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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 13 — Jun. 20, 2011
  • pp: 12825–12836
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Efficient frequency downconversion at the single photon level from the red spectral range to the telecommunications C-band

Sebastian Zaske, Andreas Lenhard, and Christoph Becher  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 13, pp. 12825-12836 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.012825


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Abstract

We report on single photon frequency downconversion from the red part of the spectrum (738nm) to the telecommunications C-band. By mixing attenuated laser pulses with an average photon number per pulse < 1 with a strong continuous light field at 1403nm in a periodically poled Zn:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide an internal conversion efficiency of ∼ 73% is achieved. We further investigate the noise properties of the process by measuring the output spectrum. Our results indicate that by narrow spectral filtering a quantum interface should be feasible which bridges the wavelength gap between quantum emitters like color centers in diamond emitting in the red part of the spectrum and low-loss fiber-optic telecommunications wavelengths.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

The ability to efficiently transfer quantum states between photons of different frequencies is a key requirement for the implementation of fiber-based quantum networks [1

1. H. J. Kimble, “The quantum internet,” Nature (London) 453, 1023–1030 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. It allows for the interchange of photons between dissimilar quantum systems which emit/absorb at different wavelengths. Furthermore, it provides the possibility to transfer quantum information carried by telecommunications-band photons (1310nm/1550nm) to the visible spectral range and vice versa. The first observation of quantum frequency conversion was reported in 1992 [2

2. J. Huang and P. Kumar, “Observation of quantum frequency conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2153–2156 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] for quantum correlations of coherent states. About ten years later a number of experiments particularly focusing on single photon upconversion from telecommunications wavelengths to the red part of the spectrum [3

3. M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, “Efficient single-photon counting at 1.55 μm by means of frequency upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1449–1451 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6

6. C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, “Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1725–1727 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] were demonstrated, all of them aiming at efficient single photon detection. Furthermore, it was experimentally proven that (time-bin) entangled pairs of photons stay entangled after one of them has been converted to another frequency [7

7. S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature (London) 437, 116–120 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Only very recently an upconversion experiment using 1.3 μm single photons from an InAs quantum dot was presented [8

8. M. T. Rakher, L. Ma, O. Slattery, X. Tang, and K. Srinivasan, “Quantum transduction of telecommunicationsband single photons from a quantum dot by frequency upconversion,” Nat. Photonics 4, 786–791 (2010). [CrossRef]

] showing that the nonclassical state of light remains unchanged in the frequency translation process, i.e., that photon antibunching is preserved. While frequency upconversion was widely investigated, its complementary process, stimulated downconversion by difference frequency generation (DFG), came to interest only in the last two years where both theoretical [9

9. Z. Y. Ou, “Efficient conversion between photons and between photon and atom by stimulated emission,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 023819 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 10

10. M. W. McCutcheon, D. E. Chang, Y. Zhang, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Broadband frequency conversion and shaping of single photons emitted from a nonlinear cavity,” Opt. Express 17, 22689–22703 (2009). [CrossRef]

] and experimental work [11

11. Y. Ding and Z. Y. Ou, “Frequency downconversion for a quantum network,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2591–2593 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16

16. A. G. Radnaev, Y. O. Dudin, R. Zhao, H. H. Jen, S. D. Jenkins, A. Kuzmich, and T. A. B. Kennedy, “A quantum memory with telecom-wavelength conversion,” Nat. Phys. 6, 894–899 (2010). [CrossRef]

] on the subject has been published. So far three implementations [12

12. H. Takesue, “Single-photon frequency down-conversion experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 013833 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. N. Curtz, R. Thew, C. Simon, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Coherent frequency-down-conversion interface for quantum repeaters,” Opt. Express 18, 22099–22104 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 16

16. A. G. Radnaev, Y. O. Dudin, R. Zhao, H. H. Jen, S. D. Jenkins, A. Kuzmich, and T. A. B. Kennedy, “A quantum memory with telecom-wavelength conversion,” Nat. Phys. 6, 894–899 (2010). [CrossRef]

] have used optical powers at the single photon level. Radnaev et al. [16

16. A. G. Radnaev, Y. O. Dudin, R. Zhao, H. H. Jen, S. D. Jenkins, A. Kuzmich, and T. A. B. Kennedy, “A quantum memory with telecom-wavelength conversion,” Nat. Phys. 6, 894–899 (2010). [CrossRef]

] achieved a high conversion efficiency of 54% relying on four-wave mixing in a cold Rb gas while implementations based on three-wave mixing in a periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) waveguide (WG) suffer from low conversion efficiencies < 2% [12

12. H. Takesue, “Single-photon frequency down-conversion experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 013833 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. N. Curtz, R. Thew, C. Simon, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Coherent frequency-down-conversion interface for quantum repeaters,” Opt. Express 18, 22099–22104 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, these low efficiencies are rather due to technical difficulties, i.e., limited pump power and/or bad spatial mode overlap in the WG, than fundamental limitations. Moreover, the solid state approach is very attractive because of its flexibility and its comparatively low experimental complexity. This is especially the case when combining the conversion module with a solid state quantum emitter, e.g., a quantum dot or a color center in diamond. For such systems the conversion process might also be enhanced by nano-structured nonlinear optical media [10

10. M. W. McCutcheon, D. E. Chang, Y. Zhang, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Broadband frequency conversion and shaping of single photons emitted from a nonlinear cavity,” Opt. Express 17, 22689–22703 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

Within the context of color centers in diamond an experimental scheme which is aimed at efficient frequency downconversion of single photons from a Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center (zero phonon line at 637nm) to the telecom C-band has been demonstrated [13

13. J. S. Pelc, C. Langrock, Q. Zhang, and M. M. Fejer, “Efficient down-conversion of single photons for quantum communication,” in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals and Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper NTuB1.

, 14

14. J. S. Pelc, C. Langrock, Q. Zhang, and M. M. Fejer, “Influence of domain disorder on parametric noise in quasi-phase-matched quantum frequency converters,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2804–2806 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, due to strong electron-phonon coupling the emission spectrum of NV-centers is very broad (∼ 100nm) compared to the acceptance bandwidth of the required DFG process in a PPLN WG crystal which is < 0.5nm for typical interaction lengths. Recently, much progress has been made in the fabrication of single photon sources based on Silicon-vacancy (SiV) centers in diamond emitting around 738nm [17

17. E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, “Single photon emission from silicon-vacancy centres in CVD-nano-diamonds on iridium,” New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Compared to NV-centers they feature higher emission rates and significantly narrower spectral linewidths (≲ 2nm). Motivated by these results we investigate the feasibility of stimulated downconversion of light emitted from a SiV center in diamond. To this end photons at λ a = 738nm are mixed with a strong classical pump field at λ p = 1403nm in a periodically poled Zn-doped LiNbO3 (Zn:PPLN) ridge waveguide to yield converted single photons in the telecom C-band (λ b = 1557nm). We study the Raman noise spectrum generated by the strong 1403nm pump light and demonstrate an internal conversion efficiency of ∼ 73% under realistic experimental conditions. We believe that our work is a significant advance in the field of quantum frequency downconversion as it features high internal conversion efficiency in combination with single photon level input power in the red. In previously reported experiments either single photon input was achieved but with modest conversion efficiency [12

12. H. Takesue, “Single-photon frequency down-conversion experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 013833 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. N. Curtz, R. Thew, C. Simon, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Coherent frequency-down-conversion interface for quantum repeaters,” Opt. Express 18, 22099–22104 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or high conversion efficiency was attained but the noise generated by the strong pump field precluded the experiment from being performed with input powers at the single photon level [14

14. J. S. Pelc, C. Langrock, Q. Zhang, and M. M. Fejer, “Influence of domain disorder on parametric noise in quasi-phase-matched quantum frequency converters,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2804–2806 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Experimental setup

Fig. 1 (a) Experimental setup for frequency downconversion (PP: pulse picker, PC: polarization control, HWP: half wave plate, PBS: polarizing beam splitter, Att.: attenuator, Asph.: aspheric lens, BD: beam dump, LP: longpass filter, Circ.: fiber-optic circulator, FBG: fiber Bragg grating). (b) CCD image of the mode profile of the collimated 738nm beam behind the WG. (c) Calculated intensity distribution of the 738nm mode inside the waveguide.

3. Raman spectroscopy

Fig. 2 (a) Raman spectrum generated in the frequency converter by 100mW of coupled power at 1398.2nm (green) and 1403.5nm respectively (red). The black line represents the dark count level of the spectrometer’s InGaAs array. Lines at 1556.8nm and 1569.3nm are generated by DFG and are shown by way of illustration. (b) Comparison between Raman shifts obtained using the Zn:PPLN WG (green and red) and a bulk MgO:PPLN-Sample (blue). The offset for the blue curve is lower because it was measured with the Si-CCD camera of the spectrometer which has a lower dark count level.

Fig. 3 Spectrum of the anti-Stokes Raman light behind the WG. For excitation a power of 185mW at 1536nm was inserted into the device. The interval from −1178cm−1 to −152cm−1 corresponds to a wavelength range of 1300–1500nm in this case. Dark counts were substracted.

Fig. 4 Spectra of the light leaving port 2 (rejected spectrum) and port 3 (detected spectrum) of the circulator-FBG arrangement.

4. Efficiency of the Zn:PPLN frequency converter

The frequency downconversion will be most efficient if the spectral bandwidth Δλ a of the input photons satisfies the condition Δλ a ≤ Δλ DFG, where Δλ DFG is the spectral acceptance bandwidth [27

27. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992). [CrossRef]

] of the DFG process. Considering typical interaction lengths of 10-60mm we can calculate Δλ DFG to be on the order of 0.1nm in the case of our wavelength combination. For photons generated by a single color center in diamond at room temperature this is hard to achieve. Currently, the emission linewidths of the narrowest color centers (SiV centers) are on the order of 1nm at room temperature. Consequently, the mismatch between Δλ a and Δλ DFG reduces the conversion efficiency. One solution to this problem can readily be implemented by cooling of the diamond sample to temperatures below 30K where the emission linewidth of the SiV centers becomes as narrow as 0.17nm [17

17. E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, “Single photon emission from silicon-vacancy centres in CVD-nano-diamonds on iridium,” New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Another promising approach which currently is subject to intensive research is the coupling of a color center to a cavity [28

28. C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Towards a picosecond transform-limited nitrogen-vacancy based single photon source,” Opt. Express 16, 6240–6250 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 29

29. A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K. M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a colour centre in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics 5, 301–305 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. In the future, this may allow for much narrower emission linewidths even at room temperature. However, for a proof of principle experiment our goal for the time being is to operate the SiV centers at room temperature and without any cavity coupling. Hence, to evaluate the influence of the bandwidth mismatch we experimentally determined Δλ DFG for our frequency converter in the following way: a constant pump power of 27mW at a fixed wavelength of 1403nm was launched into the WG together with continuous light from the Ti:Sa laser. The wavelength of the Ti:Sa was tuned from 737.816nm to 738.616nm while keeping the coupled power at a constant level of 0.8mW. At the same time we detected the generated power around 1557nm with an InGaAs photodiode. The result is plotted in Fig. 5(a). From a sinc2-fit we yield a spectral acceptance bandwidth of Δλ DFG = 0.16nm. The emission linewidths of the bright SiV centers investigated in [17

17. E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, “Single photon emission from silicon-vacancy centres in CVD-nano-diamonds on iridium,” New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011). [CrossRef]

] were measured to be 0.7-2.2nm at room temperature while count rates up to 4.8 × 106 s−1 were observed. Assuming a Lorentzian lineshape and perfect phase-matching we can estimate that the flux of photons lying within the measured 0.16nm phase-matching bandwidth is on the order of a few 105 s−1. Thus, we simulate realistic experimental conditions by setting the repetition rate of the pulse picker to ν rep = 500kHz and attenuating the 738nm light to an average photon number per pulse of 〈n a〉 ≈ 0.76 < 1 (this corresponds to an optical power of ∼ 100fW). The temporal width of the generated pulses, limited by the resolution of the pulse picker, was determined to be 9.4ns (FWHM) as shown in Fig. 5(b).

Fig. 5 (a) Spectral acceptance bandwidth of the 40mm long WG. (b) Temporal shape of the pulses at 738nm recorded with a Si-photodetector (1 ns rise time).

Using the setup as in Fig. 1(a) with the InGaAs/InP SPAD the conversion efficiency of the setup can be determined. We define N dc+R as the count rate of the detector at 1557nm when only pump light is present in the WG (signal light blocked). In this case a detection event can either be caused by a detector dark count (dc) or by a Raman photon (R) that was generated by the strong pump. We further define N dc+R+b as the count rate when both pump and signal light are coupled into the WG. In this situation a detection event can additionally be caused by a photon at λ b which was generated by DFG. We measured the count rates N dc+R and N dc+R+b as a function of the pump power. The result is shown in Fig. 6(a). The number of photons generated by DFG N b (net count rate) is easily obtained from N b = N dc+R+bN dc+R and is also shown in the plot. In this measurement the parameters of the InGaAs/InP detector were set to the following values: quantum efficiency η qe = 0.25, trigger rate ν t = ν rep = 500kHz (external from pulse picker), gate width τ g = 5ns, dead time τ d = 1μs. With these settings the dark count rate of the detector is about N dc = 107s−1 corresponding to a dark count probability within a gate time of 2.14 × 10−4. From the count rates given in Fig. 6(a) the maximum total conversion efficiency of our setup is readily calculated to be ηtotmax=Nb/(na(0)νrep)8,000s1/(0.76×500,000s1)0.02. The internal conversion efficiency is given by η int = 〈n b(L)〉/〈n a(0)〉 where 〈n a(0)〉 is the average number of signal photons per pulse coupled into the WG and 〈n b(L)〉 is the average number of converted photons per pulse exiting the WG. Since the transmission of the attenuator is known, 〈n a(0)〉 can be determined by measuring the optical power before the attenuator. 〈n b(L)〉 is calculated from the measured net count rate N b using 〈n b(L)〉ν rep = N b/(T tot × η qe × 0.86 × 0.47), where the factor 0.86 × 0.47 takes into account the non-perfect extinction ratio of the pulse picker and the mismatch between the temporal width of the signal pulses and the gate width of the detector. Figure 6(b) shows η int of our frequency converter as a function of the coupled pump power P p. The data are fit according to the relation ηint(Pp)=sin2(ηnorPpL) which can be obtained either from solving the classical coupled mode equations [5

5. R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, J. R. Kurz, and M. M. Fejer, “Periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide sum-frequency generator for efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1518–1520 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, “Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1725–1727 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or from a quantum mechanical approach [9

9. Z. Y. Ou, “Efficient conversion between photons and between photon and atom by stimulated emission,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 023819 (2008). [CrossRef]

,13

13. J. S. Pelc, C. Langrock, Q. Zhang, and M. M. Fejer, “Efficient down-conversion of single photons for quantum communication,” in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals and Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper NTuB1.

] when WG losses and pump depletion are neglected. A maximum of ηintmax>0.73 at 240 mW of pump power is achieved with the normalized efficiency η nor = 61%/W/cm2.

Fig. 6 (a) Count rates with only pump light (black squares) and with pump + signal light (red dots) coupled into the WG. Green triangles represent the net count rate. (b) Internal conversion efficiency and signal to noise ratio of our setup vs. pump power.

It is clear that the above method of measuring the internal conversion efficiency may be affected by several experimental uncertainties. For example to calculate 〈n b(L)〉 we have to multiply a number of quantities that are subject to measurement errors themselves. Further, we have chosen a relatively short dead time of 1 μs for the InGaAs/InP detector. This might cause additional detection events generated by the afterpulsing effect [30

30. G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381–1398 (2004).

] which could lead to an over-estimation of the conversion efficiency. To evaluate the potential impact of this effect we have independently measured the afterpulsing probability by means of an autocorrelation technique. The measured probability shows a nearly exponential decay in time. For the parameters of our experiment we yield an upper limit for the afterpulsing probability of 4.4% which could add a maximum error of 4.4% to the count rate N b and thus to the calculated conversion efficiency. To further verify that our results are reliable we additionally investigated the depletion of signal photons in two ways: first we performed a classical measurement (WG input of 1 mW at 738nm) of the signal depletion with a Si-based powermeter which yields ηintmax0.76. Second, the analogous experiment was conducted at the single photon level while the powermeter was substituted by a free running Si SPAD (Perkin Elmer SPCM-AQRH-14, ∼ 65% quantum efficiency at 738nm). Here we get ηintmax0.8. In both signal depletion measurements ηintmax was reached at a pump power around 240mW. All together we find that, within measurement accuracy, the results obtained with the InGaAs/InP SPAD are confirmed by the depletion measurements.

In the absence of any propagation losses the internal conversion efficiency that is expected from theory (either classical coupled mode equations or quantum mechanical approach) is 1, i.e., perfect conversion. We have given 7% as an upper limit for the propagation losses of our device assuming an input coupling efficiency of 1 and zero Fresnel losses at the input coupling lens, at both facets of the waveguide and at the output coupling lens. These assumptions are obviously not fulfilled in practice. Consequently, pure propagation losses will be less than 7% and we would theoretically expect 0.93<ηintmax<1 for the maximum internal conversion efficiency. In general, non-perfect spatial mode overlap within the WG might be a reason for reduced conversion efficiency. However, in our case we suppose another effect to be mainly responsible for the fact that the internal conversion efficiency is about 15-20% less than the theoretical prediction. From Fig. 5(a) we see that the measured data of the spectral acceptance bandwidth significantly deviate from the tails of the sinc2-fit that is expected from theory. In general, such behavior indicates that due to inhomogeneities (spatial fluctuations of the refractive index due to fluctuations in stoichiometry or waveguide imperfections, temperature variations along the crystal, etc.) the (quasi-)phase mismatch Δβ is not constant (Δβ = 0 in the ideal case) along the propagation direction. This was studied for the first time by Nash et al. [31

31. F. R. Nash, G. D. Boyd, M. Sargent III, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Effect of optical inhomogeneities on phase matching in nonlinear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2564–2576 (1970). [CrossRef]

] for the case of second harmonic generation in bulk LiNbO3. It was shown that the area under the phasematching scan devided by the height of the central peak can be considered a figure of merit for the nonlinear susceptibility of the crystal (while the phasematching curve can change its shape the area under the curve is constant). The relation between the shape of the phasematching curve and the conversion efficiency was also studied for quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation in periodically poled materials [27

27. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992). [CrossRef]

] and has been experimentally observed for various χ(2)-processes in different types of QPM waveguide devices [32

32. H. Jiang, G. Li, and X. Xu, “Highly efficient single-pass second harmonic generation in a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide pumped by a fiber laser at 1111.6 nm,” Opt. Express 17, 16073–16080 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34

34. K.-D. F. Büchter, H. Herrmann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and W. Sohler, “All-optical Ti:PPLN wavelength conversion modules for free-space optical transmission links in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 34, 470–472 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In our case inhomogeneities could be caused, for example, by slightly imperfect waveguide structures or minimal variations in WG temperature.

To complete the discussion we consider the signal to noise ratio SNR = N b /N dc+R which is an important figure of merit for a quantum frequency conversion device. The data are plotted in Fig. 6(b). The SNR reaches its maximum at Pp ≈ 60mW yielding a value of about 6:1. This is comparable to what was achieved in another frequency downconversion experiment using long-wavelength pumping [12

12. H. Takesue, “Single-photon frequency down-conversion experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 013833 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Note that due to the linearly rising Raman background the SNR attains its maximum before the point of maximum conversion effciency is reached.

5. Summary and discussion

Table 1. Comparison Between Selected Frequency Downconversion Experiments Reported Recently*

table-icon
View This Table

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge support of the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung within the funding programs “Optical Technologies” (contract 13N9461) and “QuOReP” (contract 01BQ1011). We would like to thank C. Hepp for assistance with the grating spectrometer as well as J. A. L’huillier and Y. Nishida for many helpful discussions.

References and links

1.

H. J. Kimble, “The quantum internet,” Nature (London) 453, 1023–1030 (2008). [CrossRef]

2.

J. Huang and P. Kumar, “Observation of quantum frequency conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2153–2156 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, “Efficient single-photon counting at 1.55 μm by means of frequency upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1449–1451 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

A. P. VanDevender and P. G. Kwiat, “High efficiency single photon detection via frequency up-conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1433–1445 (2004).

5.

R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, J. R. Kurz, and M. M. Fejer, “Periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide sum-frequency generator for efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1518–1520 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, “Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1725–1727 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “A photonic quantum information interface,” Nature (London) 437, 116–120 (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

M. T. Rakher, L. Ma, O. Slattery, X. Tang, and K. Srinivasan, “Quantum transduction of telecommunicationsband single photons from a quantum dot by frequency upconversion,” Nat. Photonics 4, 786–791 (2010). [CrossRef]

9.

Z. Y. Ou, “Efficient conversion between photons and between photon and atom by stimulated emission,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 023819 (2008). [CrossRef]

10.

M. W. McCutcheon, D. E. Chang, Y. Zhang, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Broadband frequency conversion and shaping of single photons emitted from a nonlinear cavity,” Opt. Express 17, 22689–22703 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

Y. Ding and Z. Y. Ou, “Frequency downconversion for a quantum network,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2591–2593 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

H. Takesue, “Single-photon frequency down-conversion experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 013833 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

J. S. Pelc, C. Langrock, Q. Zhang, and M. M. Fejer, “Efficient down-conversion of single photons for quantum communication,” in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals and Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper NTuB1.

14.

J. S. Pelc, C. Langrock, Q. Zhang, and M. M. Fejer, “Influence of domain disorder on parametric noise in quasi-phase-matched quantum frequency converters,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2804–2806 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

N. Curtz, R. Thew, C. Simon, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Coherent frequency-down-conversion interface for quantum repeaters,” Opt. Express 18, 22099–22104 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

A. G. Radnaev, Y. O. Dudin, R. Zhao, H. H. Jen, S. D. Jenkins, A. Kuzmich, and T. A. B. Kennedy, “A quantum memory with telecom-wavelength conversion,” Nat. Phys. 6, 894–899 (2010). [CrossRef]

17.

E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, “Single photon emission from silicon-vacancy centres in CVD-nano-diamonds on iridium,” New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011). [CrossRef]

18.

C. Warschburger, Fachrichtung 7.2 (Experimentalphysik), Universität des Saarlandes, Campus E2.6, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany, et al. are preparing a manuscript to be called “Analysis on frequency noise properties of a CW optical parametric oscillator using an optical frequency comb.”

19.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, B. C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, and S. Prawer, “Engineering chromium-related single photon emitters in single crystal diamonds,” New. J. Phys. 13, 045015 (2011). [CrossRef]

20.

M. Reischle, C. Kessler, W.-M. Schulz, M. Eichfelder, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Triggered single-photon emission from electrically excited quantum dots in the red spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143513 (2010). [CrossRef]

21.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39, 609–611 (2003). [CrossRef]

22.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic Press, 1974).

23.

U. T. Schwarz and M. Maier, “Asymmetric Raman lines caused by an anharmonic lattice potential in lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 11041–11044 (1997). [CrossRef]

24.

Y. Repelin, E. Husson, F. Bennani, and C. Proust, “Raman spectroscopy of lithium niobate and lithium tantalate. Force field calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 60, 819–825 (1999). [CrossRef]

25.

N. V. Sidorov, A. A. Yanichev, P. G. Chufyrev, M. N. Palatnikov, and B. N. Mavrin, “Raman spectra of photorefractive lithium niobate single crystals,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77, 110–114 (2010). [CrossRef]

26.

M. Malyj and J. E. Griffiths, “Stokes/anti-stokes Raman vibrational temperatures: reference materials, standard lamps, and spectrophotometric calibrations,” Appl. Spectrosc. 37, 315–333 (1983). [CrossRef]

27.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992). [CrossRef]

28.

C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Towards a picosecond transform-limited nitrogen-vacancy based single photon source,” Opt. Express 16, 6240–6250 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K. M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a colour centre in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics 5, 301–305 (2011). [CrossRef]

30.

G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381–1398 (2004).

31.

F. R. Nash, G. D. Boyd, M. Sargent III, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Effect of optical inhomogeneities on phase matching in nonlinear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2564–2576 (1970). [CrossRef]

32.

H. Jiang, G. Li, and X. Xu, “Highly efficient single-pass second harmonic generation in a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide pumped by a fiber laser at 1111.6 nm,” Opt. Express 17, 16073–16080 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

33.

T. Nishikawa, A. Ozawa, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, F.-L. Hong, and T. W. Hänsch, “Efficient 494 mW sum-frequency generation of sodium resonance radiation at 589 nm by using a periodically poled Zn:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 17792–17800 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

K.-D. F. Büchter, H. Herrmann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and W. Sohler, “All-optical Ti:PPLN wavelength conversion modules for free-space optical transmission links in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 34, 470–472 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

35.

M. Hijlkema, B. Weber, H. P. Specht, S. C. Webster, A. Kuhn, and G. Rempe, “A single-photon server with just one atom,” Nat. Phys. 3, 253–255 (2007). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(190.4223) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear wave mixing
(270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: April 27, 2011
Revised Manuscript: June 3, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: June 3, 2011
Published: June 17, 2011

Citation
Sebastian Zaske, Andreas Lenhard, and Christoph Becher, "Efficient frequency downconversion at the single photon level from the red spectral range to the telecommunications C-band," Opt. Express 19, 12825-12836 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-13-12825


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References

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  5. R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, J. R. Kurz, and M. M. Fejer, “Periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide sum-frequency generator for efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1518–1520 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, “Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1725–1727 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  8. M. T. Rakher, L. Ma, O. Slattery, X. Tang, and K. Srinivasan, “Quantum transduction of telecommunicationsband single photons from a quantum dot by frequency upconversion,” Nat. Photonics 4, 786–791 (2010). [CrossRef]
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  10. M. W. McCutcheon, D. E. Chang, Y. Zhang, M. D. Lukin, and M. Loncar, “Broadband frequency conversion and shaping of single photons emitted from a nonlinear cavity,” Opt. Express 17, 22689–22703 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Ding and Z. Y. Ou, “Frequency downconversion for a quantum network,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2591–2593 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Takesue, “Single-photon frequency down-conversion experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 013833 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. J. S. Pelc, C. Langrock, Q. Zhang, and M. M. Fejer, “Efficient down-conversion of single photons for quantum communication,” in Nonlinear Optics: Materials, Fundamentals and Applications , OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper NTuB1.
  14. J. S. Pelc, C. Langrock, Q. Zhang, and M. M. Fejer, “Influence of domain disorder on parametric noise in quasi-phase-matched quantum frequency converters,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2804–2806 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. N. Curtz, R. Thew, C. Simon, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Coherent frequency-down-conversion interface for quantum repeaters,” Opt. Express 18, 22099–22104 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. G. Radnaev, Y. O. Dudin, R. Zhao, H. H. Jen, S. D. Jenkins, A. Kuzmich, and T. A. B. Kennedy, “A quantum memory with telecom-wavelength conversion,” Nat. Phys. 6, 894–899 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. E. Neu, D. Steinmetz, J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Gsell, M. Fischer, M. Schreck, and C. Becher, “Single photon emission from silicon-vacancy centres in CVD-nano-diamonds on iridium,” New J. Phys. 13, 025012 (2011). [CrossRef]
  18. C. Warschburger, Fachrichtung 7.2 (Experimentalphysik), Universität des Saarlandes, Campus E2.6, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany, et al. are preparing a manuscript to be called “Analysis on frequency noise properties of a CW optical parametric oscillator using an optical frequency comb.”
  19. I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, B. C. Johnson, J. C. McCallum, and S. Prawer, “Engineering chromium-related single photon emitters in single crystal diamonds,” New. J. Phys. 13, 045015 (2011). [CrossRef]
  20. M. Reischle, C. Kessler, W.-M. Schulz, M. Eichfelder, R. Roßbach, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Triggered single-photon emission from electrically excited quantum dots in the red spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143513 (2010). [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Electron. Lett. 39, 609–611 (2003). [CrossRef]
  22. D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic Press, 1974).
  23. U. T. Schwarz and M. Maier, “Asymmetric Raman lines caused by an anharmonic lattice potential in lithium niobate,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 11041–11044 (1997). [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Repelin, E. Husson, F. Bennani, and C. Proust, “Raman spectroscopy of lithium niobate and lithium tantalate. Force field calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 60, 819–825 (1999). [CrossRef]
  25. N. V. Sidorov, A. A. Yanichev, P. G. Chufyrev, M. N. Palatnikov, and B. N. Mavrin, “Raman spectra of photorefractive lithium niobate single crystals,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 77, 110–114 (2010). [CrossRef]
  26. M. Malyj and J. E. Griffiths, “Stokes/anti-stokes Raman vibrational temperatures: reference materials, standard lamps, and spectrophotometric calibrations,” Appl. Spectrosc. 37, 315–333 (1983). [CrossRef]
  27. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, “Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631–2654 (1992). [CrossRef]
  28. C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Towards a picosecond transform-limited nitrogen-vacancy based single photon source,” Opt. Express 16, 6240–6250 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. Faraon, P. E. Barclay, C. Santori, K. M. C. Fu, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Resonant enhancement of the zero-phonon emission from a colour centre in a diamond cavity,” Nat. Photonics 5, 301–305 (2011). [CrossRef]
  30. G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, D. Stucki, M. Wegmuller, and H. Zbinden, “Photon counting at telecom wavelengths with commercial InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes: current performance,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1381–1398 (2004).
  31. F. R. Nash, G. D. Boyd, M. Sargent, and P. M. Bridenbaugh, “Effect of optical inhomogeneities on phase matching in nonlinear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2564–2576 (1970). [CrossRef]
  32. H. Jiang, G. Li, and X. Xu, “Highly efficient single-pass second harmonic generation in a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide pumped by a fiber laser at 1111.6 nm,” Opt. Express 17, 16073–16080 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. T. Nishikawa, A. Ozawa, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, F.-L. Hong, and T. W. Hänsch, “Efficient 494 mW sum-frequency generation of sodium resonance radiation at 589 nm by using a periodically poled Zn:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide,” Opt. Express 17, 17792–17800 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. K.-D. F. Büchter, H. Herrmann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and W. Sohler, “All-optical Ti:PPLN wavelength conversion modules for free-space optical transmission links in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 34, 470–472 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. M. Hijlkema, B. Weber, H. P. Specht, S. C. Webster, A. Kuhn, and G. Rempe, “A single-photon server with just one atom,” Nat. Phys. 3, 253–255 (2007). [CrossRef]

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