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Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 14 — Jul. 4, 2011
  • pp: 13192–13200
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Soliton triads ensemble in frequency conversion: from inverse scattering theory to experimental observation

Fabio Baronio, Marco Andreana, Matteo Conforti, Gabriele Manili, Vincent Couderc, Costantino De Angelis, and Alain Barthélémy  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 14, pp. 13192-13200 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.013192


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Abstract

We consider the spectral theory of three–wave interactions to predict the initiation, formation and dynamics of an ensemble of bright–dark–bright soliton triads in frequency conversion processes. Spatial observation of non–interacting triads ensemble in a KTP crystal confirms theoretical prediction and numerical simulations.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Three-wave interactions (TWIs) describe the resonant mixing of waves in weakly nonlinear media. The TWI model is typically encountered in the description of any conservative nonlinear medium where the dynamics can be considered as a perturbation of the linear wave solution, the lowest-order nonlinearity is quadratic in the field amplitudes, and the phase-matching (or resonance) condition is satisfied [1

1. D. J. Kaup, A. Reiman, and A. Bers, “Space-time evolution of nonlinear three-wave interactions. I. interaction in a homogeneous medium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 275–309 (1979). [CrossRef]

]. The TWI model possesses two important properties, namely it is universal and integrable [2

2. V. E. Zakharov and S. V. Manakov, “Resonant interaction of wave packets in nonlinear media,” JETP Lett. 18, 243–245 (1973).

, 3

3. V. E. Zakharov, What is Integrability? (Springer-Verlag, 1991).

]. Universality implies that TWI is ubiquitous in various branches of science: indeed, TWI has been applied in plasma physics, fluid dynamics, optics, acoustics [1

1. D. J. Kaup, A. Reiman, and A. Bers, “Space-time evolution of nonlinear three-wave interactions. I. interaction in a homogeneous medium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 275–309 (1979). [CrossRef]

, 4

4. A. Hasegawa, Plasma Instabilities and Nonlinear Effects (Springer-Verlag, 2001).

11

11. K. Lamb, “Tidally generated near-resonant internal wave triads at shelf break,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L18607 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The second TWI feature, integrability, gives mathematical tools to investigate several problems such as the evolution of given initial data, construction of particular analytic solutions (f.i. solitons) and the derivation of (infinitely many) conservation laws. Indeed, stemming from the numerical experiments of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam on the equipartition of energy in nonlinear chains [12

12. E. Segre, Collected Papers of Enrico Fermi (University of Chicago Press, 1965).

], solitons have found significant applications in areas as different as general relativity, oceanography, Bose-Einstein condensation, photonics [13

13. J. Ibanez and E. Verdaguer, “Soliton collision in general-relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1313 (1983). [CrossRef]

17

17. C. Conti, A. Fratalocchi, M. Peccianti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, “Observation of a gradient catastrophe generating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 083902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Solitons behave like particles, conserve their number and spectral parameters (eigenvalues) and keep their identity upon interactions, the only effect being some displacements after their collisions. The spectral invariance allows for reducing the infinito-dimensional phase space associated with the global wave functions to simple ones where N independent degrees of freedom corresponding to N soliton particles are effective. TWI soliton has been predicted in the 70s [1

1. D. J. Kaup, A. Reiman, and A. Bers, “Space-time evolution of nonlinear three-wave interactions. I. interaction in a homogeneous medium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 275–309 (1979). [CrossRef]

, 18

18. K. Nozaki and T. Taniuti, “Propagation of solitary pulses in interactions of plasma waves,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 34, 796–800 (1973). [CrossRef]

], and recently observed in photonic crystal fibers [19

19. A. Abdolvand, A. Nazarkin, A. Chugreev, C. Kaminski, and P. Russel, “Solitary pulse generation by backward raman scattering in H-2-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and in quadratic crystals [20

20. F. Baronio, M. Conforti, M. Andreana, V. Couderc, C. De Angelis, S. Wabnitz, A. Barthelemy, and A. Degasperis, “Frequency generation and solitonic decay in three wave interactions,” Opt. Express 17, 13889–13894 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 21

21. F. Baronio, M. Conforti, C. De Angelis, A. Degasperis, M. Andreana, V. Couderc, and A. Barthelemy, “Velocity-locked solitary waves in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett 104, 113902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this Letter, we consider spatial coherent optical TWIs in a lossless quadratic medium. We study the dynamics of a spatial narrow beam at frequency ω 1 (the signal) and a quasi-plane wave at frequency ω 2 (the pump) which mix to generate a beam at the sum frequency (SF) ω 3 (the idler), when diffraction is negligible. Depending on the input intensities different nonlinear regimes exist: frequency conversion, single soliton triad generation, N–soliton triads ensemble. Frequency conversion: the signal and pump beams interact and generate an idler beam whose spatial characteristics are associated with the interaction distance in the crystal; signal and pump are depleted. Soliton triad generation: the signal and pump beams interact, generate a stable symbiotic bright-dark-bright triplet moving with a locked spatial nonlinear walk–off [8

8. A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, F. Baronio, and S. Wabnitz, “Stable control of pulse speed in parametric three-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 093901 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 21

21. F. Baronio, M. Conforti, C. De Angelis, A. Degasperis, M. Andreana, V. Couderc, and A. Barthelemy, “Velocity-locked solitary waves in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett 104, 113902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. N–soliton triads ensemble: the signal and pump input beams generate N soliton triads moving with different spatial nonlinear walk-offs. In this Letter, the focus is on the generation and dynamics of an ensemble of TWI soliton triads. We obtain the results by a complementary use of spectral theory (inverse scattering transform, IST), numerical integration of the TWI equations, and experiments in nonlinear optics.

2. TWI equations and inverse scattering

Three quasi monochromatic waves with wave–numbers k 1, k 2, k 3 and frequencies ω 1, ω 2, ω 3, which propagate in a nonlinear optical medium, interact efficiently with each other and exchange energy if the resonance conditions k 1 + k 2 = k 3, ω 1 + ω 2 = ω 3, are satisfied. The equations describing spatial interaction of beams read [21

21. F. Baronio, M. Conforti, C. De Angelis, A. Degasperis, M. Andreana, V. Couderc, and A. Barthelemy, “Velocity-locked solitary waves in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett 104, 113902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]:
(z+ρ1x)E1+12ik1(2x2+2y2)E1=iχ1E2*E3,(z+ρ2x)E2+12ik2(2x2+2y2)E2=iχ2E1*E3,(z+ρ3x)E3+12ik3(2x2+2y2)E3=iχ3E1E2.
(1)
En(x, y, z) are the slowly varying electric field envelopes of the waves at frequencies ωj (wavelength λj), kn = ωnnn /c are the wavenumbers, nn the refractive indexes, χn = 2j/cnn the nonlinear coupling coefficients (d is the quadratic nonlinear susceptibility and c is the speed of light), ρj the walk off angles, n = 1, 2, 3. z is the spatial longitudinal propagation coordinate, x and y are the spatial transverse coordinates. In the case of negligible diffraction, Eqs. (1) can be mapped into adimensional TWI equations:
(ξ+δ1s)ϕ1=iϕ2*ϕ3,(ξ+δ2s)ϕ2=iϕ1*ϕ3,(ξ+δ3s)ϕ3=iϕ1ϕ2,
(2)
where ϕn=Enz0χn+1χn+3, n = 1, 2, 3 mod 3, δn = ρnz 0/x 0, ξ = z/z 0, s = x/x 0, with z 0, x 0 longitudinal and transverse scale lengths, respectively. Diffraction becomes negligible when z0/(knx02)<<1.

For purpose of the IST, it is convenient to transform Eqs. (2) to more symmetric equations. Let Q 1,3 = ϕ 1,2 e /6, Q2=ϕ3*eiπ/6, ν 1 = δ 1, ν 2,3 = δ 3,2 and (σ 1, σ 2, σ 3) = (+, –, +). Equations (2) turn out to be:
(ξ+νns)Qn=σnQn+1*Qn+2*n=1,2,3,mod3.
(3)

The integrability of Eqs. (3) follows from the fact that these equations are the compatibility conditions of two 3 × 3 matrix ordinary differential equations (ODEs), one in the variable s and the other one in ξ (the Zakharov–Manakov eigenvalue problem [2

2. V. E. Zakharov and S. V. Manakov, “Resonant interaction of wave packets in nonlinear media,” JETP Lett. 18, 243–245 (1973).

]). This fact gives a way to set up a nonlinear generalization of the Fourier analysis of solutions of the associated initial value problem, namely the IST. In particular, this generalization leads to decompose a given solution Q 1(s, ξ), Q 2(s, ξ), Q 3(s, ξ) as functions of s at a given fixed ξ in its continuum spectrum component (radiation) and in discrete spectrum component (solitons). This pair of equations (the Lax pair) reads [22

22. A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, F. Baronio, S. Wabnitz, and S. Lombardo, “The three-wave resonant interaction equations: spectral and numerical methods,” Lett. Math. Phys. 96, 367 (2011). [CrossRef]

]
ψs=[iλA+E(s,ξ)]ψ,
(4)
ψξ=[iλB+F(s,ξ)]ψ+ψC,
(5)
where ψ = ψ (s, ξ, λ) is a 3–dimensional vector solution, λ is the complex spectral variable and C is a constant matrix which depends on the boundary conditions on the s-axis. A and B are constant real and traceless diagonal matrices, A =diag{a 1, a 2, a 3}, B =diag{b 1, b 2, b 3} whose entries are an = 2νnνn +1νn +2, bn = 2νn +1 νn +2νn(νn +1 +νn +2), n = 1, 2, 3 mod3, while the three wave fields Qn enter in the matrices E(s, ξ) and F(s, ξ) through the expressions:
E=(0u3v2v30u1u2v10),F=(0ν3u3ν2v2ν3v30ν1u1ν2u2ν1v10),
(6)
where un=σnw(1)n(νn+1νn+2)Qn, vn=(1)n+1σw(1)n(νn+1νn+2)Qn*, σ = σ 1 σ 2 σ 3, w = [(ν 3ν 1)(ν 2ν 1)(ν 3ν 2)]−1/2, n = 1, 2, 3 mod3 .

Similarly to solving linear partial differential equations (PDEs) by using the Fourier transform, the scheme to follow here to solve the TWI Eqs. (2) with given initial data ϕn(s, ξ 0) is:
  1. computing the spectral data associated with Qn(s, ξ 0) by integrating the ODE (Eq. (4)), i.e. solving the direct problem;
  2. finding the spectral data at a different coordinate ξξ 0, which usually reduces to a trivial multiplication for a phase factor;
  3. recovering the solution Qn(s, ξ) at coordinate ξξ 0 by solving the inverse problem, then ϕn(s, ξ).
The focus in the present work is on step (1), the determination of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions in the direct problem, since in most applications the spectral data contain quite a relevant information, particularly the interest is on the discrete spectrum (the soliton content). Reference [22

22. A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, F. Baronio, S. Wabnitz, and S. Lombardo, “The three-wave resonant interaction equations: spectral and numerical methods,” Lett. Math. Phys. 96, 367 (2011). [CrossRef]

] reports a detailed description of both the spectral theory and the numerical algorithm used to solve the scattering problem.

3. Theoretical analysis

We investigate the evolution of beams ϕ 1, ϕ 2, ϕ 3 in the sξ plane, given the initial condition ϕ 1(s, 0) = ε 1sech(s), for the signal, ϕ 2(s, 0) = ε 2[h(s 0s) + h(ss )] (h(s) is the Heaviside function, s is a large positive constant), for the pump, ϕ 3(s, 0) = 0, for the SF beam. We fix δ 1 = −2, δ 2 = 0, δ 3 = −1, s 0 = −6, and we vary ε 1, ε 2 amplitudes. We assumed a non vanishing pump as s → +∞ to apply the numerical spectral method for non vanishing boundary conditions [22

22. A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, F. Baronio, S. Wabnitz, and S. Lombardo, “The three-wave resonant interaction equations: spectral and numerical methods,” Lett. Math. Phys. 96, 367 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

At low input amplitudes (ε 1 = 0.5, ε 2 = 0.05), the initial data are composed of a continuum spectrum component (radiation) and no discrete spectrum component (solitons). This regime corresponds to the well known optical non-collinear sum-frequency generation. Numerical simulations (Fig. 1) show that signal beam ϕ 1 and the pump beam ϕ 2 propagate with their own characteristic velocities; as long as the signal beam overtakes the pump beam, a idler beam ϕ 3 at the sum-frequency is generated which propagates with its own characteristic walk-off; indeed, the V shape of the idler beam is due to its intrinsic linear walk-off. Pump beam is deeply depleted.

Fig. 1 Frequency conversion. Numerical dynamics of the beams ϕ 1 (a), ϕ 2 (b), ϕ 3 (c) in the sξ plane.

Increasing input amplitudes (ε 1 = 1.42, ε 2 = 0.7), the initial data are composed of both a continuum spectrum component (radiation) and a discrete spectrum component (solitons). The input waves contain one soliton plus radiation. Figure 2(a) reports the initial envelope conditions, Fig. 2(b) shows the correspondent eignevalue λ = 0.33i and eigenfunctions ψn. Through the spectral data we can predict the initiation of a bright-dark-bright triad and its properties (f.i., nonlinear walk-off, amplitudes, etc.). The relation between eigenvalues and soliton parameters can be found in Ref. [22

22. A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, F. Baronio, S. Wabnitz, and S. Lombardo, “The three-wave resonant interaction equations: spectral and numerical methods,” Lett. Math. Phys. 96, 367 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Indeed, numerical simulations (Fig. 2(d)–2(f)) show that the interaction of the signal and pump beams leads to the generation of a stable bright-dark-bright solitary triplet moving with a locked nonlinear walk-off that lies in between the characteristic linear walk-offs of the signal and the idler, as observed in Ref. [21

21. F. Baronio, M. Conforti, C. De Angelis, A. Degasperis, M. Andreana, V. Couderc, and A. Barthelemy, “Velocity-locked solitary waves in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett 104, 113902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Figure 2(c) reports the spectral informations of the soliton triad at output ξ = 12. A similar phenomenon of soliton generation could be observed also for a smoother transition between zero and the pump level necessary to support the soliton.

Fig. 2 Single-soliton triad generation. a) Beam profiles ϕ 1 (blue line), ϕ 2 (red line), ϕ 3 (green line) at input ξ = 0 (dashed lines) and at output ξ = 12 (solid lines). b) Eigenvalue λ and spectral eigenfunctions ψ 1 (blue line), ψ 2 (red line), ψ 3 (green line) corresponding to input data at ξ = 0. c) Spectral informations at ξ = 12. Numerical dynamics of the beams ϕ 1 (d), ϕ 2 (e), ϕ 3 (f) in the s – ξ plane.

Now, the key point is to argue whether, by increasing signal amplitude, a single high-intensity bright-dark-bright soliton or an ensemble of attractive, repulsive, or non-interacting soliton triplets would be excited in frequency conversion processes.

Fig. 3 Soliton triads. (a) Beam profiles ϕ 1 (blue line), ϕ 2 (red line), ϕ 3 (green line) at input ξ = 0 (dashed lines) and at output ξ = 12 (solid lines). (b)-(c) Eigenvalue λ and spectral eigenfunctions ψ 1 (blue line), ψ 2 (red line), ψ 3 (green line) corresponding to envelope input data at ξ = 0 (dashed lines) and ξ = 12 (solid lines). Numerical dynamics of the beams ϕ 1 (d), ϕ 2 (e), ϕ 3 (f) in the s – ξ plane.
Fig. 4 Soliton triads. Numerical dynamics of the beams ϕ 1 (a), ϕ 2 (b), ϕ 3 (c) in the sξ plane.

The important result is that the signal beam at input can contain N bright solitons [1

1. D. J. Kaup, A. Reiman, and A. Bers, “Space-time evolution of nonlinear three-wave interactions. I. interaction in a homogeneous medium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 275–309 (1979). [CrossRef]

] moving with the linear walk-off δ 1 which reshape, after the interaction of the pump beam, in N non-interacting bright-dark-bright solitons triads [8

8. A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, F. Baronio, and S. Wabnitz, “Stable control of pulse speed in parametric three-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 093901 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] moving with different nonlinear walk–offs. Of course, it’s fashinating to argue whether an ensemble of non-interacting soliton triads exhibit cooperative phenomena as the numbers of free particles grows (f.i., critical shock phenomena [24

24. A. Fratalocchi, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo “Free-energy transition in a gas of noninteracting nonlinear wave particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 044101 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]).

4. Experimental investigation

The TWI soliton physics can be experimentally tested. In the experiments (see Fig. 5), a Q-switched laser, combined with a temporal passive compression system, delivers 150ps pulses at λ = 1064nm. We introduce a Glan polarizer to obtain, after passage of the light through P 1, two independent beams with perpendicular linear polarization states. A half-wave plate placed before the prism serves to adjust the intensity of the two beams. By means of highly reflecting mirrors, beam splitters and lenses the beams are focused and spatially superimposed in the plane of their beam waist with a circular shape of 300μ m and 6mm, full width at half maximum in intensity, for the signal and pump waves respectively. A L = 3cm long KTP crystal ( d = 3.29pm/V ) cut for type II second harmonic generation is positioned such that its input face corresponds to the plane of superposition of the two input beams.

Fig. 5 Left, experimental set-up. M1, M2, M3, M4: mirrors. P1: polarizer. L1, L2: lenses. Right, schematic representation of the optical noncollinear configuration in the KTP crystal.

The crystal is oriented for perfect non-collinear phase matching between the signal and pump waves. The directions of the linear polarization state of the two beams are adjusted to coincide with the extraordinary and the ordinary axes, respectively, of the KTP crystal. The wave vectors of the input beams are tilted at angles of 3.6° and 3.6° (in the crystal) with respect to the direction of perfect collinear phase matching for the extraordinary and the ordinary components, respectively (see Fig. 5). The idler second harmonic direction lies in between the input beams directions (−1.16°). With these values of parameters, spatial diffraction, group velocity mismatch and temporal dispersion were negligible. The spatial waves’ patterns at the output of the crystal are imaged with magnification onto a CCD camera and analyzed. We use alternately different filters and polarizers to select either the IR or the green output.

Equations (1) describe the experimental spatial quadratic resonant interaction in the KTP. As spatial diffraction is negligible in the experiments, Eqs. (1) reduce to the integrable TWI Eqs. (2) in the ordinary xz plane (y = 0 plane). In the xz plane (as well as in each plane parallel to xz), the experimental set-up creates the two-dimensional environement to excite the predicted TWI soliton dynamics.

Indeed, we observed different regimes in the ordinary KTP xz (y = 0) plane as the intensities of the input signal and pump are varied in a suitable range (Figs. 6, 7). Left columns of Figs. 6, 7 show the numerical spatial evolution of the pump beam and the SF beam (which are the beams that best report the TWI soliton evidence) in the ordinary xz (y = 0) plane; central and right columns report, respectively, the numerical and experimental spatial output profiles of the beams in the xy (z = L) plane. The numerical and experimental results are reported considering a spatial frame moving with the pump walk-off angle. At intensities I 1 = 10MW/cm 2, I 2 = 0.03MW/cm 2, the signal interacts with the pump and a SF beam at the second harmonic is generated. This regime corresponds to the well-known optical noncollinear second-harmonic frequency conversion (Fig. 6(a), 6(b), 6(c) and Fig. 7(a), 7(b), 7(c)). At intensities I 1 = 50MW/cm 2, I 2 = 0.2MW/cm 2, signal and pumb beams generate a stable bright-dark-bright solitary triplet (Fig. 6(d), 6(e), 6(f) and Fig. 7(d), 7(e), 7(f)). Increasing further input intensities we have observed the generation of two and three non-interacting bright-dark-bright triads. Figures 6(g), 6(h), 6(i) and Fig. 7(g), 7(h), 7(i) show the generation of three non interacting bright-dark-bright triads (I 1 = 500MW/cm 2, I 2 = 5MW/cm 2). Figures 6(i), 7(i) report the first observation, to the best of our knowledge, of an ensemble of non-interacting TWI soliton triads.

Fig. 6 Left column, numerical dynamics of the beam E 2 in the x – z (y = 0) plane. Central column, numerical, and right column, experimental results at the exit face of the KTP crystal presenting the spatial x – y output profiles of E 2. Upper row, frequency conversion regime (I 1 = 10MW/cm 2, I 2 = 0.03MW/cm 2); central row, soliton triad generation (I 1 = 50MW/cm 2, I 2 = 0.2MW/cm 2); lower row, non-interacting soliton triad ensemble (I 1 = 500MW/cm 2, I 2 = 5MW/cm 2).
Fig. 7 Left column, numerical dynamics of the beam E 3 in the xz (y = 0) plane. Central column, numerical, and right column, experimental results at the exit face of the KTP crystal presenting the spatial xy output profiles of E 3. Upper row, frequency conversion regime (I 1 = 10MW/cm 2, I 2 = 0.03MW/cm 2); central row, soliton triad generation (I 1 = 50MW/cm 2, I 2 = 0.2MW/cm 2); lower row, non-interacting soliton triad ensemble (I 1 = 500MW/cm 2, I 2 = 5MW/cm 2).

5. Conclusions

We studied the dynamics of a spatial narrow beam at frequency ω 1 (the signal) and a quasi-plane wave at frequency ω 2 (the pump) which mix to generate a beam at the sum frequency (SF) ω 3 (the idler), when diffraction is negligible. Depending on the input intensities different nonlinear regimes exist. In this paper, the focus was on the generation and dynamics of an ensemble of TWI soliton triads. We predicted theoretically and demonstrated experimentally non–interacting triads ensemble in a KTP crystal.

Acknowledgments

The present research in Brescia is supported by Fondazione CARIPLO grant 2010-0595, in Limoges is supported by the VINCI program.

References and links

1.

D. J. Kaup, A. Reiman, and A. Bers, “Space-time evolution of nonlinear three-wave interactions. I. interaction in a homogeneous medium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 275–309 (1979). [CrossRef]

2.

V. E. Zakharov and S. V. Manakov, “Resonant interaction of wave packets in nonlinear media,” JETP Lett. 18, 243–245 (1973).

3.

V. E. Zakharov, What is Integrability? (Springer-Verlag, 1991).

4.

A. Hasegawa, Plasma Instabilities and Nonlinear Effects (Springer-Verlag, 2001).

5.

W. Cheng, Y. Avitzour, Y. Ping, S. Suckewer, N. Fisch, M. Hur, and J. Wurtele, “Reaching the nonlinear regime of raman amplification of ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 045003 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

E. Ibragimov and A. Struthers, “Second harmonic pulse compression in the soliton regime,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1582–1584 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

A. Picozzi and M. Haelterman, “Spontaneous formation of symbiotic solitary waves in a backward quasi-phase-matched parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1808–1810 (1998). [CrossRef]

8.

A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, F. Baronio, and S. Wabnitz, “Stable control of pulse speed in parametric three-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 093901 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

M. Conforti, F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, and S. Wabnitz, “Parametric frequency conversion of short optical pulses controlled by a CW background,” Opt. Express 15, 12246–12251 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

A. Craik, Wave Interactions and Fluid Flows (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1985).

11.

K. Lamb, “Tidally generated near-resonant internal wave triads at shelf break,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L18607 (2007). [CrossRef]

12.

E. Segre, Collected Papers of Enrico Fermi (University of Chicago Press, 1965).

13.

J. Ibanez and E. Verdaguer, “Soliton collision in general-relativity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1313 (1983). [CrossRef]

14.

A. R. Osborne, M. Onorato, M. Serio, and L. Bergamasco, “Soliton creation and destruction, resonant interactions, and inelastic collisions in shallow water waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3559 (1998). [CrossRef]

15.

B. Damski and W. Zurek, “Soliton creation during a Bose-Einstein Condensation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 160404 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

Y. S. Kivshar and G. P. Agrawal, Optical Solitons: from Fibers to Photonic Crystals (Academic Press, 2003).

17.

C. Conti, A. Fratalocchi, M. Peccianti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, “Observation of a gradient catastrophe generating solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 083902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

K. Nozaki and T. Taniuti, “Propagation of solitary pulses in interactions of plasma waves,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 34, 796–800 (1973). [CrossRef]

19.

A. Abdolvand, A. Nazarkin, A. Chugreev, C. Kaminski, and P. Russel, “Solitary pulse generation by backward raman scattering in H-2-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 183902 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

F. Baronio, M. Conforti, M. Andreana, V. Couderc, C. De Angelis, S. Wabnitz, A. Barthelemy, and A. Degasperis, “Frequency generation and solitonic decay in three wave interactions,” Opt. Express 17, 13889–13894 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

F. Baronio, M. Conforti, C. De Angelis, A. Degasperis, M. Andreana, V. Couderc, and A. Barthelemy, “Velocity-locked solitary waves in quadratic media,” Phys. Rev. Lett 104, 113902 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

A. Degasperis, M. Conforti, F. Baronio, S. Wabnitz, and S. Lombardo, “The three-wave resonant interaction equations: spectral and numerical methods,” Lett. Math. Phys. 96, 367 (2011). [CrossRef]

23.

M. Conforti, F. Baronio, A. Degasperis, and S. Wabnitz, “Inelastic scattering and interactions of three-wave parametric solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 065602 (2006). [CrossRef]

24.

A. Fratalocchi, C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo “Free-energy transition in a gas of noninteracting nonlinear wave particles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 044101 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing
(190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes
(190.5530) Nonlinear optics : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: March 11, 2011
Revised Manuscript: May 9, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: May 26, 2011
Published: June 22, 2011

Citation
Fabio Baronio, Marco Andreana, Matteo Conforti, Gabriele Manili, Vincent Couderc, Costantino De Angelis, and Alain Barthélémy, "Soliton triads ensemble in frequency conversion: from inverse scattering theory to experimental observation," Opt. Express 19, 13192-13200 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-14-13192


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References

  1. D. J. Kaup, A. Reiman, and A. Bers, “Space-time evolution of nonlinear three-wave interactions. I. interaction in a homogeneous medium,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 275–309 (1979). [CrossRef]
  2. V. E. Zakharov and S. V. Manakov, “Resonant interaction of wave packets in nonlinear media,” JETP Lett. 18, 243–245 (1973).
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