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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 14 — Jul. 4, 2011
  • pp: 13185–13191
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Spectroscopic analysis and efficient diode-pumped 1.9 μm Tm3+-doped β′-Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal laser

Jianfeng Tang, Yujin Chen, Yanfu Lin, Xinghong Gong, Jianhua Huang, Zundu Luo, and Yidong Huang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 14, pp. 13185-13191 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.013185


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Abstract

Tm3+-doped β′-Gd2(MoO4)3 single crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. Spectroscopic analysis was carried out along different polarizations. End-pumped by a quasi-cw diode laser at 795 nm in a plano-concave cavity, an average laser output power of 58 mW around 1.9 μm was achieved in a 0.93-mm-thick crystal when the output coupler transmission was 7.1%. The absorbed pump threshold was 8 mW and the slope efficiency of the laser was 57%. This crystal has smooth and broad gain curve around 1.9 μm, which shows that it is also a potential gain medium for tunable and short pulse lasers.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Tm3+-doped crystals for laser emission around 1.9 μm via the 3F43H6 transition have been widely studied due to their applications in medical, military, and optical communication [1

1. N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94 microm,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3

3. B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The Tm3+-doped crystals exhibit a common feature that their absorption band of the 3H63H4 transition matches well with the emitting wavelengths of commercial AlGaAs diode lasers (DL), which can make the laser device compact and durable [4

4. F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “2-μm lasers with fluoride crystals: Research and development,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 33(2-4), 61–109 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, the cross relaxation between Tm3+ ions, 3H4 + 3H63F4 + 3F4, makes one pumping photon excite two Tm3+ ions to the upper laser level possible, therefore, high efficiency can be expected for the Tm3+ laser.

The acentric β′-Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal has been known earlier as ferroelectric and ferroelastic material [5

5. H. J. Borchardt and P. E. Bierstedt, “Gd2(MoO4)3: a ferroelectric laser host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8(2), 50–52 (1966). [CrossRef]

,6

6. E. T. Keve, S. C. Abrahams, and J. L. Bernstein, “Ferroelectric ferroelastic paramagnetic beta-Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal structure of transition-metal molybdates and tungstates. VI,” J. Chem. Phys. 54(7), 3185–3194 (1971). [CrossRef]

]. The crystal can also be used as second harmonic generator and Raman shifter in laser system [7

7. A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal – a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and CW and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7(3), 59–73 (1997). [CrossRef]

10

10. A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, and F. A. Kuznetsov, “High-efficient stimulated-Raman scattering in ferroelectric and ferroelastic orthorhombic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 153(1), 281–285 (1996) (a). [CrossRef]

]. When the crystal is doped with rare earth ions, it may be a gain medium for self-frequency doubling and self-stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) lasers. The spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+-doped β′-Gd2(MoO4)3 have been studied [11

11. Y. Q. Zou, X. Y. Chen, D. Y. Tang, Z. D. Luo, and W. Q. Yang, “Investigation of the spectroscopic properties of acentric orthorhombic Nd3+:Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 167(1-6), 99–104 (1999). [CrossRef]

,12

12. D. Jaque, J. Findensein, E. Montoya, J. Capmany, A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, and J. G. Solé, “Spectroscopic and laser gain properties of the Nd3+:β'-Gd2(MoO4)3 non-linear crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(46), 9699–9714 (2000). [CrossRef]

] and its promising integration in optical devices has been evaluated [7

7. A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal – a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and CW and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7(3), 59–73 (1997). [CrossRef]

,10

10. A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, and F. A. Kuznetsov, “High-efficient stimulated-Raman scattering in ferroelectric and ferroelastic orthorhombic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 153(1), 281–285 (1996) (a). [CrossRef]

]. However, to our knowledge, the detailed characterization of the Tm3+-doped case has not been reported.

In this work, spectroscopic properties of a Tm3+-doped β′-Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal are investigated and a quasi-cw Tm3+ laser operated in the free running regime was performed under DL pumping. All the experiments were carried out at room temperature.

2. Crystal growth and spectroscopic analysis

Tm3+:β′-Gd2(MoO4)3 single crystal under investigation was grown by the Czochralski method in air in a platinum crucible heated by a 2 kHz radio frequency furnace. The raw material was synthesized by repeated solid state reactions at about 900 °C from the starting chemicals of Tm2O3 (99.99%), Gd2O3 (99.99%), and MoO3 (99.5%). 3% excess of the MoO3 component over stoichiometry was added for compensating the volatilization. In order to melt homogeneously, the raw material was heated up to a temperature of about 30 °C higher than its melting point and kept there for 1 h and then the temperature was lowered to the crystallization point. The crystal was grown on a seed crystal in the [001] direction. The pulling and rotating rates were 1 to 3 mm/h and 15 to 30 rpm, respectively. After the growth, the crystal was drawn above the melt surface and cooled down to a temperature of about 250 °C at a rate of −15 °C/h, and then a slower cooling rate of −5 °C/h was conducted down to the room temperature for getting through the ferroelectric phase transition. An oriented crystal sample with dimensions of about 10 × 7 × 0.93 mm3 was cut and polished for experiments and the photograph is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Polished crystal sample of the Tm3+:β'-Gd2(MoO4)3 for experiments with dimensions of about 10 × 7 × 0.93 mm3.
. The crystalline c axis was parallel to the long edge. The concentration of Tm3+ ions was measured to be 6.6 at.% by an inductively coupled plasma atom emission spectrometer (ICP-AES, Ultima 2, Jobin-Yvon), which is lower than the 8 at.% in the raw material. The melting points were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and were almost kept unvaried for the doped and undoped crystals (~1170 °C). The obtained low temperature phase β′-Gd2(MoO4)3 has an orthorhombic structure with space group C2V8-Pba2. The lattice parameters interpolated from data of Ref [13

13. Z. Lin, X. Han, and C. Zaldo, “Solid state reaction synthesis and optical spectroscopy of ferroelectric (Gd1-xLnx)2(MoO4)3; with Ln=Yb or Tm,” J. Alloy. Comp. 492(1-2), 77–82 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. are a = 10.383 Å, b = 10.416 Å, and c = 10.698 Å (Z = 4). As an approximation this crystal can be considered as an uniaxial crystal for the refractive indexes are similar along the a and b crystalline axes, i.e., nanb = n o, with the optic axial angle 2V≈10° [7

7. A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal – a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and CW and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7(3), 59–73 (1997). [CrossRef]

,12

12. D. Jaque, J. Findensein, E. Montoya, J. Capmany, A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, and J. G. Solé, “Spectroscopic and laser gain properties of the Nd3+:β'-Gd2(MoO4)3 non-linear crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(46), 9699–9714 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. The spectroscopic properties can be simply characterized in two different polarizations of q = σ and π, which correspond to the electrical field (E) of the light perpendicular or parallel to the c axis, respectively.

The polarized absorption spectra around 800 nm, corresponding to the transition of 3H63H4 were measured with a UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer (Lambda 900, Perkin-Elmer) and are shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Polarized absorption spectra of the Tm3+ doped β′-Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal in a range of 750–850 nm.
. The peak absorption cross sections are 3.92 × 10−20 cm2 at 797 nm with a full width at half the maximum (FWHM) of about 5.5 nm and 2.08 × 10−20 cm2 at 794.5 nm with a FWHM of about 13.5 nm for σ and π polarizations, respectively. The broad absorption band originates mainly from the interactions between Tm3+ ions and the vibrating host. It is also worth noting that a stable absorption from 794 to 798 nm with the absorption cross section about 2 × 10−20 cm2 for π polarization should be very beneficial to the tolerance of wavelength shift of DL pump source.

Z(scaled)=Z(calculated)×number   of   levels   expectednumber   of   levels   measured.
(2)

Then, the scaled values of Zl/Zu was estimated to be 1.77 in our case. The polarized emission cross sections calculated by the RM method are also shown in Fig. 3.

From the absorption and emission cross sections, the gain cross section σGq can be calculated from [16

16. K. Ohta, H. Saito, and M. Obara, “Spectroscopic characterization of Tm3+:YVO4 crystal as an efficient diode pumped laser source near 2000 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(7), 3149–3152 (1993). [CrossRef]

]
σGq(λ)=PσEMq(λ)(1P)σGSAq(λ).
(3)
where P represents the population inversion defined as the ratio of the Tm3+ ions at the 3F4 multiplet to those at both the 3F4 and 3H6 multiplets. Figure 4
Fig. 4 Gain curves of the 3F43H6 transition for the Tm3+:β′-Gd2(MoO4)3 with different values of population inversion P (P = 0.1, 0.2, …, 0.5).
shows the calculated results for several values of P (P = 0.1, 0.2, …, 0.5) for σ and π polarizations. Smooth gain curves from 1800 to 2000 nm can be easily obtained just with the population inversion P≥0.5. It is comparable to that of Tm3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2 crystal, in which continuous tunable laser in a range larger than 200 nm has been realized [17

17. J. M. Cano-Torres, M. D. Serrano, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, X. Mateos, J. Liu, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, F. J. Valle, M. Galan, and G. Viera, “Broadly tunable laser operation near 2 μm in a locally disordered crystal of Tm3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2494–2502 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, the Tm3+-doped β′-Gd2(MoO4)3 has the potential to be one of the 1.9 μm laser crystals with large tunable range.

3. Laser experiment

A simple and compact end-pumped plano-concave resonator was adopted in laser experiment. A fiber-coupled DL emitting around 795 nm was used as the pump source. The pump beam passes through an input coupler (IC) which has a 90% transmission at 795 nm and a reflectivity of R>99% in the region between 1850 and 2000 nm. The crystal without any antireflection coating was held in an aluminum mount and positioned as close as possible to the IC. The pump beam was modulated with a duty cycle of 2% and a modulation frequency of 10 Hz to reduce the thermal load in the crystal. The diameter is about 115 μm and about 67% of the incident pump power was absorbed by the crystal with thickness of 0.93 mm. Three output couplers (OC) with transmissions T OC = 2.1%, 3.8%, and 7.1% around 1.9 μm and the same curvature radius of 100 mm were adopted in the experiment. The length of the plano-concave cavity was set close to the curvature radius of the output couplers.

The free running Tm3+ laser operated in a quasi-cw regime. The average output power versus average absorbed pump power was measured at different T OC of output couplers and is shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Average output power of the Tm3+:β'-Gd2(MoO4)3 laser versus absorbed pump power for different output coupler transmissions.
. For the T OC = 7.1% output coupler, the achieved maximum output power is 58 mW when the absorbed pump power is 111 mW, and the slope efficiency η with respect to absorbed pump power is 57%, with an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency as high as 52%. The lasing threshold is about 8 mW in this case. It is worth noting that the present maximum slope efficiency is much higher than the Stokes limit λ pump/λ laser = 42%. Therefore, the cross relaxation 3H4 + 3H63F4 + 3F4 took place efficiently in this laser operation. Moreover, it can be found that, with the increment of T OC from 2.1% to 7.1%, the slope efficiency increases from 39% to 57%, and the maximum laser output power increases from 41 to 58 mW at the same absorbed pump power. It means the laser with higher output power and efficiency may be expected by adopting an output coupler with a higher transmission.

Laser spectra were recorded using a monochromator (Triax550, Jobin-Yvon) associated with a TE-cooled Ge detector (DSS-G025TT, Jobin-Yvon) and are shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Free running laser spectra of the Tm3+:β'-Gd2(MoO4)3 at the same absorbed pump power of 111 mW for different output coupler transmissions.
. All the measurements were carried out at the maximum absorbed pump power of 111 mW. It can be found that the lasing wavelength blue-shifts from around 1980 to 1900 nm with the increment of T OC from 2.1% to 7.1%, which covers a spectral region of about 100 nm. This can be interpreted by the gain curves shown in Fig. 4. For a lower output coupler transmission, i.e., a lower cavity loss, a smaller value of population inversion is required to achieve laser oscillation and so the lasing wavelength is longer. The large shift of the lasing wavelength also indicates the potential of this crystal for tunable laser operation. The output laser beam is linear π polarization, which is in agreement with the larger π polarized gain cross section and is favorable for the application of nonlinear frequency conversion, such as self-stimulated Raman shift and optical parametric oscillator, to obtain valuable laser at other wavelengths.

4. Conclusion

A β′-Gd2(MoO4)3 single crystal with Tm3+ concentration of 6.6 at.% was grown by the Czochralski method. The peak absorption cross sections were measured to be 3.92 × 10−20 at 797 nm and 2.08 × 10−20 cm2 at 794.5 nm for σ and π polarizations, respectively. The gain curves for 1.9 μm laser were obtained and a broad tunable range of about 200 nm could be expected for this crystal. A maximum average output power of 58 mW for the quasi-cw laser around 1.9 μm with linear π polarization was realized under DL pumping at 795 nm, the slope and optical-to-optical conversion efficiencies were up to 57% and 52%, respectively, and the lasing threshold was only 8 mW. Consequently, the Tm3+-doped β′-Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal is a promising multi-purpose high performance DL pumped gain medium for the 1.9 μm laser.

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant 50972142), the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (grant KJCX2-EW-H03-01), and the Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Optoelectronic Crystalline Materials.

References and links

1.

N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94 microm,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, ““Coherent laser-radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993). [CrossRef]

3.

B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009). [CrossRef]

4.

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “2-μm lasers with fluoride crystals: Research and development,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 33(2-4), 61–109 (2009). [CrossRef]

5.

H. J. Borchardt and P. E. Bierstedt, “Gd2(MoO4)3: a ferroelectric laser host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8(2), 50–52 (1966). [CrossRef]

6.

E. T. Keve, S. C. Abrahams, and J. L. Bernstein, “Ferroelectric ferroelastic paramagnetic beta-Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal structure of transition-metal molybdates and tungstates. VI,” J. Chem. Phys. 54(7), 3185–3194 (1971). [CrossRef]

7.

A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal – a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and CW and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7(3), 59–73 (1997). [CrossRef]

8.

H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, S. N. Bagayev, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Femtosecond continuously tunable second harmonic generation over the entire-visible range in orthorhombic acentric Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1366–1368 (1997). [CrossRef]

9.

S. I. Kim, J. Kim, S. C. Kim, S. I. Yun, and T. Y. Kwon, “Second harmonic generation in the Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal grown by the Czochralski method,” Mater. Lett. 25(5-6), 195–198 (1995). [CrossRef]

10.

A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, and F. A. Kuznetsov, “High-efficient stimulated-Raman scattering in ferroelectric and ferroelastic orthorhombic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 153(1), 281–285 (1996) (a). [CrossRef]

11.

Y. Q. Zou, X. Y. Chen, D. Y. Tang, Z. D. Luo, and W. Q. Yang, “Investigation of the spectroscopic properties of acentric orthorhombic Nd3+:Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 167(1-6), 99–104 (1999). [CrossRef]

12.

D. Jaque, J. Findensein, E. Montoya, J. Capmany, A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, and J. G. Solé, “Spectroscopic and laser gain properties of the Nd3+:β'-Gd2(MoO4)3 non-linear crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(46), 9699–9714 (2000). [CrossRef]

13.

Z. Lin, X. Han, and C. Zaldo, “Solid state reaction synthesis and optical spectroscopy of ferroelectric (Gd1-xLnx)2(MoO4)3; with Ln=Yb or Tm,” J. Alloy. Comp. 492(1-2), 77–82 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. 136(4A), A954–A957 (1964). [CrossRef]

15.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992). [CrossRef]

16.

K. Ohta, H. Saito, and M. Obara, “Spectroscopic characterization of Tm3+:YVO4 crystal as an efficient diode pumped laser source near 2000 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(7), 3149–3152 (1993). [CrossRef]

17.

J. M. Cano-Torres, M. D. Serrano, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, X. Mateos, J. Liu, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, F. J. Valle, M. Galan, and G. Viera, “Broadly tunable laser operation near 2 μm in a locally disordered crystal of Tm3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2494–2502 (2006). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3380) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials
(140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 5, 2011
Revised Manuscript: June 3, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: June 4, 2011
Published: June 22, 2011

Citation
Jianfeng Tang, Yujin Chen, Yanfu Lin, Xinghong Gong, Jianhua Huang, Zundu Luo, and Yidong Huang, "Spectroscopic analysis and efficient diode-pumped 1.9 μm Tm3+-doped β′-Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal laser," Opt. Express 19, 13185-13191 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-14-13185


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References

  1. N. M. Fried and K. E. Murray, “High-power thulium fiber laser ablation of urinary tissues at 1.94 microm,” J. Endourol. 19(1), 25–31 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, ““Coherent laser-radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993). [CrossRef]
  3. B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009). [CrossRef]
  4. F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “2-μm lasers with fluoride crystals: Research and development,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 33(2-4), 61–109 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. H. J. Borchardt and P. E. Bierstedt, “Gd2(MoO4)3: a ferroelectric laser host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8(2), 50–52 (1966). [CrossRef]
  6. E. T. Keve, S. C. Abrahams, and J. L. Bernstein, “Ferroelectric ferroelastic paramagnetic beta-Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal structure of transition-metal molybdates and tungstates. VI,” J. Chem. Phys. 54(7), 3185–3194 (1971). [CrossRef]
  7. A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, K. Ueda, H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, J. Song, M. Musha, S. N. Bagaev, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Orthorhombic ferroelectric and ferroelastic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal – a new many-purposed nonlinear and optical material: efficient multiple stimulated Raman scattering and CW and tunable second harmonic generation,” Opt. Mater. 7(3), 59–73 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. H. Nishioka, W. Odajima, M. Tateno, K. Ueda, A. A. Kaminskii, A. V. Butashin, S. N. Bagayev, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Femtosecond continuously tunable second harmonic generation over the entire-visible range in orthorhombic acentric Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(11), 1366–1368 (1997). [CrossRef]
  9. S. I. Kim, J. Kim, S. C. Kim, S. I. Yun, and T. Y. Kwon, “Second harmonic generation in the Gd2(MoO4)3 crystal grown by the Czochralski method,” Mater. Lett. 25(5-6), 195–198 (1995). [CrossRef]
  10. A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, S. N. Bagaev, A. A. Pavlyuk, and F. A. Kuznetsov, “High-efficient stimulated-Raman scattering in ferroelectric and ferroelastic orthorhombic Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi 153(1), 281–285 (1996) (a). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Q. Zou, X. Y. Chen, D. Y. Tang, Z. D. Luo, and W. Q. Yang, “Investigation of the spectroscopic properties of acentric orthorhombic Nd3+:Gd2(MoO4)3 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 167(1-6), 99–104 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. D. Jaque, J. Findensein, E. Montoya, J. Capmany, A. A. Kaminskii, H. J. Eichler, and J. G. Solé, “Spectroscopic and laser gain properties of the Nd3+:β'-Gd2(MoO4)3 non-linear crystal,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 12(46), 9699–9714 (2000). [CrossRef]
  13. Z. Lin, X. Han, and C. Zaldo, “Solid state reaction synthesis and optical spectroscopy of ferroelectric (Gd1-xLnx)2(MoO4)3; with Ln=Yb or Tm,” J. Alloy. Comp. 492(1-2), 77–82 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. 136(4A), A954–A957 (1964). [CrossRef]
  15. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992). [CrossRef]
  16. K. Ohta, H. Saito, and M. Obara, “Spectroscopic characterization of Tm3+:YVO4 crystal as an efficient diode pumped laser source near 2000 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(7), 3149–3152 (1993). [CrossRef]
  17. J. M. Cano-Torres, M. D. Serrano, C. Zaldo, M. Rico, X. Mateos, J. Liu, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, F. J. Valle, M. Galan, and G. Viera, “Broadly tunable laser operation near 2 μm in a locally disordered crystal of Tm3+-doped NaGd(WO4)2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2494–2502 (2006). [CrossRef]

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