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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 19, Iss. 15 — Jul. 18, 2011
  • pp: 13787–13792
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Mutual diffusion dynamics with nonlocal response in SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed PQ-PMMA bulk photopolymer

Dan Yu, Hongpeng Liu, Yongyuan Jiang, and Xiudong Sun  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 19, Issue 15, pp. 13787-13792 (2011)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.013787


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Abstract

Mutual diffusion dynamic model with nonlocal response was proposed to describe the grating formation in SiO2 nanopraticles dispersed PQ-PMMA photopolymer. The mutual-diffusion physical mechanism between PQ and SiO2 nanoparticles is analyzed. The grating formation kinetics and dynamic redistribution of components is simulated by introducing the nonlocal effect. In experiment the dark enhancement of grating after short exposure and the photopolymerization under consecutive exposure are measured. The improvement of SiO2 nanoparticles for the holographic properties is achieved quantitatively. Finally the comparison of theoretical and experimental results is presented for understanding the mutual-diffusion characteristics.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Recently the interest in nanoparticles dispersed photopolymer for holographic application has increased since the nanoparticles bring about significant improvement of holographic characteristics [1

1. Y. Tomita and H. Nishibiraki, “Improvement of holographic recording sensitivities in the green in SiO2 nanoparticle-dispersed methacrylate photopolymers doped with pyrromethene dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 410–412 (2003). [CrossRef]

6

6. L. M. Goldenberg, O. V. Sakhno, T. N. Smirnova, P. Helliwell, V. Chechik, and J. Stumpe, “Holographic composites with gold nanoparticles: nanoparticles promote polymer segregation,” Chem. Mater. 20(14), 4619–4627 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Among these materials, phenanthrenequinone doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ-PMMA) photopolymer is considered as an excellent material due to their neglectable shrinkage and good stability [7

7. A. V. Veniaminov and E. Bartsch, “Diffusional enhancement of holograms: phenanthrenequinone in polycarbonate,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(4), 387–392 (2002). [CrossRef]

14

14. D. Yu, H. Liu, J. Wang, Y. Jiang, and X. Sun, “Study on holographic characteristics in ZnMA doped PQ-PMMA photopolymer,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2784–2788 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. SiO2 nanoparticles as an effective dopant obviously enhanced the modulation depth in the materials and expanded its holographic applicability [15

15. J. M. Russo, J. E. Castillo, and R. K. Kostuk, “Effect of silicon dioxide nanoparticles on the characteristics of PQ/PMMA holographic filters,” Proc. SPIE 6653, 66530D, 66530D–9 (2007). [CrossRef]

18

18. S. Lee, Y.-C. Jeong, Y. Heo, S. I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and J.-K. Park, “Holographic photopolymers of organic/inorganic hybrid interpenetrating networks for reduced volume shrinkage,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(8), 1105–1114 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Under illumination the grating formation can be driven by the PQ’s photoattachment with polymer matrix and mutual-diffusion between PQ and SiO2 nanoparticles. Generally the grating formation kinetics in polymer is understood by spatial transfer of two components [19

19. G. M. Karpov, V. V. Obukhovsky, T. N. Smirnova, and V. V. Lemeshko, “Spatial transfer of matter as a method of holographic recording in photoformers,” Opt. Commun. 174(5-6), 391–404 (2000). [CrossRef]

,20

20. T. Babeva, I. Naydenova, D. Mackey, S. Martin, and V. Toal, “Two-way diffusion model for short-exposure holographic grating formation in acrylamide-based photopolymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(2), 197–203 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. However the kinetics theoretical model was scarce for describing the glass-like polymer based on PMMA matrix.

Several models have been presented to describe the polymerization and diffusion of monomer in photopolymers [21

21. G. Zhao and P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(10), 1929–1939 (1994). [CrossRef]

,22

22. J. T. Sheridan and J. R. Lawrence, “Nonlocal-response diffusion model of holographic recording in photopolymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(6), 1108–1114 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Nonlocal polymerization driven diffusion model is an effective approach in analyzing the photochemical dynamics [22

22. J. T. Sheridan and J. R. Lawrence, “Nonlocal-response diffusion model of holographic recording in photopolymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(6), 1108–1114 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24

24. S. Gallego, A. Márquez, S. Marini, E. Fernández, M. Ortuño, and I. Pascual, “In dark analysis of PVA/AA materials at very low spatial frequencies: phase modulation evolution and diffusion estimation,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18279–18291 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The nonlocal response in PQ-PMMA materials was demonstrated in Ref [25

25. E. Tolstik, O. Kashin, A. Matusevich, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, Y. I. Matusevich, and L. P. Krul, “Non-local response in glass-like polymer storage materials based on poly (methylmethacrylate) with distributed phenanthrenequinone,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11253–11258 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. When the nanoparticles dispersed into the matrix, the simply diffusion mechanism was broken by mutual diffusion kinetics which is significant characteristics in nanoparticles dispersed photopolymers. Consequently, it is necessary building a theoretical model for adapting the development of materials. In this paper the mutual diffusion model with nonlocal response was proposed to describe the grating formation dynamics in SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed PQ-PMMA polymer, and the theoretical results compared with experiments are presented.

2. Mutual diffusion model with nonlocal response

During illumination the photoinitiated PQ molecules attached with polymer matrix and formed photoproduct in the bright region. The unreacted PQ molecules are diffused from dark into bright region due to its concentration gradients and chemical potential differences between dark and bright regions. In typical PQ-PMMA photopolymer only the PQ’s diffusion is considered until the grating reached steady state [7

7. A. V. Veniaminov and E. Bartsch, “Diffusional enhancement of holograms: phenanthrenequinone in polycarbonate,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(4), 387–392 (2002). [CrossRef]

12

12. H. Liu, D. Yu, X. Li, S. Luo, Y. Jiang, and X. Sun, “Diffusional enhancement of volume gratings as an optimized strategy for holographic memory in PQ-PMMA photopolymer,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6447–6454 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed polymer, the mobile components consisted of PQ and SiO2 nanoparticles, consequently the counter-diffusion of nanoparticles from bright into dark region is simultaneously progressed due to its higher chemical potential in bright regions. The photoproducts and polymer matrix, which response to the long-term decay of grating, are considered as immobile components during exposure. The physical mechanism for spatial transfer of mixture components can be explained in the following way [19

19. G. M. Karpov, V. V. Obukhovsky, T. N. Smirnova, and V. V. Lemeshko, “Spatial transfer of matter as a method of holographic recording in photoformers,” Opt. Commun. 174(5-6), 391–404 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. According to the volume conservation law and neglecting the shrinkage, the volume fractions normalization condition can be described as
MPQ+MSiO2+Mphotoproduct+Mmatrix=1
(1)
where M is the volume fraction of corresponding component. The neglectable volume shrinkage is one of the significant holographic characteristics in PQ-PMMA polymer. The PQ’s photoattachment with polymer matrix only enhanced few of free volume, therefore the hole concentration can be neglected due to the absence of chain polymerization. The condition of volume conservation required the total mobile matter flow is absent, i.e. jPQ + jSiO2 = 0. Here j is corresponding flow density, which can be depicted as at steady state
jPQ,SiO2=D0[MPQ,SiO2(x,t)MSiO2,PQ(x,t)MSiO2,PQ(x,t)MPQ,SiO2(x,t)]
(2)
where D 0 isjPQ,SiO2=D0[MPQ,SiO2(x,t)MSiO2,PQ(x,t)MSiO2,PQ(x,t)MPQ,SiO2(x,t)] diffusion coefficient of the system. Generally the transfer kinetics of any components are defined by continuity equation
MPQ,SiO2(x,t)/t+div jPQ,SiO2=F
(3)
where F is the source function. The relationship between the volume fraction of components and its concentrations is clarified to simplify the numerical calculation. According to the concentration definition[PQ]=mPQ/m¯PQVall,[SiO2]=mSiO2/m¯SiO2Vall, where m¯PQ,m¯SiO2 are the mole mass of corresponding components, Vall is the all of the volume which assumed a constant by neglecting the shrinkage. The relations can be concluded as
MPQ,SiO2=VPQ,SiO2/Vall=[PQ,SiO2]m¯PQ,SiO2/VallρPQ,SiO2[PQ,SiO2]
(4)
where m and ρ are mass and density of components, respectively. There are only slightly differences of the coefficients in the mutual diffusion model. Based on the preparation procedure of sample the coefficients can be considered as a same value. Therefore the model can be transformed into the concentration evolution of corresponding components.

3. Experimental results and theoretical simulation

To characterize the holographic grating kinetics, the dark enhancement after short exposure and the photopolymerization under consecutive exposure were experimentally achieved. In experiments, the samples were consisted of phenanthrenequinone (PQ) photosensitizer, SiO2 nanoparticles and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) host matrix. An average size of SiO2 nanoparticles bought from Aldrich co. was 5~15nm. The preparation of sample with 1.6mm thickness was achieved by thermal polymerization with consecutive supersonic oscillations. A series of sample with various SiO2 concentrations were prepared, namely 0.0wt%, 0.05wt%, 0.1wt%, 0.2wt%. Two beams coupling setup with 60° geometry and wavelength 532nm was used to record an unslanted transmittance grating. The distance of fringe Λ is 0.5μm. He-Ne laser with 633nm as the reconstruction beam was used at Bragg angle.

3.1 Experimental results

To analyze the improvement of SiO2 nanoparticles for holographic gratings and optimize its concentration, the diffraction efficiency and the time constants of grating formation were measured under consecutive exposures, and the corresponding results are listed in Table 2

Table 2. Maximum of Diffraction Efficiency and its Rising Time Constants under Consecutive Exposure

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. It is indicated that the diffraction efficiency and time constant are improved significantly in nanoparticles dispersed photopolymers. The optimal concentration of SiO2 nanoparticles 0.05wt% is extracted. The optimized concentration is extracted to compare with PQ/PMMA sample in the paper for simplifying the experimental description.Figure 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Dark enhancement of diffraction efficiency. The insert is evolution of diffraction efficiency during exposure time of 50s. The solid line is fitting curve using exponential function. (b) Temporal evolution of diffraction efficiency under consecutive exposure.
shown the dark enhancement of grating after short exposure 6 × 103mJ/cm2, the inset is the corresponding exposure process with 135.8mW/cm2 intensity. Figure 1(b) shown the temporal evolution of diffraction efficiency under consecutive exposure, the intensity is 135.8mW/cm2. The SiO2 nanoparticles bring about higher increasing rate, and its counter-diffusion is obviously enhanced the modulation depth. The good agreement between experiments and single exponential function demonstrated the mutual diffusion with single diffusion coefficient is primary dark development mechanism. The diffusion coefficient of system can be extracted by D 0 = Λ2/4π 2 τ, which is 3.2 × 10−15m2/s and 1.8 × 10−15m2/s for 0.05wt% SiO2 and 0.0wt% SiO2, respectively. These values are higher than that of reported in ref [15

15. J. M. Russo, J. E. Castillo, and R. K. Kostuk, “Effect of silicon dioxide nanoparticles on the characteristics of PQ/PMMA holographic filters,” Proc. SPIE 6653, 66530D, 66530D–9 (2007). [CrossRef]

,26

26. A. V. Veniaminov and Yu. N. Sedunov, “Diffusion of phenanthrenequinone in poly(methyl methacrylate): holographic measurements,” Polym. Sci. Ser. A 38(1), 56–63 (1996).

], it is attributed the supersonic oscillations method results in broad molar mass distribution and high diffusion rate. Moreover the dark reaction may be slightly accelerating the increasing rate of the curve.

3.2 Theoretical simulation and comparison with experiments

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Spatial and temporal evolution of components concentrations under consecutive exposure. (a) PQ molecules, (b) Photoproducts, and (c) SiO2 nanoparticles. The colorbars were component concentrations with mol/m3.
shows the spatial and temporal evolution of several components inside the materials. In the bright region there are the obvious PQ’s consumption and the growing of its photoproduct in Fig. 2(a) and 2(b). It is obviously that the distribution profiles of components departure the sine form due to the nonlocal effect. PQ’s diffusion from dark into bright region as a driven source enforced SiO2 nanoparticles to contrary diffusion. It brings about low residual PQ concentration in dark region and an evident SiO2 modulated distribution. The mutual-diffusion of both components was progressed until the grating reached the steady state.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Comparison of theoretical and experimental results with 39.6 and 135.8mW/cm2 intensities. The symbols are experimental data and the solid lines are simulation. The error from accuracy of experiments is around 5%.
illuminated the comparison of theory and experiment results. The extracted RD reflected the diffusion rate is still less than polymerization rate in the materials. High intensity results in more evident lag effect of mutual diffusion process. Consequently increasing the diffusion rate is a significant strategy for improving the profiles of grating and enhancing the diffraction efficiency at steady state. There is good general agreement between experiment and theoretical prediction. It is implied that the model is reasonable for describing the kinetics in SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed PQ-PMMA photopolymer. The slightly differences between simulation and experimental results at steady state is attributed the enhancement of holographic scattering [13

13. D. Yu, H. Liu, Y. Jiang, and X. Sun, “Holographic storage stability in PQ-PMMA bulk photopolymer,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4219–4223 (2010). [CrossRef]

,27

27. N. Suzuki and Y. Tomita, “Holographic scattering in SiO2 nanoparticle-dispersed photopolymer films,” Appl. Opt. 46(27), 6809–6814 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

7. Conclusions

Mutual diffusion dynamic model with nonlocal response was proposed and solved to describe the grating formation in SiO2 nanopraticles dispersed PQ-PMMA photopolymer. The theoretical result demonstrated that the PQ’s photoattachment with polymer matrix and mutual diffusion between PQ and SiO2 nanoparticles were the primary photochemical mechanism. The comparison results indicated the SiO2 nanoparticles evidently improved the grating formation rate and modulation depth. The high polymerization rate results in the lag of mutual diffusion process. The investigation focused on increment of the mutual diffusion rate and enhancement of diffraction efficiency at steady state is still underway.

Acknowledgments

The research has been financially supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2007CB307001) and the Program of Excellent Team in Harbin Institute of Technology China.

References and links

1.

Y. Tomita and H. Nishibiraki, “Improvement of holographic recording sensitivities in the green in SiO2 nanoparticle-dispersed methacrylate photopolymers doped with pyrromethene dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 410–412 (2003). [CrossRef]

2.

N. Suzuki and Y. Tomita, “Silica-nanoparticle-dispersed methacrylate photopolymers with net diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Appl. Opt. 43(10), 2125–2129 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

W. S. Kim, Y. C. Jeong, and J. K. Park, “Organic-inorganic hybrid photopolymer with reduced volume shrinkage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 012106 (2005). [CrossRef]

4.

S. Lee, Y. C. Jeong, J. Lee, and J. K. Park, “Multifunctional photoreactive inorganic cages for three-dimensional holographic data storage,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3095–3097 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

A. T. Juhl, J. D. Busbee, J. J. Koval, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. A. Vaia, T. J. Bunning, and P. V. Braun, “Holographically directed assembly of polymer nanocomposites,” ACS Nano 4(10), 5953–5961 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

L. M. Goldenberg, O. V. Sakhno, T. N. Smirnova, P. Helliwell, V. Chechik, and J. Stumpe, “Holographic composites with gold nanoparticles: nanoparticles promote polymer segregation,” Chem. Mater. 20(14), 4619–4627 (2008). [CrossRef]

7.

A. V. Veniaminov and E. Bartsch, “Diffusional enhancement of holograms: phenanthrenequinone in polycarbonate,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(4), 387–392 (2002). [CrossRef]

8.

G. J. Steckman, I. Solomatine, G. Zhou, and D. Psaltis, “Characterization of phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) for holographic memory,” Opt. Lett. 23(16), 1310–1312 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

S. H. Lin, K. Y. Hsu, W. Z. Chen, and W. T. Whang, “Phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer bulk for volume holographic data storage,” Opt. Lett. 25(7), 451–453 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

L. P. Krul, V. Matusevich, D. Hoff, R. Kowarschik, Y. I. Matusevich, G. V. Butovskaya, and E. A. Murashko, “Modified polymethylmethacrylate as a base for thermostable optical recording media,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8543–8549 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

H. Liu, D. Yu, Y. Jiang, and X. Sun, “Characteristics of holographic scattering and its application in determining kinetic parameters in PQ-PMMA photopolymer,” Appl. Phys. B 95(3), 513–518 (2009). [CrossRef]

12.

H. Liu, D. Yu, X. Li, S. Luo, Y. Jiang, and X. Sun, “Diffusional enhancement of volume gratings as an optimized strategy for holographic memory in PQ-PMMA photopolymer,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6447–6454 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

D. Yu, H. Liu, Y. Jiang, and X. Sun, “Holographic storage stability in PQ-PMMA bulk photopolymer,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4219–4223 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

D. Yu, H. Liu, J. Wang, Y. Jiang, and X. Sun, “Study on holographic characteristics in ZnMA doped PQ-PMMA photopolymer,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2784–2788 (2011). [CrossRef]

15.

J. M. Russo, J. E. Castillo, and R. K. Kostuk, “Effect of silicon dioxide nanoparticles on the characteristics of PQ/PMMA holographic filters,” Proc. SPIE 6653, 66530D, 66530D–9 (2007). [CrossRef]

16.

Y. Luo, J. M. Russo, R. K. Kostuk, and G. Barbastathis, “Silicon oxide nanoparticles doped PQ-PMMA for volume holographic imaging filters,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1269–1271 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

J. D. Busbee, A. T. yuhl, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tongdilia, T. J. Bunning, R. A. Vaia, and P. V. Braun, “SiO2 nanoparticle sequestration via reactive functionalization in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(36), 3659–3662 (2009). [CrossRef]

18.

S. Lee, Y.-C. Jeong, Y. Heo, S. I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and J.-K. Park, “Holographic photopolymers of organic/inorganic hybrid interpenetrating networks for reduced volume shrinkage,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(8), 1105–1114 (2009). [CrossRef]

19.

G. M. Karpov, V. V. Obukhovsky, T. N. Smirnova, and V. V. Lemeshko, “Spatial transfer of matter as a method of holographic recording in photoformers,” Opt. Commun. 174(5-6), 391–404 (2000). [CrossRef]

20.

T. Babeva, I. Naydenova, D. Mackey, S. Martin, and V. Toal, “Two-way diffusion model for short-exposure holographic grating formation in acrylamide-based photopolymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(2), 197–203 (2010). [CrossRef]

21.

G. Zhao and P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(10), 1929–1939 (1994). [CrossRef]

22.

J. T. Sheridan and J. R. Lawrence, “Nonlocal-response diffusion model of holographic recording in photopolymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(6), 1108–1114 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

M. R. Gleeson and J. T. Sheridan, “Nonlocal photopolymerization kinetics including multiple termination mechanisms and dark reactions. Part I. Modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), 1736–1745 (2009). [CrossRef]

24.

S. Gallego, A. Márquez, S. Marini, E. Fernández, M. Ortuño, and I. Pascual, “In dark analysis of PVA/AA materials at very low spatial frequencies: phase modulation evolution and diffusion estimation,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18279–18291 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

E. Tolstik, O. Kashin, A. Matusevich, V. Matusevich, R. Kowarschik, Y. I. Matusevich, and L. P. Krul, “Non-local response in glass-like polymer storage materials based on poly (methylmethacrylate) with distributed phenanthrenequinone,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11253–11258 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

A. V. Veniaminov and Yu. N. Sedunov, “Diffusion of phenanthrenequinone in poly(methyl methacrylate): holographic measurements,” Polym. Sci. Ser. A 38(1), 56–63 (1996).

27.

N. Suzuki and Y. Tomita, “Holographic scattering in SiO2 nanoparticle-dispersed photopolymer films,” Appl. Opt. 46(27), 6809–6814 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(050.0050) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction and gratings
(090.0090) Holography : Holography
(090.2900) Holography : Optical storage materials

ToC Category:
Holography

History
Original Manuscript: April 19, 2011
Revised Manuscript: May 26, 2011
Manuscript Accepted: May 29, 2011
Published: July 5, 2011

Citation
Dan Yu, Hongpeng Liu, Yongyuan Jiang, and Xiudong Sun, "Mutual diffusion dynamics with nonlocal response in SiO2 nanoparticles dispersed PQ-PMMA bulk photopolymer," Opt. Express 19, 13787-13792 (2011)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-15-13787


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References

  1. Y. Tomita and H. Nishibiraki, “Improvement of holographic recording sensitivities in the green in SiO2 nanoparticle-dispersed methacrylate photopolymers doped with pyrromethene dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 410–412 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. N. Suzuki and Y. Tomita, “Silica-nanoparticle-dispersed methacrylate photopolymers with net diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Appl. Opt. 43(10), 2125–2129 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. S. Kim, Y. C. Jeong, and J. K. Park, “Organic-inorganic hybrid photopolymer with reduced volume shrinkage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 012106 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Lee, Y. C. Jeong, J. Lee, and J. K. Park, “Multifunctional photoreactive inorganic cages for three-dimensional holographic data storage,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3095–3097 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. T. Juhl, J. D. Busbee, J. J. Koval, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, R. A. Vaia, T. J. Bunning, and P. V. Braun, “Holographically directed assembly of polymer nanocomposites,” ACS Nano 4(10), 5953–5961 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. M. Goldenberg, O. V. Sakhno, T. N. Smirnova, P. Helliwell, V. Chechik, and J. Stumpe, “Holographic composites with gold nanoparticles: nanoparticles promote polymer segregation,” Chem. Mater. 20(14), 4619–4627 (2008). [CrossRef]
  7. A. V. Veniaminov and E. Bartsch, “Diffusional enhancement of holograms: phenanthrenequinone in polycarbonate,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(4), 387–392 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. G. J. Steckman, I. Solomatine, G. Zhou, and D. Psaltis, “Characterization of phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) for holographic memory,” Opt. Lett. 23(16), 1310–1312 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. H. Lin, K. Y. Hsu, W. Z. Chen, and W. T. Whang, “Phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer bulk for volume holographic data storage,” Opt. Lett. 25(7), 451–453 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. P. Krul, V. Matusevich, D. Hoff, R. Kowarschik, Y. I. Matusevich, G. V. Butovskaya, and E. A. Murashko, “Modified polymethylmethacrylate as a base for thermostable optical recording media,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8543–8549 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Liu, D. Yu, Y. Jiang, and X. Sun, “Characteristics of holographic scattering and its application in determining kinetic parameters in PQ-PMMA photopolymer,” Appl. Phys. B 95(3), 513–518 (2009). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Liu, D. Yu, X. Li, S. Luo, Y. Jiang, and X. Sun, “Diffusional enhancement of volume gratings as an optimized strategy for holographic memory in PQ-PMMA photopolymer,” Opt. Express 18(7), 6447–6454 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Yu, H. Liu, Y. Jiang, and X. Sun, “Holographic storage stability in PQ-PMMA bulk photopolymer,” Opt. Commun. 283(21), 4219–4223 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. D. Yu, H. Liu, J. Wang, Y. Jiang, and X. Sun, “Study on holographic characteristics in ZnMA doped PQ-PMMA photopolymer,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2784–2788 (2011). [CrossRef]
  15. J. M. Russo, J. E. Castillo, and R. K. Kostuk, “Effect of silicon dioxide nanoparticles on the characteristics of PQ/PMMA holographic filters,” Proc. SPIE 6653, 66530D, 66530D–9 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Luo, J. M. Russo, R. K. Kostuk, and G. Barbastathis, “Silicon oxide nanoparticles doped PQ-PMMA for volume holographic imaging filters,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1269–1271 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. D. Busbee, A. T. yuhl, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tongdilia, T. J. Bunning, R. A. Vaia, and P. V. Braun, “SiO2 nanoparticle sequestration via reactive functionalization in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(36), 3659–3662 (2009). [CrossRef]
  18. S. Lee, Y.-C. Jeong, Y. Heo, S. I. Kim, Y.-S. Choi, and J.-K. Park, “Holographic photopolymers of organic/inorganic hybrid interpenetrating networks for reduced volume shrinkage,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(8), 1105–1114 (2009). [CrossRef]
  19. G. M. Karpov, V. V. Obukhovsky, T. N. Smirnova, and V. V. Lemeshko, “Spatial transfer of matter as a method of holographic recording in photoformers,” Opt. Commun. 174(5-6), 391–404 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. T. Babeva, I. Naydenova, D. Mackey, S. Martin, and V. Toal, “Two-way diffusion model for short-exposure holographic grating formation in acrylamide-based photopolymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(2), 197–203 (2010). [CrossRef]
  21. G. Zhao and P. Mouroulis, “Diffusion model of hologram formation in dry photopolymer materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 41(10), 1929–1939 (1994). [CrossRef]
  22. J. T. Sheridan and J. R. Lawrence, “Nonlocal-response diffusion model of holographic recording in photopolymer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(6), 1108–1114 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. R. Gleeson and J. T. Sheridan, “Nonlocal photopolymerization kinetics including multiple termination mechanisms and dark reactions. Part I. Modeling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), 1736–1745 (2009). [CrossRef]
  24. S. Gallego, A. Márquez, S. Marini, E. Fernández, M. Ortuño, and I. Pascual, “In dark analysis of PVA/AA materials at very low spatial frequencies: phase modulation evolution and diffusion estimation,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18279–18291 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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