Y. Bao, H. Kim, Y. Lo, and D. L. Wang, “Nanowire photodetectors,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1430–1449 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. R. H. Bube, Photoelectronic Properties of Semiconductors (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

]. The defect effect can be obtained from the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the as-synthesized nanowires. The CdSe nanowires were deposited on a low-index MgF2 substrate (refractive index ~1.38). PL emissions of the CdSe nanowires were excited by a 405-nm laser and collected using a microscope objective, and then directed to a spectrometer (Maya 2000-Pro, Ocean Optics). Figure 1(b) shows a PL emission of a representative 290-nm-diameter nanowire, with two bright emission spots at both ends. The absence of the sidewall scattering indicates the low-waveguiding loss of the nanowire. The PL spectrum of the nanowire in Fig. 1(c) reveals a dominant 720-nm band-edge emission and a weak broad defect emission centered around 1.13 µm that continuously extends to the infrared region far below the bandgap. The weak broad defect emission is mainly due to the radiative transition of electrons from the conduction band to intrinsic defect states created by interstitials or vacancies [6

6. R. H. Bube, Photoelectronic Properties of Semiconductors (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

].

To investigate the quenching effect, the CdSe single nanowire was first placed across a glass channel (200 μm in width and 20 μm in depth) by micromanipulation under an optical microscope, with both ends immersed into gallium layers (5-µm thickness, coated at both sides of the channel) to make electrical contacts, as schematically illustrated in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic diagram of waveguiding excitation approach for investigation of the quenching effect in a single nanowire. (b) Optical micrograph of a 403-nm-diameter nanowire guiding 660-nm light.
. Such a contact approach ensures the nanowire surface fresh and avoids introduction of exogenous impurity. Meanwhile, the suspension scheme of the nanowire across the channel enables efficient waveguiding of the nanowire over a broad spectral range to avoid the filtering effect [24

24. F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,30

30. M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration,” Science 305(5688), 1269–1273 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. After the liquid gallium was solidified by cooling down, excitation light was evanescently coupled into the CdSe single nanowire using a silica fiber taper that was drawn from a standard single-mode optical fiber (SMF-28, Corning, core diameter: ~9μm) [24

24. F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For reference, Fig. 2(b) shows an optical micrograph of a 403-nm-diameter CdSe nanowire guiding above-bandgap 660-nm light.

Photoresponse of the nanowire was carried out in a sealed glass chamber under nitrogen-gas atmosphere. Two-terminal I-V measurements of the nanowire were performed by a picoammeter (Keithley 6487) at 5 V bias. To measure the temporal response of nanowires to light excitation, a mechanical chopper (frequency ranging from 0 to 3000 Hz) was used to turn on and off the light input, and an oscilloscope (GDS-840C) with a 900-kΩ input impedance was used to monitor the variation of photocurrent with time. The light sources used in this work were continuous-wave monochromatic lasers (405-, 660-, 808-, 980-, 1064- and 1550-nm wavelengths). All experiments were conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

3. Results and discussions

In the waveguiding scheme, the fiber taper for evanescent coupling is directly connected to the standard optical fiber through the tapering region, thus it is convenient to launch two external light beams to study the quenching effect in single semiconductor nanowires. As shown in Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 Infrared quenching of photoconductivity in a 403-nm-diameter CdSe nanowire. (a) I b established by 660-nm light at constant P in of 10 μW (illustrated in the top inset) and quenched upon the presence of 1550-nm signal light (illustrated in the bottom inset). (b) Temporal response of the CdSe nanowire under 660-nm pulsed excitation and 1550-nm excitation.
, 660-nm light (P in = 10 μW, red line) was first launched into the 403-nm-diameter CdSe nanowire to establish a stable background current (I b), as illustrated in top inset of Fig. 3(a); when 1550-nm light was sent into the nanowire, the background current decreased instantly to a stable level within 2 s (bottom inset), indicating a quenching effect of the 660-nm light by the 1550-nm light. When the 1550-nm light was turned off, the background current (I b) exhibited a fast increase to the normal level within 0.1 s. Meanwhile, the quenched background current increases with increasing power of the quenching light. As shown in Fig. 3(a), the quenched current of the 310-nW 1550-nm light (black line) is much larger than that of the 10-nW light (red line). The transient responsivity (R = ∆I/P in, where ∆I is the quenched current of I b) is 0.5 A/W for P in = 10 nW and 0.08 A/W for P in = 310 nW, respectively. The decrease in responsivity at higher 1550-nm excitation intensity may be due to the saturation of the defect states in nanowires [20

20. A. Singh, X. Li, V. Protasenko, G. Galantai, M. Kuno, H. G. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-sensitive nanowire photodetectors based on solution-synthesized CdSe quantum-wire solids,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 2999–3006 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The quenching of photoconductivity was further characterized by the temporal response of the CdSe nanowire using 660-nm pulsed light, obtained by mechanically chopping. As shown in Fig. 3(b), under background 10-μW 660-nm excitation (gray line), the rise time is ~50 μs and the decay time is ~1.2 ms. With the presence of 1550-nm light (P in = 10 nW), the measured decay time reduces to about 0.2 ms.

Although the similar quenching effects have been observed previously in irradiation-excited bulk semiconductor materials such as CdS, CdSe and GaN, high power of the sub-bandgap excitation light (above mW level), impurity doping, and/or low-temperature operation are usually required to obtain detectable current signals [6

6. R. H. Bube, Photoelectronic Properties of Semiconductors (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

14

14. Q.-F. Hou, X.-L. Wang, H.-L. Xiao, C.-M. Wang, C.-B. Yang, and J.-M. Li, “Variation of optical quenching of photoconductivity with resistivity in unintentional doped GaN,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(5), 057104 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Here, benefitted from the waveguiding scheme and the large surface-to-volume ratio of nanowires, this effect is easily observed in an undoped CdSe single nanowire with nW-level input power at room temperature. In the waveguiding approach, light is first condensed by the fiber taper and then harvested during its waveguiding along the length of the nanowire, which significantly enhanced the interaction of the light with the nanowire, compared to that of the conventional scheme with light irradiation perpendicular to the nanowire axis [3

3. T. Y. Zhai, X. S. Fang, M. Y. Liao, X. J. Xu, H. B. Zeng, B. Yoshio, and D. Golberg, “A comprehensive review of one-dimensional metal-oxide nanostructure photodetectors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 9(8), 6504–6529 (2009). [CrossRef]

,4

4. C. Soci, A. Zhang, X. Y. Bao, H. Kim, Y. Lo, and D. L. Wang, “Nanowire photodetectors,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1430–1449 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,16

16. H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(2), 158–160 (2002). [CrossRef]

22

22. D. S. Deng, N. D. Orf, S. Danto, A. F. Abouraddy, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Processing and properties of centimeter-long, in-fiber, crystalline-selenium filaments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 023102 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, as a result of the high-index-contrast boundary discontinuity between the nanowire and the air clad, the intensity of the guided modes could be enhanced at nanowire surface [31

31. J. Bures and R. Ghosh, “Power density of the evanescent field in the vicinity of a tapered fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(8), 1992–1996 (1999). [CrossRef]

], further enhancing the interaction of light with the nanowire surface states.

The photocarrier dynamics of the infrared quenching of photoconductivity can be understood from the schematic energy diagrams of CdSe nanowires as shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic energy diagrams of the quench effect in CdSe nanowires. Left: background states under the nanowire excited with 660-nm above-bandgap light; right: quenching occurs upon the presence of the 1550-nm light.
: (1) first the 660-nm light builds up a stable background photocurrent by exciting electrons from the valence band to the conduction band; (2) upon the presence of the 1550-nm light, excess holes are created by promoting electrons from the valence band to the defect states. The generated holes in the valence band then recombine with free electrons in the conduction band, leading to the decrease in electron population and conductivity. When the 1550-nm light is turned off, the creation of excess holes stops and the direct recombination rate decreases, resulting in an increase in excess electrons that leads to the increase in photocurrent in Fig. 3(a), and a gradual recover via the recombination process.

The dependences of quenching effect as the wavelengths are also investigated. Figure 5
Fig. 5 Quenched current (ΔI) versus P in at wavelengths of 808, 980, 1064 and 1550 nm, respectively. Inset, wavelength-dependent quenching factors (Q) with P in = 1 µW.
shows the quenched current (ΔI) of the 403-nm-diameter nanowire versus P in at typical wavelengths of 980, 1064 and 1550 nm, respectively. At typical optical communication wavelength of 1550 nm, the detectable limit of the quenching light is about 300 pW. The inset plots the wavelength-dependent quenching factors QI/I b) at P in = 1 µW. By optimizing the intensity of the background light, a higher Q and low detectable limit can be obtained. The nanowire shows much larger quenching factors at 1550 nm compared with other wavelengths, which is consistent with the previously reports that bulk CdSe show maximum infrared quenching effect for photons with energy of about 0.79 eV (~1.57 µm) [6

6. R. H. Bube, Photoelectronic Properties of Semiconductors (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

,7

7. R. H. Bube, “Infrared quenching and a unified description of photoconductivity phenomena in cadmium sulfide and selenide,” Phys. Rev. 99(4), 1105–1116 (1955). [CrossRef]

]. As the power of the quenching light increases, the multi-photon absorption effect begins to dominate, resulting in saturated and/or decreased quenching factors. For short wavelengths, e.g. at 808 nm, the direct excitation from the valence band to the conduction band through multi-photon absorption is dominant, and thus contributes the negative Q.

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, we have demonstrated the optical quenching of photoconductivity effect in CdSe single nanowires by using the waveguiding excitation approach. Benefitted from the combination of the unique waveguiding excitation technique and the intrinsic defect effects of semiconductor nanowires, broad spectral response far below the CdSe bandgap with sub-bandgap excitation power down to pW level are observed at room temperature. Our results offer a promising platform for investigating deep energy levels and trapping mechanisms in low-dimensional semiconductor nanomaterials. Furthermore, the sub-pW-level detectable limits of sub-bandgap quenching light at room temperature, suggests great promise for enhancing quenching effect for novel optoelectronic applications of semiconductor nanowires such as high-sensitive broadband photodetection.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Basic Research Programs of China (No. 2007CB307003) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61036012 and 60877016).

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4.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, X. Y. Bao, H. Kim, Y. Lo, and D. L. Wang, “Nanowire photodetectors,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1430–1449 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. S. Deng, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, A. M. Stolyarov, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Stone, and Y. Fink, “In-fiber semiconductor filament arrays,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4265–4269 (2008). [CrossRef]

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R. H. Bube, Photoelectronic Properties of Semiconductors (Cambridge University Press, 1992).

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R. H. Bube, “Infrared quenching and a unified description of photoconductivity phenomena in cadmium sulfide and selenide,” Phys. Rev. 99(4), 1105–1116 (1955). [CrossRef]

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S. Cai, G. Parish, G. A. Umana-Membreno, J. M. Dell, and B. D. Nener, “Optical quenching of photoconductivity in undoped n-GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(3), 1081–1088 (2004). [CrossRef]

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W. Ursaki, I. M. Tiginyanu, P. C. Ricci, A. Anedda, S. Hubbard, and D. Pavlidis, “Persistent photoconductivity and optical quenching of photocurrent in GaN layers under dual excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3875–3882 (2003). [CrossRef]

14.

Q.-F. Hou, X.-L. Wang, H.-L. Xiao, C.-M. Wang, C.-B. Yang, and J.-M. Li, “Variation of optical quenching of photoconductivity with resistivity in unintentional doped GaN,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 27(5), 057104 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic Press, 1991).

16.

H. Kind, H. Yan, B. Messer, M. Law, and P. Yang, “Nanowire ultraviolet photodetectors and optical switches,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(2), 158–160 (2002). [CrossRef]

17.

J. S. Jie, W. J. Zhang, Y. Jiang, X. M. Meng, Y. Q. Li, and S. T. Lee, “Photoconductive characteristics of single-crystal CdS nanoribbons,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1887–1892 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1003–1009 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

Y. Jiang, W. J. Zhang, J. S. Jie, X. M. Meng, X. Fan, and S. T. Lee, “Photoresponse properties of CdSe single-nanoribbon photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1795–1800 (2007). [CrossRef]

20.

A. Singh, X. Li, V. Protasenko, G. Galantai, M. Kuno, H. G. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-sensitive nanowire photodetectors based on solution-synthesized CdSe quantum-wire solids,” Nano Lett. 7(10), 2999–3006 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

Z. He, J. Jie, W. Zhang, W. Zhang, L. Luo, X. Fan, G. Yuan, I. Bello, and S.-T. Lee, “Tuning electrical and photoelectrical properties of CdSe nanowires via indium doping,” Small 5(3), 345–350 (2009). [CrossRef]

22.

D. S. Deng, N. D. Orf, S. Danto, A. F. Abouraddy, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Processing and properties of centimeter-long, in-fiber, crystalline-selenium filaments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 023102 (2010). [CrossRef]

23.

D. J. Sirbuly, S. E. Letant, and T. V. Ratto, “Hydrogen sensing with subwavelength optical waveguides via porous silsesquioxane-palladium nanocomposites,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(24), 4724–4727 (2008). [CrossRef]

24.

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer single-nanowire optical sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

F. X. Gu, X. F. Yin, H. K. Yu, P. Wang, and L. M. Tong, “Polyaniline/polystyrene single-nanowire devices for highly selective optical detection of gas mixtures,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11230–11235 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

F. X. Gu, H. K. Yu, P. Wang, Z. Y. Yang, and L. M. Tong, “Light-emitting polymer single nanofibers via waveguiding excitation,” ACS Nano 4(9), 5332–5338 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

C. Ma and Z. L. Wang, “Road map for the controlled synthesis of CdSe nanowires, nanobelts, and nanosaws—a step towards nanomanufacturing,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(21), 2635–2639 (2005). [CrossRef]

28.

G. Z. Dai, Q. L. Zhang, Z. W. Peng, W. C. Zhou, M. X. Xia, Q. Wan, A. L. Pan, and B. S. Zou, “One-step synthesis of low-dimensional CdSe nanostructures and optical waveguide of CdSe nanowires,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(13), 135301 (2008). [CrossRef]

29.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration,” Science 305(5688), 1269–1273 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

J. Bures and R. Ghosh, “Power density of the evanescent field in the vicinity of a tapered fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(8), 1992–1996 (1999). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(250.0250) Optoelectronics : Optoelectronics
(160.4236) Materials : Nanomaterials

ToC Category:
Optoelectronics

History
Original Manuscript: March 25, 2011
Revised Manuscript: May 1, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: May 3, 2011
Published: May 19, 2011

Citation
Fuxing Gu, Pan Wang, Huakang Yu, Bing Guo, and Limin Tong, "Optical quenching of photoconductivity in CdSe single nanowires via waveguiding excitation," Opt. Express 19, 10880-10885 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-11-10880


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