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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 13 — Jun. 20, 2011
  • pp: 12164–12171
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Single rolled-up InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes integrated with silicon-on-insulator waveguides

Zhaobing Tian, Venkat Veerasubramanian, Pablo Bianucci, Shouvik Mukherjee, Zetian Mi, Andrew G. Kirk, and David V. Plant  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 13, pp. 12164-12171 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.012164


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Abstract

We report on single rolled-up microtubes integrated with silicon-on-insulator waveguides. Microtubes with diameters of ~7 μm, wall thicknesses of ~250 nm, and lengths greater than 100 μm are fabricated by selectively releasing a coherently strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot layer from the handling GaAs substrate. The microtubes are then transferred from their host substrate to silicon-on-insulator waveguides by an optical fiber abrupt taper. The Q-factor of the waveguide coupled microtube is measured to be 1.5×105, the highest recorded for a semiconductor microtube cavity to date. The insertion loss and extinction ratio of the microtube are 1 dB and 34 dB respectively. By pumping the microtube with a 635 nm laser, the resonance wavelength is shifted by 0.7 nm. The integration of InGaAs/GaAs microtubes with silicon-on-insulator waveguides provides a simple, low loss, high extinction passive filter solution in the C+L band communication regime.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Recently, rolled-up InGaAs/GaAs microtubes have emerged as a promising alternative for realizing future high performance micro-resonator-based devices [2

2. Ch. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, Ch. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Optical microcavities formed by semiconductor microtubes using a bottlelike geometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 127403 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,3

3. F. Li, Z. T. Mi, and S. Vicknesh, “Coherent emission from ultrathin-walled spiral InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2915–2917 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Strong coherent emission [2

2. Ch. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, Ch. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Optical microcavities formed by semiconductor microtubes using a bottlelike geometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 127403 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,3

3. F. Li, Z. T. Mi, and S. Vicknesh, “Coherent emission from ultrathin-walled spiral InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2915–2917 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and room temperature lasing [4

4. F. Li and Z. T. Mi, “Optically pumped rolled-up InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtube lasers,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19933–19939 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] has been recently reported in these microtubes, demonstrating their excellent optical properties. These unique devices can be controllably released from the handling GaAs substrate by selectively etching an underlying sacrificial layer [5

5. S. Vicknesh, F. Li, and Z. T. Mi, “Optical microcavities on Si formed by self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081101 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. It is also possible to do controlled transfer and exact positioning of a single InGaAs/GaAs microtube on a foreign substrate by utilizing transfer-printing [6

6. X. Li, “Strain induced semiconductor nanotubes: from formation process to device applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(19), 193001 (2008). [CrossRef]

] or an optical fiber abrupt taper [7

7. Z. Tian, F. Li, Z. T. Mi, and D. V. Plant, “Controlled transfer of single rolled-up InGaAs–GaAs quantum-dot microtube ring resonators using optical fiber abrupt tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 311–313 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The remarkable optical properties together with the controllable transfer process make semiconductor microtubes ideally suited to providing an integrated III-V light source on the SOI photonics platform. However, the integration of InGaAs/GaAs microtubes with SOI waveguides has not been realized so far.

In this paper, we report on the integration of InGaAs/GaAs microtubes with SOI waveguides. The InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes are picked up using optical fiber abrupt tapers from the handling GaAs substrates. They are subsequently transferred, in a precisely controlled fashion, directly onto the SOI waveguide. Using the abrupt taper to eliminate the effects of surface tension and vibrations, we can measure the Q-factor of the microcavities in a transmission configuration as opposed to using photoluminescence. This lets us find the intrinsic cavity Q-factor without any extraneous broadening [8

8. A. Meldrum, P. Bianucci, and F. Marsiglio, “Modification of ensemble emission rates and luminescence spectra for inhomogeneously broadened distributions of quantum dots coupled to optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10230–10246 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The highest Q-factor we measured is 1.5×105, the highest recorded for a semiconductor microtube cavity up to date. Detailed studies also confirm that the resulting microtube optical cavities are relatively free of structural defects and exhibit strong mode confinement, thereby promising integrated micro-cavities with greatly simplified packaging.

2. Microtube fabrication, transfer and SOI waveguide fabrication

The microtubes were fabricated from a GaAs/InGaAs bilayer grown on a GaAs substrate, with a 50 nm AlAs sacrificial layer [3

3. F. Li, Z. T. Mi, and S. Vicknesh, “Coherent emission from ultrathin-walled spiral InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2915–2917 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The bottom In0.18Ga0.82As layer is 20 nm thick, compressively strained and capped with a 30 nm thick GaAs layer. There is one layer of InAs quantum dots in the GaAs layer. When the sacrificial layer is etched away using a concentrated HCl solution, the bilayer rolls upon itself along the [100] crystal axis to release its stress [9

9. A. V. Prinz, V. Y. Prinz, and V. A. Seleznev, “Semiconductor micro- and nanoneedles for microinjections and ink-jet printing,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 782–788 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. The rolling process and the sample structure are sketched in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the layer structure and rolling mechanism for InGaAs/GaAs based microtubes. (b) U-shaped mesa that results in a free-standing tube. (c) Free-standing tube, product from the rolling of the U-shaped mesa in (b).
. In order to optimize the optical quality of the microtubes, we use a U-shaped mesa structure for the fabrication (Fig. 1(b)). This results in a microtube with three parts: a thinner free-standing region which is isolated from the substrate and two thicker “legs” which remain in contact (Fig. 1(c)). The process results in microtubes with diameters of ~7 μm, wall thicknesses of ~250 nm, and lengths larger than 100 μm. Surface corrugations patterned in the free-standing region provide mode confinement along the microtube axial direction [2

2. Ch. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, Ch. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Optical microcavities formed by semiconductor microtubes using a bottlelike geometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 127403 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,3

3. F. Li, Z. T. Mi, and S. Vicknesh, “Coherent emission from ultrathin-walled spiral InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2915–2917 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], which has been clearly demonstrated in our experiments. When the tube is deposited on top of a waveguide sample, the presence of the legs will make sure that there is a gap between the free-standing part and the waveguide itself. This gap could, in principle, be tuned by carefully designing the tube geometry.

Optical fiber abrupt tapers are used to transfer InGaAs/GaAs microtubes from their host substrate to the SOI substrate. The abrupt tapers are made by a splicer machine and have a tip diameter of less than 1 µm, and a tapered length of less than 1 mm [7

7. Z. Tian, F. Li, Z. T. Mi, and D. V. Plant, “Controlled transfer of single rolled-up InGaAs–GaAs quantum-dot microtube ring resonators using optical fiber abrupt tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 311–313 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. One abrupt taper is mounted on a micro positioning stage with a 100 nm resolution. The tip of the abrupt taper is inserted 10 to 200 µm (depending on the required experiment) into the microtube. Then the stage is moved up by 5 µm steps to fully release the InGaAs/GaAs microtube from its host substrate. Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 Optical microscope images of (a) one tube held by an optical fiber abrupt taper (b) the tube attached to the fiber surface due to the strong attraction to the surface of a cleaved single-mode fiber SMF-28
shows an optical microscope image of a microtube held by an abrupt taper. The tip of the taper is inserted into the InGaAs/GaAs microtube by 10 µm, which is less than 10% of its total length. Surface tension forces strongly attach the microtube to the abrupt taper to the point that the microtube doesn’t fall down even if the tapered fiber hangs upside-down. A striking demonstration of this strong microscale attachment is shown in Fig. 2(b), where an InGaAs/GaAs microtube is transferred onto the surface of a cleaved single-mode SMF-28 fiber. The axis of the fiber is vertically oriented, while the contact length between it and the microtube is around 10 µm. Even though the contact length is no more than 10% of its total length, the microtube stays level, with most of its body hanging in the air. This strong attachment force can potentially simplify the packaging of integrated microtube/SOI waveguide devices. For single microtube transfer, in contrast to the flip-chip method, this fiber abrupt taper aided method provides advantages such as faster transfer speed, visual feedback during the transfer, and high accuracy. Also, several tapered fibers could be manipulated in parallel. Coupled with precise control of the distance between the rolled-up microtubes by careful design of the lithography patterns used for defining the microtube understructure, this would allow for the simultaneous transfer of multiple microtubes.

The waveguides used in our studies were fabricated by colleagues at the University of Sherbrooke on SOI with a 260 nm thick silicon device layer and a 2 μm buried oxide layer, using e-beam lithography [10

10. V. Veerasubramanian, A. G. Kirk, G. Beaudin, A. Giguère, B. LeDrogoff, and V. Aimez, “Waveguide coupled drop filters on SOI using vertical sidewalled grating resonators”, 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, 634–635 (2010).

]. This thickness of the Si layer ensures that the waveguides exhibit a single transverse slab mode operation [11

11. G. T. Reed, Silicon Photonics: The State of the Art, (John Wiley & Sons, 2008).

]. Once the pattern is defined using an e-beam writer and developed, it is etched all the way to the buried oxide layer using reactive ion etching. Grating couplers are then fabricated for coupling light in- and out- of the waveguide with SMF-28 optical fibers. The grating couplers are second order gratings with 20 periods of 600 nm period each, 50% duty cycle, and an etch depth of 90 nm [12

12. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. The waveguides were adiabatically tapered to 10 μm at the edges to accommodate grating couplers. The total area of the grating coupler region was thus 12×10 μm2. Several waveguides of widths varying from 1 to 2 μm were fabricated. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph of the facet of a waveguide and the grating coupler is shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SEM images of (a) facet of a fabricated waveguide, and (b) grating coupler.
.

3. Microtube/SOI waveguide coupling modeling and experiment

Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) Experimental setup of coupling between the microtube and SOI waveguides (b) SEM image of a whole tube mounted on the waveguide (left inset: SEM image of the cross section of the leg. right inset: SEM image of the free-standing part with corrugation)
illustrates the experimental setup for the integrated microtube with the SOI waveguide. An abrupt taper was used to transfer the microtube from its host substrate and load it onto the SOI waveguide. Two cleaved SMF-28 fibers were used to couple light in and out of the grating couplers. A broadband source (1520-1600 nm) or a tunable laser (1500-1580 nm) was used as the optical source, and an optical spectrum analyzer or a power meter was used as detector, respectively. Figure 5(b) shows an SEM image of a microtube mounted on the waveguide. The diameter of the microtube is 7 µm and the length is larger than 100 µm. There are at least 5 layers in the leg part, resulting in a thickness larger than 250 nm. During the transfer process, the microtube was held by the abrupt taper through the lower end leg. After the transfer there was no damage to the leg part, as shown in the left inset of Fig. 5(b). The right inset of Fig. 5(b) illustrates the corrugations along the axial direction, which provide the optical confinement in this direction.

To measure the Q-factor of the microtube cavity, the abrupt taper is inserted inside of the microtube for precise alignment. A broadband source and an optical spectrum analyzer are used as the source and detector in Fig. 5(a). The abrupt taper is moved down by 100 nm steps until a small ripple in the normalized transmission spectrum, as shown in scan 1 of Fig. 6(a)
Fig. 6 (a) Transmission spectra of the microtube and SOI waveguide coupling under the effect of the surface tension force and vibration, (b) Q-factor measurement of the microtube under critical coupling
, can be seen. Due to the strong attracting force between the microtube and waveguide, and the flexibility of the abrupt taper, the spectrum then evolves very quickly from scan 1 to scan 3 via scan 2 as the microtubes moves even closer to the waveguide. At this point the microtube is resting on top of the substrate and the spectrum remains as shown in scan 3 for a long period; the abrupt taper needs to be moved up by 10 µm to release the microtube from the SOI waveguide. The free spectral range (FSR) of the dominant mode in scan 3 is 33 nm at 1550-nm wavelength. With a diameter of the free-standing part of the microtube equal to 7 µm (estimated from the image shown on Fig. 5(b)) the effective refractive index of the mode is calculated to be 3.4. This is very close to the effective refractive index of the InGaAs/GaAs bilayer, demonstrating the ring-like nature of the modes in the free-standing part of the microtube [3

3. F. Li, Z. T. Mi, and S. Vicknesh, “Coherent emission from ultrathin-walled spiral InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2915–2917 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and good mode confinement in the wall of the microtube.

In order to eliminate the undesired motion of the microtube due to the attractive force, and to get closer to the critical coupling point, the abrupt taper is fully inserted through the microtube. The tip of the abrupt taper is put down on the SOI wafer, as shown in Fig. 5(a), and plays the role of a fulcrum, stabilizing the microtube position and making it more robust against mechanical perturbations. Then, the separation between the microtube and the waveguide can be precisely controlled until there is a ripple in the transmission spectrum, similar to scan 1 in Fig. 6(a) (which then is much more stable). To get better resolution, a tunable laser with a 1 pm step and an optical power meter were used as the source and detector in Fig. 5(a). The measured 3-dB linewidth is 0.01 nm, as shown in Fig. 6(b), resulting in a Q-factor of 1.5×105. This is the highest Q-factor reported of a microtube cavity and this is also the first measurement of the cold-cavity Q-factor of a microtube in a transmission configuration. The separation between the microtube and waveguide under critical coupling is estimated to be between 50 and 75 nm.

By moving the microtube along its axial direction, various spectra are observed, as shown in Fig. 7(a)
Fig. 7 (a) Transmission spectra for different coupling positions: center (solid red), 5 µm from the center (dashed green), and 10 µm from the center (solid blue) of the free-standing part. (b) Transmission spectra for different laser power coupled through the SOI waveguide.
. It is clear that more modes are excited when the waveguide is aligned with the center of the free-standing part than when aligned close to the leg part. This is most likely due to the excitation of higher order axial modes when coupling farther away from the corrugation center. These higher order modes are also broader due to the presence of extra leakage outside of the corrugation area. These patterns are consistent with those reported in [13

13. G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Selective excitation of whispering gallery modes in a novel bottle microresonator,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11916–11925 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The insertion loss due to the microtube is around 1 dB, and extinction ratios up to 34 dB are obtained. This is due to the low absorption loss at C+L band wavelength and good confinement of the mode in three dimensions. The variation of the resonator performance with input intensity is obtained by varying the tunable laser power from −13 to −1 dBm. The corresponding transmission spectra are shown in Fig. 7(b) and demonstrate that there is not enough power coupled into the resonator at these pump levels to induce nonlinear effects. This is due to the large insertion loss of the vertical coupler section.

Utilizing the low absorption in the C+L band, this kind of microtube can be used as a low loss and high extinction ratio filter integrated with a planar optoelectronic circuit. Due to the multiple axial modes supported, the free-spectral range is smaller compared to the other types of single mode microcavities like microring and microtoroid resonators. Microcavities with small FSRs are of great interest in realizing filters with continuous tuning over a wide wavelength range [13

13. G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Selective excitation of whispering gallery modes in a novel bottle microresonator,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11916–11925 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. These integrated InGaAs/GaAs microtubes with SOI waveguides can also be used as differential phase shift keying demodulators by optimizing the mode confinement [16

16. L. Zhang, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, Y. Li, B. Zhang, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Microring-based modulation and demodulation of DPSK signal,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11564–11569 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], as active optical intensity or phase modulators [15

15. R. Kumar, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, F. Karouta, P. Regreny, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “10-GHz all-optical gate based on a III–V/SOI microdisk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 981–983 (2010). [CrossRef]

,16

16. L. Zhang, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, Y. Li, B. Zhang, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Microring-based modulation and demodulation of DPSK signal,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11564–11569 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], or as signal quality monitors [17

17. S.-W. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, M. A. Jung, and C.-S. Park, “OSNR monitoring technique based on cascaded long-period fiber grating with optically tunable phase shifter,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20603–20609 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

4. Conclusion

In this paper, we have demonstrated integration between a single rolled-up InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtube and silicon-on-insulator waveguides. The microtube is fabricated using standard processes and transferred from its substrate using an optical fiber abrupt taper. We have performed the first transmission measurements of a microtube coupled to a waveguide obtaining a Q-factor of 1.5×105. When the microtube is coupled to the waveguide, the transmission spectrum shows an insertion loss of 1 dB and an extinction ratio of up to 34 dB for resonances in the C+L band. The spectra do not show nonlinear effects due to the near-infrared light used for measuring the transmission, even at high source power levels, but show a shift in resonance wavelengths when pumped with 635 nm light. Using this effect, we could transfer a 1 Hz modulated signal from 635 nm to 1544.8 nm with an extinction ratio of 10 dB. These microtube/SOI waveguide systems, thanks to their excellent optical properties and ease of manipulation, will find more applications in the area of optical communication and signal processing.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

References and links

1.

J. Bruns, T. Mitze, M. Schnarrenberger, L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, M. Krieg, J. Kreissl, K. Janiak, T. Hartwich, and K. Petermann, “SOI-based optical board technology,” AEU-Int. J. Electron. C. 61, 158–162 (2007). [CrossRef]

2.

Ch. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, Ch. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Optical microcavities formed by semiconductor microtubes using a bottlelike geometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 127403 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

F. Li, Z. T. Mi, and S. Vicknesh, “Coherent emission from ultrathin-walled spiral InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2915–2917 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

F. Li and Z. T. Mi, “Optically pumped rolled-up InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtube lasers,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19933–19939 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

S. Vicknesh, F. Li, and Z. T. Mi, “Optical microcavities on Si formed by self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081101 (2009). [CrossRef]

6.

X. Li, “Strain induced semiconductor nanotubes: from formation process to device applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(19), 193001 (2008). [CrossRef]

7.

Z. Tian, F. Li, Z. T. Mi, and D. V. Plant, “Controlled transfer of single rolled-up InGaAs–GaAs quantum-dot microtube ring resonators using optical fiber abrupt tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 311–313 (2010). [CrossRef]

8.

A. Meldrum, P. Bianucci, and F. Marsiglio, “Modification of ensemble emission rates and luminescence spectra for inhomogeneously broadened distributions of quantum dots coupled to optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10230–10246 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

A. V. Prinz, V. Y. Prinz, and V. A. Seleznev, “Semiconductor micro- and nanoneedles for microinjections and ink-jet printing,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 782–788 (2003). [CrossRef]

10.

V. Veerasubramanian, A. G. Kirk, G. Beaudin, A. Giguère, B. LeDrogoff, and V. Aimez, “Waveguide coupled drop filters on SOI using vertical sidewalled grating resonators”, 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, 634–635 (2010).

11.

G. T. Reed, Silicon Photonics: The State of the Art, (John Wiley & Sons, 2008).

12.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002). [CrossRef]

13.

G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Selective excitation of whispering gallery modes in a novel bottle microresonator,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11916–11925 (2009). [CrossRef]

14.

S. Adachi, “Optical Properties” in Properties of group-IV, III–V and II–VI semiconductors, 241(John Wiley & Sons, 2005).

15.

R. Kumar, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, F. Karouta, P. Regreny, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “10-GHz all-optical gate based on a III–V/SOI microdisk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 981–983 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

L. Zhang, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, Y. Li, B. Zhang, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Microring-based modulation and demodulation of DPSK signal,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11564–11569 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

S.-W. Jeon, Y. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, M. A. Jung, and C.-S. Park, “OSNR monitoring technique based on cascaded long-period fiber grating with optically tunable phase shifter,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20603–20609 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(130.5990) Integrated optics : Semiconductors
(140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators
(130.3990) Integrated optics : Micro-optical devices

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: April 1, 2011
Revised Manuscript: June 6, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: June 6, 2011
Published: June 8, 2011

Citation
Zhaobing Tian, Venkat Veerasubramanian, Pablo Bianucci, Shouvik Mukherjee, Zetian Mi, Andrew G. Kirk, and David V. Plant, "Single rolled-up InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes integrated with silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Express 19, 12164-12171 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-13-12164


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References

  1. J. Bruns, T. Mitze, M. Schnarrenberger, L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, M. Krieg, J. Kreissl, K. Janiak, T. Hartwich, and K. Petermann, “SOI-based optical board technology,” AEU-Int. J. Electron. C. 61, 158–162 (2007). [CrossRef]
  2. Ch. Strelow, H. Rehberg, C. M. Schultz, H. Welsch, Ch. Heyn, D. Heitmann, and T. Kipp, “Optical microcavities formed by semiconductor microtubes using a bottlelike geometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 127403 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Li, Z. T. Mi, and S. Vicknesh, “Coherent emission from ultrathin-walled spiral InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2915–2917 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Li and Z. T. Mi, “Optically pumped rolled-up InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtube lasers,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19933–19939 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Vicknesh, F. Li, and Z. T. Mi, “Optical microcavities on Si formed by self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot microtubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081101 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. X. Li, “Strain induced semiconductor nanotubes: from formation process to device applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(19), 193001 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Tian, F. Li, Z. T. Mi, and D. V. Plant, “Controlled transfer of single rolled-up InGaAs–GaAs quantum-dot microtube ring resonators using optical fiber abrupt tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(5), 311–313 (2010). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Meldrum, P. Bianucci, and F. Marsiglio, “Modification of ensemble emission rates and luminescence spectra for inhomogeneously broadened distributions of quantum dots coupled to optical microcavities,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10230–10246 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. V. Prinz, V. Y. Prinz, and V. A. Seleznev, “Semiconductor micro- and nanoneedles for microinjections and ink-jet printing,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 782–788 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. V. Veerasubramanian, A. G. Kirk, G. Beaudin, A. Giguère, B. LeDrogoff, and V. Aimez, “Waveguide coupled drop filters on SOI using vertical sidewalled grating resonators”, 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, 634–635 (2010).
  11. G. T. Reed, Silicon Photonics: The State of the Art, (John Wiley & Sons, 2008).
  12. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, and M. N. Zervas, “Selective excitation of whispering gallery modes in a novel bottle microresonator,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11916–11925 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. S. Adachi, “Optical Properties” in Properties of group-IV, III–V and II–VI semiconductors, 241(John Wiley & Sons, 2005).
  15. R. Kumar, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, F. Karouta, P. Regreny, D. V. Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “10-GHz all-optical gate based on a III–V/SOI microdisk,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(13), 981–983 (2010). [CrossRef]
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