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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 13 — Jun. 20, 2011
  • pp: 12837–12842
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Optical magnetic response in three-dimensional metamaterial of upright plasmonic meta-molecules

Wei Ting Chen, Chen Jung Chen, Pin Chieh Wu, Shulin Sun, Lei Zhou, Guang-Yu Guo, Chinh Ting Hsiao, Kuang-Yu Yang, Nikolay I. Zheludev, and Din Ping Tsai  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 13, pp. 12837-12842 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.012837


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Abstract

We report the first three-dimensional photonic metamaterial, an array of erected U-shape plasmonic gold meta-molecules, that exhibits a profound response to the magnetic field of light incident normal to the array. The metamaterial was fabricated using a double exposure e-beam lithographic process. It was investigated by optical measurements and finite-element simulations, and showed that the magnetic field solely depends on the plasmonic resonance mode showing either enhanced in the centre of the erected U-shape meta-molecule (16 times enhancement) or enhanced around two prongs of erected U-shape meta-molecule (4 times enhancement).

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Metamaterials are created as an array of artificial sub-wavelength structures, often exhibit unique optical properties which are not found in nature [1

1. T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Toroidal dipolar response in a metamaterial,” Science 330(6010), 1510–1512 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Metamaterials composited with sub-wavelength split ring resonators (SRRs) have attracted a wide attention because of a number of extraordinary properties, such as artificial magnetism [6

6. D. Diessel, M. Decker, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Near-field optical experiments on low-symmetry split-ring-resonator arrays,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3661–3663 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8

8. A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Negative magnetic permeability in the visible light region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(23), 237401 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], optical chirality [9

9. E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,10

10. S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. S. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], negative refraction index [11

11. C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,12

12. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and optical spectrum manipulation [13

13. E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8548–8551 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15

15. E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Electromagnetic (EM) properties of SRR were first studied in microwave region in 2000 [16

16. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Since 2004, interest in the EM properties of SRRs expanded to the optical frequency region [17

17. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,18

18. J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In particular, U-shape SRRs were shown to exhibit a series of resonant modes as predicted by the LC circuit model [19

19. B. Lahiri, S. G. McMeekin, A. Z. Khokhar, R. M. De La Rue, and N. P. Johnson, “Magnetic response of split ring resonators (SRRs) at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3210–3218 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,20

20. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], in which the capacitance was contributed by the charges accumulating near the ends while the inductance was contributed by the current flowing inside the U-shape SRR which can be viewed as a magnetic coil [21

21. L. Zhou and S. T. Chui, “Eigenmodes of metallic ring systems: A rigorous approach,” Phys. Rev. B 74(3), 035419 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. U-shape SRRs can be excited by an incident light with electric field perpendicular to two prongs of U-shape SRR (capacitance response, E // x^, see Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram showing the feature size of erected U-shape three-dimensional resonance ring, L1 = 110 nm, H1 = 30 nm, H2 = 30 nm, W2 = 40 nm, W1 = 40 nm, P = 200 nm, respectively. The optical properties of the fabricated sample are studied in the case of x-polarized illumination as well as y-polarized illumination. In the case of x-polarized illumination, the electric field of incident light oscillate parallel to the resonant ring. In the case of y-polarized illumination, the electric field of incident light pass through the resonant ring. (b) SEM image of a small region from the fabricated sample. The inset shows a magnified view of four erected U-shape three-dimensional resonance rings with bottom length L1 110 nm.
), or an incident light with magnetic field oscillating through the gap of U-shape SRR (inductance response, H // y^, see Fig. 1(a)) [22

22. N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943–2945 (2004). [CrossRef]

], both showing pronounced dips in the transmission spectra. By increasing the dimension of the U-shape SRR, higher order resonance modes can also be excited [23

23. M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1259–1261 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26

26. C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8827–8836 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, due to the challenges in fabrications, so far most U-shape SRRs were fabricated as planar or multi-layered structures, some of those are three dimensional structures but in micrometer scale [27

27. N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008). [CrossRef]

30

30. J. H. Cho and D. H. Gracias, “Self-assembly of lithographically patterned nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4049–4052 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To excite the magnetic resonances of such planar SRRs, one must apply an off-normal incident light which possesses the required H field component. Such a restriction significantly lowers the coupling efficiency between the magnetic field of incident light and the resonant SRR.

2. Fabrication

Using electron beam lithography with a double exposure process, we fabricated 375 × 375 erected U-shape three-dimensional (3D) gold resonance rings on fused silica substrate, covering a total area of ~75 × 75 µm2. For the precision alignment of e-beam double exposure process, two golden cross alignment marks (size 9 × 150 μm) with a thickness 150 nm are fabricated and used. For the first exposure process, the bottoms of resonance rings are defined in positive resist (495k PMMA) after first e-beam exposure and lift-off process. Subsequently, the two prongs of resonance ring are made by second e-beam exposure and lift-off process. The Espacer (Kokusai Eisei Co., Showa Denso Group, Japan)/poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA-495K) bi-layered resist are spin-coated on a cleaned substrate. A 200 nm-thick PMMA layer is spin-coated on the fused silica wafer, then backed on a hot plate for 3 minutes at 180°C. The Espacer, a resist to eliminate the static charge problem during e-beam exposure, is spin-coated at 1500 rpm over the PMMA layer. An e-beam lithography system (Elionix ELS-7000) at the acceleration voltage of 100 kev with 30 pico-ampere of current is used.

It is worth mentioning that we prepare our samples without sputtering any adhesion layer, such as Ti or Cr, between the gold film and the glass substrate. This fabrication method is especially suitable for our purpose, as the Ti or Cr layer usually changes the resonances of the metallic nanostructures, and it is too thin to be accurately modeled with our simulation software. Figure 1(a) shows the schematic diagram of the 3D resonant nano-rings. The size of each unit-cell is 110 nm length and 60 nm height, and the periodicity is 200 nm. The resonant rings are illuminated at normal incidence using x- and y-polarized light. Figure 1(b) shows an SEM micrograph of the fabricated pattern. The inset of Fig. 1(b) shows a magnified view of four erected U-shape three-dimensional resonance rings with the bottom length (L1) 110 nm.

3. Measurement and simulation

We note that overall the experimental results (Fig. 2(a)) are in good agreement with the simulation results (Fig. 2(b)). In particular, both experiments and simulations show that a pronounced resonance dip exist at λ~800 nm in the spectra for E // x^ while the structure is nearly transparent for light with the polarization E // y^. The slight differences between experimental and simulation results are possibly due to the surface roughness in the real sample (ignored in the simulations) and the inaccuracies of the Drude model for the dielectric constant of Au adopted in our simulations.

4. Results and discussions

As expected, when illuminated by a y-polarized light, the magnetic resonance of the 3D nano-rings cannot be excited so that the transmission spectra (the green curves in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b)) are nearly flat in both experiment and simulation. On the contrary, our structures show significant optical response to an x-polarized incident light, resulting in a pronounced dip in the transmission spectrum at the wavelength (λ) of 850 nm (the purple curves in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b)). This resonant mode results from a ring-like current flowing on the surface of the 3D nano-ring which has been demonstrated by FDTD simulation, and is a magnetic resonance which can be excited by external lights with a y component of magnetic field.

To gain a deeper understanding on the resonance mode, we varied the structural details of the nano-rings and then performed simulations to study the transmission spectra. Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 Evolution of the finite-element simulation transmission spectra for x-polarized illumination upon varying the bottom length L1 (a) and the prong length H2 (b) of erected U-shape three-dimensional gold ring. The inset in frames (a) and (b) show the dimensions (in nm) of the prong length H2 and the bottom length L1 of erected U-shape gold ring. Simulation magnetic field in arbitrary units (color-coded) and field line of magnetic field (white line) for mode I (c) and mode II (d) of Fig. 3(b). The simulation results of a top view shown are at the root plane of the prongs of the erected U-shape nano gold ring. The inset of Figs. 3(c) and 3(d) show the direction of flowing surface current (black arrows) at a side view.
shows the simulated spectra for nano-rings with H2 (length of prong) kept as a constant 30 nm and L1 (length of the bottom bar) changed from 110 nm to 150 nm. Obviously, the fundamental resonance mode shifts to longer wavelength as L1 increases, which is understandable noting that the current flows on the longer path. Figure 3(b) shows the evolution of transmission spectra as H2 increases. Again, we found a red shift of the resonance mode similar to Fig. 3(a). Intriguingly, we found another resonance at a higher frequency being excited by the x-polarized normal-incident light as H2 increases. Magnetic field pattern and field line are shown in Figs. 3(c) and Fig. 3(d) to illustrate the resonance response of the erected U-shape nano gold ring. The plane is chosen as the root plane of its two prongs. Simulation also tell us the currents distribution in the nano gold rings. We can find that, the low order resonance mode, so called mode I, shows strong response to external magnetic field of incidence light in the gap of standing U-shape ring. Contrarily, the higher order mode, so called mode II, shows to push its magnetic field line outside its two standing prongs. In the case of mode I, the enhanced magnetic field happened between the prongs of the nano U-shape ring resulted from clockwise and anticlockwise surface current oscillation on the surface of gold ring structures (shown at the inset of Fig. 3(c)). The mode I exhibits parallel-like response to the magnetic field of incident light. In the case of mode II, a pair of anti-phase current along two prongs of the U-shape ring (shown at the inset of Fig. 3(d)) and the flowing current along the bottom of the U-shape resonance ring results in destructive (constructive) magnetic response at the inside (outer) wings of the resonance U-shape gold nano ring. The magnetic response at mode II shows anti-parallel-like response to the magnetic field of incident light. The currents distributions at the surface of rings (shown in the inset of Fig. 3(c) and Fig. 3(d)) can perfectly explain the magnetic field pattern illustrated here.

Due to the bi-anisotropy of the SRR, both electric (along x direction) and magnetic (along y direction) responses can be excited under the present normal-incident excitation. To identify the nature of discovered resonance modes, we calculated the transmission spectra under p-polarized oblique-incident excitation keeping H // y^. We found that modes I and II can still be excited at essentially the same wavelengths under such oblique-incident excitations, demonstrating that these modes are predominantly magnetic resonances coupled to external Hy field. However, in order to gain a complete picture of these modes, one needs to study both the magnetic susceptibility and the bi-anisotropic magneto-electric susceptibility of the present structure, which is an interesting subject for further study.

5. Summary

Acknowledgments

The authors thank financial aids from National Taiwan University, National Science Council under grant numbers 98-EC-17-A-09-S1-019, 99-2120-M-002-012 and 99-2911-I-002-127. Authors are grateful to EPSRC, UK and the Royal Society, London, the National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Taipei Office and National Center for High-Performance Computing, Taiwan for their support. Lei Zhou thanks supports from NSFC (60725417, 60990321), MOE of China (B06011), and Shanghai Science and Technology Committee (08dj1400302).

References and links

1.

T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Toroidal dipolar response in a metamaterial,” Science 330(6010), 1510–1512 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

W. T. Chen, P. C. Wu, C. J. Chen, H. Y. Chung, Y. F. Chau, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “Electromagnetic energy vortex associated with sub-wavelength plasmonic Taiji marks,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19665–19671 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007). [CrossRef]

6.

D. Diessel, M. Decker, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Near-field optical experiments on low-symmetry split-ring-resonator arrays,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3661–3663 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011). [CrossRef]

8.

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Negative magnetic permeability in the visible light region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(23), 237401 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. S. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8548–8551 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011). [CrossRef]

16.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(18), 4184–4187 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

B. Lahiri, S. G. McMeekin, A. Z. Khokhar, R. M. De La Rue, and N. P. Johnson, “Magnetic response of split ring resonators (SRRs) at visible frequencies,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3210–3218 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz,” Science 306(5700), 1351–1353 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

L. Zhou and S. T. Chui, “Eigenmodes of metallic ring systems: A rigorous approach,” Phys. Rev. B 74(3), 035419 (2006). [CrossRef]

22.

N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2943–2945 (2004). [CrossRef]

23.

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1259–1261 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, E. Pshenay-Severin, J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, J. Kuhl, T. Pertsch, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “The origin of magnetic polarizability in metamaterials at optical frequencies - an electrodynamic approach,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8871–8883 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

G. Boudarham, N. Feth, V. Myroshnychenko, S. Linden, J. García de Abajo, M. Wegener, and M. Kociak, “Spectral imaging of individual split-ring resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(25), 255501 (2010). [CrossRef]

26.

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8827–8836 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

N. Liu, H. C. Guo, L. W. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater. 7(1), 31–37 (2008). [CrossRef]

28.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, “Stereometamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 157–162 (2009). [CrossRef]

29.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. Ten Eyck, J. C. Ginn, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Micrometer-scale cubic unit cell 3D metamaterial layers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(44), 5053–5057 (2010). [CrossRef]

30.

J. H. Cho and D. H. Gracias, “Self-assembly of lithographically patterned nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4049–4052 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical-constants of noble-metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972). [CrossRef]

32.

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.4780) Lasers and laser optics : Optical resonators
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:
Metamaterials

History
Original Manuscript: May 4, 2011
Revised Manuscript: June 10, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: June 10, 2011
Published: June 17, 2011

Citation
Wei Ting Chen, Chen Jung Chen, Pin Chieh Wu, Shulin Sun, Lei Zhou, Guang-Yu Guo, Chinh Ting Hsiao, Kuang-Yu Yang, Nikolay I. Zheludev, and Din Ping Tsai, "Optical magnetic response in three-dimensional metamaterial of upright plasmonic meta-molecules," Opt. Express 19, 12837-12842 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-13-12837


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References

  1. T. Kaelberer, V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Toroidal dipolar response in a metamaterial,” Science 330(6010), 1510–1512 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. T. Chen, P. C. Wu, C. J. Chen, H. Y. Chung, Y. F. Chau, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “Electromagnetic energy vortex associated with sub-wavelength plasmonic Taiji marks,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19665–19671 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and negative refractive index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 41–48 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. D. Diessel, M. Decker, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Near-field optical experiments on low-symmetry split-ring-resonator arrays,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3661–3663 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. M. Zhu, A. Q. Liu, X. M. Zhang, D. P. Tsai, T. Bourouina, J. H. Teng, X. H. Zhang, H. C. Guo, H. Tanoto, T. Mei, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Switchable magnetic metamaterials using micromachining processes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(15), 1792–1796 (2011). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Negative magnetic permeability in the visible light region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(23), 237401 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. S. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Physics. Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315(5808), 47–49 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292(5514), 77–79 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Towards the lasing spaser: controlling metamaterial optical response with semiconductor quantum dots,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8548–8551 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. V. A. Fedotov, N. Papasimakis, E. Plum, A. Bitzer, M. Walther, P. Kuo, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Spectral collapse in ensembles of metamolecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(22), 223901 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. Plum, K. Tanaka, W. T. Chen, V. A. Fedotov, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “A combinatorial approach to metamaterials discovery,” J. Opt. 13(5), 055102 (2011). [CrossRef]
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